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Disruptive Engineering and Education in Emerging Economies: Challenges and Prospects
Abdulwaheed Musa, Abdul G. F. Alabi
Kwara State University, Malete, Nigeria
Engineering education plays a key role in the social and economic development of a country. All over the world, science and engineering education is viewed as the foundation for technological innovation and economic growth. With the recent pace of disruption of the existing status quo by emerging technologies such as Internet of Things (IoT), 5G, 3D printing, artificial intelligence (AI) etc. amidst global challenges such as COVID-19 pandemic, the significance of disruptive engineering education which is becoming increasingly relevant cannot be over emphasized as it captures the idea of the confluence of new technologies and their cumulative impacts on our world. The disruptive technologies will transform social, economic and political systems penetrating every aspect of life such as education, health, security etc. As such, developing countries and emerging economies need to strategically position themselves for the profound impacts. However, meeting this need presents some challenges to engineering faculties and colleges at universities in developing countries as well as for policy makers and other stakeholders. Nonetheless, it also comes with prospects. In this work, disruptive engineering education in emerging economies is thus investigated, and the challenges and prospects are examined and presented. The work also presents the emerging trends in disruptive engineering, proposes some solutions to overcome the key challenges by giving some novel recommendations on technical requirements and potential enablers. The methodology adopted involves an exhaustive research about the disruptive technologies and engineering education, as well as collection of data and gathering of pertinent information about recent development and emerging trends through review of journal articles, public documents, technical speeches and presentations, interviews and observations, and internet sources. Infrastructure deficits as well as provision of extensive hands-on experience to students in developed countries with the same equipment expected to be used in the industry are some of the difficult challenges identified. We find, in this work, potentials for global competitiveness, industrial development, and solutions to complex problems - such as diseases, unemployment and climate change - besetting most emerging economies as exciting prospects of disruptive engineering and its education. Also, the work establishes some ideas that show a very interesting and not surprising trends such as the IoT, ubiquitous AI, Big Data, edge and cloud computing and the much hyped Industry 4.0 or fourth industrial revolution (4IR). Ways must be found to strengthen engineering education in emerging economies such as creating new engineering schools and strengthening the existing ones through hands-on oriented training activities and provision of cutting-edge equipment among other far reaching recommendations.
Industry 4.0 competence maturity model design requirements: A systematic mapping review
Whisper Maisiri, Liezl van Dyk
North-West University, South Africa
The impact of Industry 4.0 (I4.0) on the manufacturing industry’s systems and processes extends to employees’ competency requirements. This consequently requires a response in the preparation of graduates who will be ready to practice engineering with professional level technical know-how and soft skills in I4.0. The study focused on developing a conceptual I4.0 competency maturity model (I4.0CMM) and illustrating it using industrial engineering capability functions. Using the systematic mapping review approach, a gap analysis was conducted of design requirements for I4.0 competency models and frameworks in the literature as measured against predefined design requirements of an I4.0CMM. A total of 303 relevant research papers from Scopus, Web of Science online databases, and grey literature were retrieved. Twenty-five papers and documents were included in the study. The results of the review indicated that the predefined design requirements for an I4.0CMM were not all satisfied in literature. Thus, a conceptual I4.0CMM that is aligned to industrial engineering capability functions was developed and is illustrated. The I4.0CMM could be a solution in providing a comprehensive competency assessment framework for industrial engineering practice and education.
Preparing 5.0 Engineering Students for an Unpredictable Post-COVID World
1IMT Atlantique Graduate School of Engineering, Lab-STICC, UMR CNRS 6285, France; 2University of KwaZulu-Natal; 3Reykjavik University; 4Institut Teknologi DEL; 5Fundacio Universitat Empresa de les Illes Balears
In 2020, Higher Education and industry across the globe were immersed in extreme, unpredictable environments. Given the devastating impacts and disruptions observed since the appearance of COVID-19, the question to ask Higher Education is how it can better prepare students who are capable of being agile and proactive, and who demonstrate effective decision-making capabilities in complex situations. This paper therefore seeks to explore how educational engineering programs can better prepare 5.0 engineering students for their future workplace. It draws on the authors’ involvement in two European Union projects, to provide insights and recommendations, which suggest that the focus be on: revisiting the curriculum; developing transversal skills and V-shape Engineer workspaces; work-based learning; graduate employability; and strengthening ties between academia and industry. We are also increasingly moving towards a 5.0 era where the emphasis is on developing humancentred IT soft-skills. This paper presents educational engineering-program leaders and managers, with suggestions for how to be responsible and proactive in ensuring that 5.0 engineering students have not only a qualification, but the requisite skills to make a more meaningful impact in their future workplace.
Practical approaches to implement graduate attributes in engineering faculties
Henrietta Steenkamp1, Lagouge Tartibu2
1University of Johannesburg, South Africa; 2University of Johannesburg, South Africa
The International Engineering Alliance has developed graduate attributes to improve employability of engineering graduates and to reduce the gap between academic work and practice. The three main accords that form part of this international alliance is the Washington accord, the Sydney accord and the Dublin Accord. All countries that belong to these accords have developed graduate attributes for accreditation purposes. Embedding graduate attributes into the curriculum could be complex and would depend highly on academic staff involvement. Hence, it is necessary to determine how best to develop students graduate attributes and provide clarity about assessment strategies. It is necessary for engineering faculties to consider developing clear processes that clarifies how the Programme outcomes are assessed in the context of graduate attributes in order to continuously develop these programmes. This paper discusses practical frameworks used for the development, the assessment and implementation of Graduate attributes. Useful recommendations have been provided to contribute meaningfully to the development and implementation of graduate attribute in South African Universities.