Conference Agenda

CPS 10: Paper Session 10
Thursday, 23/June/2022:
9:30am - 10:30am

Location: City Hall

Session Topics:
Track A: Industrial Ventilation for Process Applications (occupational health, environmental emissions, innovations, best practices, etc)

Track A: Industrial Ventilation for Process Applications (occupational health, environmental emissions, innovations, best practices, etc) 


Specifying Variable Speed Solutions for Data Center Reliable, Efficient and Cost Effective Cooling

Maria Fedorovicheva1, Umberto Berardi2

1ABB; 2Ryerson University

In 2020, data centers account for over 1% of the global energy consumption, and their energy demand keeps growing dramatically. One of the most energy consuming processes in datacenters is IT equipment cooling. Variable speed solutions for cooling applications allow substantial improvements to the data center energy performance. They precisely control motors, so those only use the energy required to produce the air or liquid flow for cooling needed at each specific moment. In some cases, the savings can be as high as 60%. The downside of variable speed motor control can be disturbances in the power network, an effect known as harmonics. Excessive harmonics negatively affect the reliability of the data center power network and its components, and increase electrical current losses, making power transmission process less efficient. Active front end variable speed technology is considered to be preferential for mission-critical facilities like data centers, since it ensures harmonics mitigation to an absolute minimum over the load profile. Besides improved power network reliability and efficiency, it allows to save on the project costs. With active front end drives, there is no need to oversize power network equipment, which is a common measure to overcome negative harmonic effects. This makes data centers more sustainable in terms of not only energy efficiency, but also effective material usage.

Role of Variable Speed Drives in Safe, Reliable and Energy Efficient Tunnel Ventilation

Maria Fedorovicheva1, Umberto Berardi2

1ABB; 2Ryerson University

With the urbanization growth, infrastructure develops rapidly, including tunnels and subways construction. In such projects, special attention is paid to ventilation, since it provides not only comfort for tunnel users, but also safety in emergency situations. Active ventilation implies air movement via rotation of a fan wheel driven by a motor. To control the air flow rate, direction and pressure, variable speed drives (VSDs) are used. Nowadays, drives are an integral part of the tunnel ventilation – they help secure process efficiency and reliability, as well as the tunnel safety. As ventilation accounts for a big portion of energy consumed by a tunnel, drives bring improvements to the tunnel energy efficiency and decrease operating expenses. Drives adjust the fan motor speed to a specific need depending on the vehicle exhaust concentration. Active front end drives go beyond fan speed control for efficient energy use. They focus also on power quality eliminating disturbances in the network to ensure continuous, reliable ventilation – extremely relevant for remotely located tunnels with a weak power supply. In a fire case, VSDs add flexibility to a smoke suppression strategy. They can adjust fan speed and direction to maintain smoke stratification and prevent backlayering for safe tunnel users' evacuation, as well as provide access to the fire location for emergency services. Fire in a tunnel requires immediate reaction from the ventilation or smoke extract system, and drives can ensure a prompt fan start, stop or direction change according to the stringent requirements present in the industry.

Laser Powder Bed Fusion Additive Metal Manufacturing Emissions Characterization

Mohamed Nour Azzougagh1, François Xavier Keller2, Elodie Cabrol3, Jéremie Pourchez4

1Institut National de Recherche et Sécurité, INRS France; 2Institut National de Recherche et Sécurité, INRS France; 3Ecole d'ingénieur de Saint-Etienne, ENISE; 4Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne, France EMSE


Summary :

The main objective of this study is to characterize the emissions generated from a metal additive manufacturing machine. One process has been selected from the different processes existing in the additive manufacturing field. We define a measurement methodology around a Laser Powder Bed Fusion machine in order to measure the number and the size distribution profile of the particles emitted during manufacturing cycles. The number of particles and the size distribution were measured at 3 different locations: at the source, in the near field and on the operator. Different sensors were used in order to characterize the machine emission: Nanoscan, OPS, Discmini, CPC and Lighthouse. By the means of these equipments the particle size range covered varies from 10 nm up to 10 µm and the particle number can be measured up to 106 #/cm3. The measurement was done during the manufacturing but also during some transient operating phases as machine door opening and while part removal is done by the operator. The extraction ventilation operating in the local of the machine was recorded. Number of particles and size distribution profile will be presented for the different phases and the results will be discussed.