Performance Assessment Of A Climate-responsive Building Façade With Integrated Ventilation
Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada
The effects of indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in buildings on the physical and psychological health of occupants are a fundamental design objective in energy-efficient buildings. Building facades can positively influence the IEQ if designed as an interface to connect the outdoor and indoor environments and dynamically control the exchange of environmental loads. This paper presents the performance assessment of a climate-responsive façade. The multifunctional, integrated, climate-responsive, opaque and ventilated (MICRO-V) façade was previously designed and optimized to dynamically regulate the flow of air and heat in buildings. MICRO-V is also a decentralized ventilation system, bringing pre-conditioned fresh air into indoor spaces. In this paper, performance of the façade was investigated in the heating and cooling seasons in the climate of Toronto, Canada. First, CFD simulation studies were performed to evaluate the interactions between the components of the façade. Second, the façade was constructed into the real scale of 60 cm by 90 cm and installed in a large-scale outdoor testing facility in Toronto. The experimental tests were performed for several weeks in the summer to show how the façade operates in real conditions, and to also verify the accuracy of the simulation model. The results showed a good agreement between the two types of tests. The performance of the façade in different boundary conditions showed the potential of applying this façade in a continental climate. The pre-cooling efficiency of air in the façade was calculated to 78%, and pre-heating efficiency of air, to 65%.
Overview of a Method of Design, Implementation, and Control of Building Pressurization to Protect Building Occupants from Arbitrarily Hazardous Environments
This work presents an overview of a practical method of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) design that provides Acceptable Indoor Air Quality (AIAQ) throughout a building exposed to an arbitrarily hazardous outside environment. This is achieved by using forced inflow of well-filtered outside air to pressurize the building to the extent that all outside infiltration through the inherently leaky building envelope is constantly eliminated. While accounting for current outside temperature and wind conditions, operating costs are minimized by dynamic control of air inflow to the building at a rate leading to pressure levels that are always only marginally greater than that associated with the onset of zero infiltration.
The method includes a design option for multiple interior building pressure zones having sequentially higher levels of pressure/security, where occupants in a higher-pressure zone are also always protected from infiltration from a possibly hazardous environment in an adjacent lower-pressure zone, the result, say, of a discharge there of a hazardous airborne agent.
Applicability of Dynamic Insulation for Floor Radiant Heating System
SHINSHU UNIVERSITY, Japan
To reduce the infection risk in the indoor area under the influence of biological hazards including COVID-19, increasing attention is being focused on the use of floor radiant heating systems combined with natural ventilation as energy-saving and thermal comfortable system. However, the floor radiant heating system could not ignore the heat loss to adjacent ground caused by temperature difference. To minimize its heat loss, this study proposes the radiant heating system combined dynamic insulation technic and evaluate its energy-saving efficiency. To achieve this goal, using 1/8-scale measurement with and without dynamic insulation during the heating period, the heat loss, ventilation rate, and thermal environment were measured. Then, to evaluate real-scale residential buildings, this study is also investigated the accumulated energy loss in winter season using dynamic energy simulation combined CFD simulation. As the measured results, when the temperature difference between indoor and outdoor was 20 °C, the heat loss was reduced by 78.2% using the dynamic insulated floor radiant heating system. It was also quantitatively evaluated that the energy loss in winter season was reduced by 50.7% using dynamic energy simulation combined CFD simulation.