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Session Chair: Ann Kennard, University of the West of England
European Union Enlargement and (Future) Integration: An Analysis on the Concept of Pre-accession Aid
Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal
Another European Union (EU) enlargement round is on hold at this point, but past enlargement rounds and the track-record of integration of new Member States have provided key elements for the study of an interesting, yet frequently overlooked by academia, component of this process: pre-accession aid. Since the early 1980ʼs, and evenly slightly before, that the idea of introducing an aid measure to promote candidate countriesʼ economic development and to facilitate their future integration into the EEC/EU was mooted by the European Commission, which considered that a future success of a harmonious integration of a less developed new Member State into the EEC/EU depended, to a large extent, on pre-accession aid. In 2007, the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance (IPA) replaced a series of EU programmes and financial instruments, such as ISPA, PHARE and SAPARD, for candidate and potential candidate countries, but despite their designation over time may have changed, their main objectives and/or philosophy remains, i.e., to provide assistance in different forms to countries undertaking political and economic reforms, so as to bring beneficiaries closer to EEC/EU membership, namely in the fields of economic and social development. This happens now as it did back in the 1980ʼs, when it first was granted to Portugal. Bearing this in mind, this paper aims to analyse the concept of EU pre-accession aid and its importance within the overall enlargement policy over time, in order to determine whether it met its goals and underlying objectives.
The European Union’s Eastern Partnership After 10 Years of Existence: Crises and Strategic Assessment
Institute of Central Europe and The John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Poland
The aim of this paper is to analyse the European Union’s Eastern Partnership (EaP) from the perspective of 10 years of its existence. Ten years after the EaP was established, its achievements, objectives and opportunities it offers need to be revisited. Such a review has become even more pressing due to the EaP’s 10th anniversary falling in 2019. A change of both the approach and narration with regard to the EaP and countries it encompasses is necessary.
The EU’s Eastern Partnership is frequently perceived as an inefficient policy. One may even risk saying it has become obsolete. Is it true that the EaP has not lived up to its expectations? Are we dealing with insecurity as regards the EaP’s future and objectives? Will Russia’s actions towards EaP’s countries contribute to the policy’s objectives becoming unachievable? Will the EU, facing crises (especially the migration crisis) and the prospect of Brexit itself, be able to consider the position EaP’s countries are in? Will Poland, supported by V4 states, be able to convince EU countries to become actively invested in the affairs in the East? Is the current EU policy a token of EU decision-makers’ lack of vision as regards the prospective EU-Eastern Partnership countries’ (especially Ukraine) relations? Moreover, the Ukraine crisis constitutes a challenge not only for Ukraine’s security, but also, more generally, for the European and international security and order.
The European Union in Ukraine: An Assessment of the Actions since 2013
University of Bath, United Kingdom
Following the responses to recent crises in its neighbourhood, it can be argued that the European Union has come a long way improving the use of the appropriate instruments in the security, economic and humanitarian landscapes. As with other countries of the European Neighbourhood, EU assistance to Ukraine has been facing many complex challenges such as weakness of Ukrainian institutions and corruption. In particular, while until 2013 the EU had a negligible impact on the functioning of the country, since 2014 the level of assistance has improved and effectively helped rebuilding Ukrainian state institutions. This has happened through the introduction of several innovations such as the creation of support groups, the expertise of EU officials to interact with the Ukrainian government and more extensive assistance programmes. The aim of this paper is to analyse the effect of these actions and map their major strengths and weaknesses and their legitimacy. In addition, a discussion about the dynamics of EU interventions will be conducted together with an analysis of different factors interacting in a crisis context. To conclude, a final overview will highlight how a coherent engagement, using the appropriate instruments, could develop essential capabilities to impact on these scenarios in order to obtain more stability.