University of Lisbon, Portugal, 1-4 September 2019
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Panel 316: The European Parliament, Rising Axis and Impacts of Europeanization on the Neighbourhood
The EU and the Axis of the Rising Powers, Russia and Turkey in the Neighbourhood
Istanbul Yeniyuzyil University
In the recent years, the European Union (EU) has been confronting the resurgence of two powerful countries in its neighbourhood, Russia and Turkey. These two countries have both similiarities and differences in their relationships with the EU and Turkey. Once described as the axis of the exluded, both countries have recently deepened their cooperation in Syria, defense matters, energy, trade and investment given the deterioration of their ties with the EU. A major objective of this study is to describe the status of the EU’s ties to these two resurgent powers in its neighbourhood and find out how its relations to these countries will develop in the next years.
Relations between Turkey and the EU started to sour from 2005 onwards with the rise of opposition to Turkey’s EU accession from a number of EU countries. Then, the relations between the two have stumbled because of the Cyprus issue. Lack of EU support to the Turkish government in the coup attempt on 15 July 2016 has further worsened the ties. However, the refugee crisis in 2015 and the turmoil in the Middle East amid the Arab Spring prompted the EU to cooperate with Turkey, bringing the two sides closer again.
Since the coming into office of Vladimir Putin at the beginning of the 2000s, Russia has been seeking to restore its superpower status like in the Cold War era and has been increasingly rejecting the Brussels’ treatment of itself as a country subordinate to the EU. Russia’s annexation of Crimea in March 2014 has dramatically changed the nature of relationship between Russia and the EU, leading the latter strongly condemn and impose a series of sactions on the former. Inspite of all these, it is hard for the EU to completely break its relationship with such a large country, on which many EU countries are dependent for oil and natural gas.
Both Russia and Turkey are important countries in the EU’s neighbourhood that the EU can not ignore and isolate easily because of the securiy, stability, economy and energy implications for itself. In this sense the questions this study ask are as follows: What kind of a relationship will the EU have with Turkey and Russia in the future? How can the EU deal with security threats emanating from these regions? What implications could the cooperation between Russia and Turkey have for the EU?
Neighbourhood Europeanization: The Case of the Republic of Moldova
1State University of Rio de Janeiro; 2Laboratório de Pesquisa e Ensino em Relações Internacionais
The EU’s neighbourhood is not a homogeneous region. The Eastern countries have adopted different models of political systems, economic development and partner preferences. The policy initiative which aims to deepen and strengthen relations between the EU and Moldova is under the Eastern Partnership (EaP), as part of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP). The fracture between Moldova and Romania can be seen as a lively motivation to enhance the cooperation between EU and Moldova. The article aims to identify avenues of Europeanization of Moldova, considering however the tensions involved the alternative of cooperation and modelling civil society, institutions, policies and economy, that is the Eurasian Economic Union. Europeanization works differently in the case of countries outside the EU. That because the attractiveness of the incentives on the table might not be enough to provide the EU with the leverage and effectiveness as in the case of an ascension country or a member State. Departing from the ENP’s Action Plans (2011/2015), this article aims to analyse the effectiveness of ENP policies for Moldova and using the framework developed by Gawrich et al. (2009). The ENP policies are divided into three dimensions: democracy promotion; economic cooperation; Justice and Home Affairs. Following several criticizes in its early version, the ENP has been improved over these past 10 years as to attain more faithfully its goals towards tangible benefits for the citizens of the neighbour country. The Republic of Moldova is of particular interest given its cultural ties with Romania and its geopolitical context.
Pushing Institutional Boundaries: Assessing the European Union’s Region-building Approach to Partnership in the South Caucasus
Institute for Advanced Studies - Institüt für Höhere Studien
This paper presents the European Union (EU)’s evolving partnerships with each of the three countries in the South Caucasus as comparative case studies that probe and elucidate the EU’s region-building foreign policy approach. Contributing a novel view to the discussion on institutionalism theories, the paper problematizes depictions of Normative Power Europe that simply paint the EU as a norm promoter aimed at achieving institutional isomorphism. In fact, despite its internal crises and burgeoning euroscepticism, the EU continues to prioritize its region-building measures in its Eastern European Neighborhood with the aim to establish itself as the region’s dominant power. Its behavior towards its partner nations in the South Caucasus in particular demonstrates an intentional shift towards bolstering hegemony in the region. Even where a strong self-interest seems to be lacking for the EU, its development action in the region has recently increased the provision of public goods and financial and programmatic assistance, in addition to its ongoing border security monitoring role where requested. These calculated actions position the EU as a dominant influence against the region’s longstanding power, Russia, countering both Russia’s military aggression and its economic, soft power posturing. Furthermore, the EU reaffirmed its resolute objective to maintain this position by tapering its own partnership conditions to secure partnership progress when certain partner nations were ambivalent about advancing their EU partnership agreement. This paper takes the EU’s hegemonic behavior into account in order to better understand its determined region-building abroad that operates beyond a discursive promotion of its core norms.
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