19-PM2-02: ST2.4 - How Do the Creative Industries Cope With Innovation Challenges ?
Creative industries, defined as, "those industries, which have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent" (DCMS, 2001, p. 4), attract increasing research attention, largely due to the recognition of their economic importance and innovative organizational forms. Scholars have been interested in a wide variety of creative industries, including advertising, architecture, perfumery, design, cinema, publishing, music, performing arts, haute cuisine, and video games. In a competitive and dynamic environment driven by innovation, “creative industries” seem to demonstrate a permanent capacity to innovate, adapt and reinvent themselves.
Historically little studied in management, these industries are increasingly becoming fertile ground for research in new product development and innovation management.
Topics of interest are (in particular, but not limited to):
- Managing artists, talent, creative people, and high potential
- Specific challenges that managers have to address in creative industries ;
- Diffusion and legitimization of innovative practices in creative industries;
- Open innovation in creative industries;
- (new) business models in creative industries;
- (new) forms of organization in creative industries;
- Relationship between the creator and the organization;
- Knowledge management, communities of practice in creative industries;
- Temporary organizations, project-based industries, project ecology, in creative industries;
- Design thinking and creative industries;
- Democracy, gift, innovative managerial practices and creative management in creative industries;
- Dark side of creative industries…
Redefining the Roles of Public Museums for Cultural-Creative Industries- the Case of National Palace Museum
National Chi Nan University, Taiwan
The roles of museums have been evolving since the twentieth century. Contemporary museums play an ever-important role in the development of cultural-creative industries. The rapid changes in the technologies and service innovations in the creative industry created higher challenges for the management of museums.
The roles and functions of contemporary museums has been evolving during the evolutions of societies. The trends of development of museums moved toward professionalize and commercialize(ICOM, 2019), and the roles of public museums become more heterogeneous and needs to become more self-sustainable.
Beside the conceptual innovations of living and eco-museums (Howard, 2002;Hitchcock, Stanley, & Siu, 2005;Cleary, 2008), technology also created impacts to the operation of museums (Eberbach & Crowley, 2005).
Contemporary museums encountered more complex challenges from many aspects of the social-economic environments and the widely spread users from the public urges the museums to better meet the public needs. Museums needs to reinvent itself toward the construction of a more socially responsive cultural institution in service to the public (Anderson, 2004).
Contemporary museums need to seek new roles to contribute to the development of Cultural-Creative Industries. The case of National Palace Museum could provide good insights to this need.
How do museums redefine their roles to cope with innovation challenges for cultural-creative industries.
System dynamics (Forrester,1961) was widely used in researches about long-tern dynamic behaviours of complex systems (Meadows et al., 2004). This methodology uses closed causal loops to represent the internal structures of the target system, and use the causal structure as a model to regenerate the dynamic behavior and to evaluate policy impacts under various scenarios (Morecroft and Sterman, 1994;Coyle, 1996;Sterman, 2000;). It is an appropriate methodology for the complex organizational issues of this research.
This study uses a case study on the National Palace Museum (NPM) in Taiwan, based on the systems thinking of the system dynamics methodology.
This study uses both primary and secondary data sources, which include in-depth interviews to current and former senior managers, and curator of NPM, as well as experts from the cultural-creative industries including artists, designers, and shop managers, in order to acquire the data from their mental model (Doyle & Ford, 1998). The authors also collected secondary data from NPM including the open reports of all government projects from the Government Report Bank (GRB) database, annual reports of NPM, and some information from indirect interviews and public presentations. The information acquired from the interview was cross check with the secondary data, and verified or corrected through following interviews, as suggested by Andersen et al.(1997). The derived causal loop model was verified by the interviewee and industrial experts.
The results from the analysis revealed three major professional orientations: 1. Archival oriented: focused on the quantity and quality of archived objects. 2. Public Education oriented: emphasized the exhibitions and impacts on public education. 3. Business oriented: emphasized economic benefits and business models. Based on the three orientations and the organizational evolution of contemporary museums, this study identified four developmental stages including the early stage, the public stage, the commercialization stage, and the conflict of commercialization stage. Four dominating causal loops are identified accordingly. From the operation perspective, contemporary museums encountered more challenges than ever, and the environment is more complex and dynamic for analyzing the challenges. The identified model could be the foundation for handling these problems.
Contribution to Scholarship
This study provided a structural understanding to the strategical orientations of the National Palace Museum to cope with the challenges from the social-economical environments. The proposed model provides a perspective to interpreted the roles of contemporary public museums in the complex creative industrial context.
Contribution to Practice
The case of the National Palace Museum in Taiwan provided an example how public museums could contribute to the service innovations in the social-creative industry sector.
This study discussed how museums redefine their roles to cope with innovation challenges for cultural-creative industries. It fits the interests of track 2-4 of theme 2 of this conference.
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Place and creativity, a multidimensional perspective ; The case of the “Atelier Nawak”, a French comic workshop
1École polytechnique, France; 2HEC Paris, France
With the emergence of third places, there is renewed interest in research for the spatial dimension (Paris & Raulet (ed.), 2016). These works can be related to an old tradition of research in the creative industries, where concentration has been an fact observed for a long time.
The high concentration of the global film industry in Hollywood has thus been studied in depth (Scott, 2005). Other places are associated with a strong creative dynamism at a given period: Paris for cubism (Sgourev, 2013), Vienna for sciences and arts (Andersson, 1985), New York, Liverpool or Nashville for music (Power & Hallencreutz, 2007, Power, 2008)... Today, cities such as Montreal or Barcelona (Cohendet et al., 2009, Cohendet, Grandadam, & Simon, 2010) are renowned as “creative territories”.
In the creative industries, the role of collectives in the dynamics of these sectors is another characteristic to be taken into account, to the extent that sometimes it is not easy to know if the creativity is the fact of the place or the collective that unfolds there.
None of the explanations about the role of territories in the creativity of a creative industry allow us to understand the extraordinary creativity that seemed to spring from the “atelier Nawak”, a workshop similar to all others, where the authors experienced something very ordinary.
We now propose to study in detail this very singular case, that of a place associated with great creativity, and which defies the classical theoretical explanations through the following question: what was the role of the "Atelier Nawak" in the great creativity that the authors have known?
Our study focuses on the “Atelier Nawak”, at the heart of this article through a unique case study (Yin, 2012) via a qualitative methodology (Dumez, 2016). The heterogeneous material collected was coding through a combination of findings coming from the data (grounded theory), as well as from existing theory (Ayache & Dumez, 2011) in order to prevent any risk of circularity (Dumez, 2016).
(1) A series of free interviews was conducted with past actors in the workshop. We have interviewed the following authors:
- Christophe Blain
- Frédéric Boilet
- Matthieu Bonhomme
- Gwenn de Bonneval
- Marc Boutavant
- Émile Bravo
- Nicolas de Crécy
- Jean-Pierre Duffour
- Jean-Yves Duhoo
- Brigitte Findalky
- Emmanuel Guibert
- Dominique Hérody
- Jean-Christophe Menu
- Hélène Micou
- Thierry Robin
- Fabrice Tarin
- Lewis Trondheim
(2) In addition, a series of documents testifying to the history of the workshop or the history of the comic strip industry in France have been and will continue to be analysed.
The analysis of the different data collected allows us to propose a new reading of places of innovation in the creative industries by highlighting a lighting effect and a rationalization a posteriori.
Indeed, some successes having known a critical and public visibility, the glances turned towards this place. For example, we can cite the success of one of the authors of the workshop, Marjane Satrapi and her work Persepolis, which led to the feeling, for the actors of the comics industry, of a new market, and then, led them to turn to the place from which it emerged.
The revelation of this new market has combined with the identification of authors who can feed it, and the promotion by publishing houses of the work of these authors. In this explanatory model, the success of an individual of the place attracting the glances, it facilitates the access to the market of all the individuals of this place and involves, a posteriori, a rationalization of this success whereas this place does not present no remarkable features.
Thus, the myth of the Nawak Workshop, was built in time, according to the success of the works or the careers of its authors.
Contribution to Scholarship
This research allows us to give a new explanation on the role of places in innovation and more specifically in the creative industries.
Contribution to Practice
The managerial results highlight three main contributions.
Diversity: the object is multifaceted according to the authors.
Dynamic: the object is evolutive and inscribed in a sectoral dynamic.
Not deterministic: the place does not have sufficient conditions for its effects.
This research highlights a new explanation of the role of places in the creative industries.
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