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Session Overview
Session
21-AM-03: W5/ST11.1 - Managing the New Mobility Transition
Time:
Friday, 21/Jun/2019:
8:30am - 10:00am

Session Chair: Rémi Maniak, Ecole Polytechnique
Session Chair: Christophe Midler, Ecole Polytechnique
Location: Amphi Becquerel
Special Guest: G. Lescuyer, CEO of SAFT Speakers: M. Alochet (École Polytechnique / i3-CRG), S. Yoshida (Advanced Institute of Industrial Technology)

Session Abstract

The automobile industry is implementing a major shift from its long established dominant design of internal combustion engine cars. "The future car will be electrical, communicative and autonomous" is the new shared horizon for all the global players of the car industry.

Such a paradigm change leads to a triple transition. (i) A technology transition from an internal combustion engine dominant design technologies to electric motorization, connectivity and artificial intelligence. (ii) A business model transition from a B to C product centric to a B to B to C mobility service business model. The profitability of the shift for car manufacturers is also far from evident: development of shared mobility is forecasted to diminish quite effectively the number of cars sold in mature urban markets; not to mention the redeployment of internal combustion engine based industrial footprint to electric cars production units. (iii) An ecosystem transition from an established internal combustion engine value chain to a new, heterogeneous and nescient ecosystem involving beyond the traditional auto suppliers new technology suppliers, energy and data providers, service providers and public authorities that will be key complementors in the new mobility scenarios.

Managing such breakthrough transition call for new approach in term of R&D organization, project management, open innovation processes... This track will welcome contributions which address such innovation management issues both from a theoretical and empirical side.


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Presentations

The Batterie Challenge: the Saft Experience

Ghislain Lescuyer

SAFT, France



EV Scale Up: from Product Modularity to Mobility Versatility

Marc Alochet, Christophe Midler

Ecole Polytechnique, France

Context

While the EV scale up is happening now, the automotive industry dominant design in terms of business models, industry architecture and product architecture is preserved.

We hypothesize that the design strategy “product modularity to mobility versatility” may disrupt the industry architecture and, accordingly, develop solid theoretical and empirical supporting foundations.

Literature

Innovation management, C-K methodology: (Abernathy and Utterback, 1978; Hatchuel et al., 2001; Hatchuel and Weil, 2008; Midler and Beaume, 2009; Pechmann et al., 2012)

Modularity in design, in production, in use: (Baldwin and Clark, 1997; Lampón et al., 2017; MacDuffie, 2013, 2006; Sako and Murray, 1999)

Value chain, Industry architecture, Ecosystems: (Bowman and Ambrosini, 2000; Fournier et al., 2012; Gereffi et al., 2005; Jacobides et al., 2018, 2016; Jacobides and MacDuffie, 2013; MacDuffie and Fujimoto, 2010; Teece, 1986; Zirpoli and Camuffo, 2009)

Electro mobility ecosystem: (Donada, 2018; Donada and Attias, 2015; Donada and Perez, 2015; Vazquez et al., 2018)

Literature Gap

While authors discuss two evolutions of the automotive industry: (1) remain under the existing hierarchical architecture, (2) switch to an open ecosystem, no study addressing the key technological, industrial and business enablers of a transformation of the industry architecture has been carried out.

Research Questions

Since the automotive industry dominant design in terms of business models, industry architecture and product architecture is, to date, preserved, we wonder how an innovative BEV design taking advantage of underutilized intrinsic advantages of electrification technologies combined with new mobility services and business models may disrupt this well-established architecture.

Methodology

To identify innovative mobility usages driving innovative BEV designs and business models which may disrupt the industry architecture, we proceed to a literature review emphasizing key characteristics of new electromobility business models and pointing out how modularity could support BEV design accordingly.

We explore a new mobility concept, MaaS involving mobility operators, and realize an empirical study addressing disruptive concepts of robotaxi coming from the offer side. Gathering all these data, we introduce an innovative design strategy “from product modularity to mobility versatility” and define self-driving electric vehicles, each of them characterized by its modularity and usage versatility.

Empirical Material

The empirical materials are based upon a survey of strong / weak signals coming from the offer side, mainly carmakers and Tier1 suppliers, about versatile self-driving vehicles; in terms of methodology, we mainly use second source data, addressing technological announcements extracted from relevant websites for the automotive industry (carmakers, suppliers, consultant companies, and electromobility dedicated websites).

First of all, we evaluate whether or not the versatility characteristics, resulting from our exploration of a mobility concept, are present in the proposed self-driving vehicles. In a second step, we look after information related to manufacturing processes of these vehicles to understand how disruptive they could be versus the existing dominant design.

Finally, we observe which business models are proposed to take advantage of these concepts of self-driving vehicles and try to identify potential switches from B2C to B2B involving incumbent or newcomer actors.

Results

From a theoretical viewpoint, we introduce, based upon our literature review, new mobility concept exploration and empirical survey of the offer side, an innovative product and process design strategy “from product modularity to mobility versatility”. We identify 4 desired properties of mobility versatility: versatility in operation mode, versatility in operating range, versatility in dimensions, and versatility in usage; accordingly we propose 6 types of self-driving electric vehicles, some of them taking advantages of modularity in design, in production and in use: Single purpose robotaxi, Customizable robotaxi, Modular customizable robotaxi, Modular adaptable customizable robotaxi, Transformable robotaxi, Resizable transformable robotaxi which can be adapted to various customers’ needs.

Our empirical study confirms that versatility in operating range, versatility in dimensions, and versatility in usage are (partially) integrated in the concepts proposed by the automotive industry while there are some intentions to switch from a B2C business model to a B2B one.

This study confirms a potential disruption of the industry architecture and raises two main issues: one concerns the concrete technical feasibility of the more versatile concepts whereas the other, far more important, questions the ability of these new business models to drive value and revenue for all the involved actors.

Contribution to Scholarship

Our results propose a path to a disruption of the well-established automotive industry architecture: installation of a new electromobility service pulled by an innovative product and process design strategy: “from product modularity to mobility versatility”.

The introduction of new actors such as mobility operators as well as the switch from B2C to B2B business models are key levers of this disruption. It paves the way to further theoretical study addressing how to drive value and revenue in such an emerging ecosystem as well as what are the appropriate organization rules and governance to make it sustainable. Lastly, it requires some more detailed study about the organization of the production value chain enabling the production and adaptation of self-driving vehicles to the customer needs.

Contribution to Practice

For the automotive industry incumbents, our research provides guidance about new technologies development, evolution of vehicles architecture as well as manufacturing scenarios in order to catch up with the new mobility trends and expectations.

For all (future) electromobility operators, including or not existing automotive industry incumbents, it paves the way to new businesses based upon modular products in use and associated services; especially, for carmakers, it paves the way to an extension of their revenues along the full life cycle of the product by the means of recurrent manufacturing services.

Fitness

The evolution of the society paves the way to a new landscape of e-mobility needs; our research demonstrates that the emergence of new technologies combined with innovative modular product architecture enable new business models along with disruptive industry architecture, which closes the loop of the innovation challenge!

Bibliography

IAbernathy, W.J., Utterback, J.M., 1978. Patterns of industrial innovation. Technol. Rev. 80, 41–47.

Baldwin, A., Clark, K., 1997. Managing in an Age of Modularity. Harv. Bus. Rev. 75, p84-93.

Bowman, C., Ambrosini, V., 2000. Value Creation Versus Value Capture: Towards a Coherent Definition of Value in Strategy. Br. J. Manag. 11, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.00147

Donada, C., 2018. Leadership in the electromobility ecosystem: integrators and coordinators. Int. J. Automot. Technol. Manag. 18, 229–246. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJATM.2018.093417

Donada, C., Attias, D., 2015. Food for thought: which organisation and ecosystem governance to boost radical innovation in the electromobility 2.0 industry? Int. J. Automot. Technol. Manag. 15, 105–125.

Donada, C., Perez, Y., 2015. IJATM editorial. Int J Automot. Technol. Manag. 15, 97.

Fournier, G., Hinderer, H., Schmid, D., Seign, R., Baumann, M., 2012. The new mobility paradigm: Transformation of value chain and business models. Enterp. Work Innov. Stud. 8, 9–40.

Gereffi, G., Humphrey, J., Sturgeon, T., 2005. The governance of global value chains. Rev. Int. Polit. Econ. 12, 78–104.

Hatchuel, A., Masson, P.L., Weil, B., 2001. Co-development to the test of intensive innovation : towards new forms of organisation for innovative design in the case of car manufacturers and component makers.

Hatchuel, A., Weil, B., 2008. C-K Design Theory: An Advanced Formulation. Res. Eng. Des. 19, p.181-192.

Jacobides, M.G., Cennamo, C., Gawer, A., 2018. Towards a theory of ecosystems. Strateg. Manag. J. 39, 2255–2276. https://doi.org/10.1002/smj.2904

Jacobides, M.G., MacDuffie, J.P., 2013. How to drive value your way. Harv. Bus. Rev. 91, 92–100.

Jacobides, M.G., MacDuffie, J.P., Tae, C.J., 2016. Agency, structure, and the dominance of OEMs: Change and stability in the automotive sector. Strateg. Manag. J. 37, 1942–1967.

Lampón, J.F., Cabanelas, P., Frigant, V., 2017. The new automobile modular platforms: from the product architecture to the manufacturing network approach.

MacDuffie, J.P., 2013. Modularity-as-property, modularization-as-process, and ‘modularity’-as-frame: Lessons from product architecture initiatives in the global automotive industry. Glob. Strategy J. 3, 8–40.

MacDuffie, J.-P., 2006. Modularity and the Automobile: What Happened When the concept Hit the Road. Work. Pap.

MacDuffie, J.P., Fujimoto, T., 2010. Why dinosaurs will keep ruling the auto industry. Harv. Bus. Rev. 88, 23–25.

Midler, C., Beaume, R., 2009. Project-based learning patterns for dominant design renewal: The case of Electric Vehicle. Int. J. Proj. Manag.

Pechmann, F. von, Midler, C., Maniak, R., Charue-Duboc, F., Beaume, R., 2012. Managing systemic disruption projects in the automotive industry. Presented at the 28th Conference EGOS.

Sako, M., Murray, F., 1999. Modules in design, production and use: implications for the global auto industry. Presented at the IMVP Annual Sponsors Meeting, Cambridge MA USA.

Teece, D.J., 1986. Profiting from Technological Innovation: Implications for Integration, collaboration, Licensing and Public Policy. Res. Policy 15, 285–305.

Vazquez, M., Hallack, M., Perez, Y., 2018. The dynamics of institutional and organisational change in emergent industries: the case of electric vehicles. Int. J. Automot. Technol. Manag. 18, 187. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJATM.2018.093422

Zirpoli, F., Camuffo, A., 2009. Persistent integrality: Product architecture and inter-firm coordination in the auto industry, in: 17th Gerpisa International Colloquium, Paris.



A Study of Design Concept of Energy Supply System including Mobile Battery Pack - Description of Design Information of New System by Japanese Firm -

Satoshi Yoshida

Advanced Institute of Industrial Technology, Japan

Context

It is possible to understand that the discussion about a reasonable energy suppression system with new technology is still on the primary stage, and difficult to understand that structured discussions have been made sufficiently on this subject.

Literature

Clark K. and Fujimoto T., Product Development Performance: Strategy, Organization, and Management in the World Auto Industry, Harvard Business School Press, 1991

Baldwin C. and Clark K., DESIGN RULES,: The Power of Modularity, The MIT Press, 2000Fujimoto T. and Kuwashima K., Nihongata Purosesu sangyou, Yuhikaku, 2009

Fujimoto T., Yashiro T., Ando M., Yoshida S., Kenchiku Monodukuriron, Yuhikaku, 2015

Literature Gap

This research aims to discover if the Product Architecture Theory can be adapted into the Energy Management System, which consist of several products and service. This could be a new challenge to understand development process of new multiple system with Architecture Concept.

Research Questions

Especially, the idea of energy control method differs depending on industrial features and regional features. However, few discussions discussed the reasons. Also, few theories have systematically considered the trend. Therefore, this paper discusses the development of new mobile battery system for electric vehicles and houses.

Methodology

Each mobile battery is designed as a modular product by standardization. However, complicated adjustments are required to improver of performance of the whole system. Thus, high interdependency can be discovered between components (integral). This indicates that the Product Architecture Theory can be used to explain the Energy Management System in the same way. For future work, more cast studies in different manufacturing industries should be carried out to understand the trend of the design concept of energy management system in Japan.

Empirical Material

This paper explores the design concept of Energy Management System in Japanese manufacturing industry from a Product Architecture perspective. This research aims to discover if the Product Architecture Theory can be adapted into the Energy Management System, which consist of several products and service. As a leading company in New Energy Vehicle Industry, One of the Japanese companies is chosen as case study in this research. The design concept of their Mobile Battery Pack System shows the same characteristic of design concept of products in Japan’s Manufacturing Industry.

Results

This research will consider the relationship between the new energy system and the existing energy supply system in Japan. In particular, we will consider how to develop new technologies based on existing technical capabilities. This research will consider the relationship between the new energy system and the existing energy supply system in Japan. In particular, we will consider how to develop new technologies based on existing technical capabilities.

Contribution to Scholarship

This consideration shows the direction of the strategy for projects with high novelty to participate in specific region. This review is considered to be sufficiently effective to understand some of the features of each project

Contribution to Practice

The findings suggested by this argument are useful for extracting tasks and overcoming tasks. In particular, it should be effective for projects concerning experimental new electric energy system including mobility. In addition, this finding is effective for projects that Japanese organizations have participated in.

Fitness

As a leading company in New Energy Vehicle Industry, One of the Japanese companies is chosen as case study in this research.Thus, the direction of this research is consistent with the contents of the following Track.

Managing the new mobility transition

Bibliography

Herbert A. Simon, The Sciences of the Artificial 3rd Ed., pp3-13, The MIT, Press、1996

Clark K. and Fujimoto T., Product Development Performance: Strategy, Organization, and Management in the World Auto Industry, Harvard Business School Press, 1991

Baldwin C. and Clark K., DESIGN RULES,: The Power of Modularity, The MIT Press, 2000

Fujimoto T. and Kuwashima K., Nihongata Purosesu sangyou, Yuhikaku, 2009

Fujimoto T., Yashiro T., Ando M., Yoshida S., Kenchiku Monodukuriron, Yuhikaku, 2015



 
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