The breakthrough of the Chinese industries of environmental technologies - wind, solar - seemingly dazzling, is the result of a long-term state strategy. The central government has transformed into a "built industrial advantage" downstream (on technologies) its natural advantage previously built upstream: the global monopoly of production of rare earths.
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The acquisition of technological skills in emerging economies is often analyzed at the level of constrained value chain segments constrained. Hobday (1995), Kim (1997) and Xie (2004) analyze technological catch-up in different sequences of acquisition, assimilation, and improvement of technologies but not the forces behind these movements.
The analysis of time-bound and / or space-restricted value chain segments does not explain the emergence of the Chinese industrial system of new technologies. At the level of the national system of innovation, industrial structuring has been orchestrated according to a quadruple scientific, industrial, economic and diplomatic strategy.
- Scientific policy of technological integration, defined very early
- Industrial policy of transforming a mining income downstream by calibrated quotas to attract the technologies chosen by the regime.
- Creation, sizing and control of the domestic market by the state to permanently fix foreign companies but gradually sinister the ecosystem,
- Support of economic diplomacy to establish a global competitive advantage.
Four sections take up these strategic times, explaining their management mechanisms. It is the progression and regular refinement of the tools mobilized in the service of this strategy that has allowed the industries that have emerged to dominate global "green capitalism".
Through Field interviews on - Beijing's role in the emergence and then growth of a fabric of Chinese industrial players of new technologies through the example of the wind industry, to (i) detail the strategy of industrial economy "implementation leverage "and (ii) address the area of cross-sectoral organizational learning. By putting in perspective the development of the downstream of the sector anchored with the upstream mining, by its inscription in the public piloting of the new energies, we point out the preponderant role of the State.
A singularity of method has allowed the country to make a technological catch-up but especially a controlled industrial deployment still under-analyzed, to structure on its territory the national technological and industrial ecosystem which allows it today to capture a maximum of the added value from the resources it extracts from the soil.
The advent of the Chinese wind industry is one of the most comprehensive examples of the success of a state strategy. Beijing, through bodies such as ministries but also the National Development & Reform Commission has organized the technology transfer necessary for the development of each segment of the value chain, leveraging its monopoly on rare earths as well as access to its domestic market ...
Contribution to Scholarship
Should innovation in China be read by international trade and the market, or by the construction of domestic industries and the off-market?
The approach of the Chinese economy by international trade leads to a dead end even if the internal market is broad, and that the savings is still more, China would be stuck in the path of export, especially since its productive tool would remain largely controlled, at least in terms of capital and more importantly the appropriation of added value, by foreign firms.
Re-looking at the question in industrial terms: China capitalized on its industrial policy trajectory and has actively directed FDI to serve technological appropriation. The central thesis of this article is: on the basis of the mining sector that the central power has regained control of the industry and has managed to largely control the capture of technological know-how. This in two stages, both "off-market".
Contribution to Practice
The ex-post analysis shows that the interest of Beijing in the constitution of this monopoly was not rentier nor, as some authors have suggested, geostrategic confined to the upstream mining. The Chinese rare earth monopoly, purposefully and politically constructed, serves a multi-pronged industrial strategy targeting the transfer of technologies required for downstream rare earth industrial value chains to China.
It is utterly relevant tp "Company Innovation Management in Emerging Countries: multiple challenges for corporate governance" as the challenges we depict impact both within and outside the company, hence "multiple". We identify 4 streams of intervention; hence again "multiple"
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