Conference Agenda

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Session Overview
Session
21-PM2-08: ST11.3 - Organizing the Energy and Ecological Transition: Managerial Challenges for Scholars and Practitioners
Time:
Friday, 21/Jun/2019:
2:45pm - 4:15pm

Session Chair: Julie Mayer, PSL, Université Paris-Dauphine
Session Chair: Mathias Guérineau, University of Nantes
Location: Amphi Lagarrigue

Session Abstract

The energy and ecological transition (EET) can be understood as the emergence and exploitation of technological innovation(s) (e.g. hydrogen mobility, smartgrids, …) and societal innovations (e.g. circular economies, sobriety models, new forms of democracies...), that intend to tackle climate change. Despite decades of innovative efforts, our societies still face crucial managerial challenges to propel and concretize those innovations, as they rely on changes of paradigm, claimed and driven by heterogeneous actors with different visions and interest. This track thus aims at better understating the EET. challenges and opportunities at the level of organization, in all their varieties (large companies, technological start-ups, public or private research institutes, etc.). In our session, we will try to better understand what EET represents and involves in terms of strategy and management.

We will analyze this general problem across three levels of analysis :

- At the macro level, the EET relies on a plethora of technological and societal innovations, which may significantly transform existing markets, industries and ecosystems (e.g. energy, transport, food, etc.), or create new ones such as renewable energies. As the trajectory of those transformations remain uncertain (and sometimes controversial), we welcome submissions that unfold questions such as: what models and mechanisms of value creation and capture can be derived from EET innovations (e.g. what new business model)? What are the triggers and obstacles of their development? How can those transformations be coordinated at the macro-level?

- At the meso level, the EET involves specific forms of collective actions and discourses, either to carry, to support or to resist to innovations. Public authorities, private organizations and citizens engage into new practices that enact the EET (e.g. local citizen initiatives, industrial lobbying, coopetition, open innovation, etc.). What are those new forms of collective actions and discourses? How do they shape EET trajectory? What managerial issues do they bring?

- At the micro level, the EET requires on the ability to involve, to influence or to change individuals’ behaviors. Therefore, we seek to better understand the determinants of individual perceptions and behaviors toward societal and technological innovations related to the EET: why individuals may or may not agree to change their behavior or practices? What are the determinants of societal and technological adoption or resistance that drive EET? To which extend can individuals be involved in the deployment of energy or ecological solutions? Those questions can be analyzed in terms of technological adoption and use, incentives to change behavior, risk perception, decision-making determinants, etc.

All contributions (theoretical and empirical) from academic research or professional testimonies will be studied with interest. We recall that the main objective is to better understand what the energy and ecological transition implications from a management science perspective.


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Presentations

Shaping Today the Enlightened Citizens of Tomorrow

Latifa Berkous1, Mattias Mano2

1Ecole polytechnique, France; 2Ecole polytechnique Executive Education, France

Context

Our societies are facing a major environmental issue: the energy transition. In order to construct a more sustainable world, societies need to considerably increase the share of renewable energies in the energy portfolio at their disposal. Education plays an important role in societal changes.

Literature

NA

Literature Gap

NA

Research Questions

NA

Methodology

NA

Empirical Material

To address this emergency, public institutions have the duty to assist citizens to become aware of these stakes and help them to change their behaviors at different steps of life: in students programs, vocational training or own initiative of citizens. Ecole polytechnique (France), higher education and research institution, has been engaged with this question on several aspects. First, The Laboratory of Physics of Interfaces and The Laboratory of Dynamic Meteorology are among the best research centers on the subject. Secondly, the Energy and Prosperity academic Chair have been developed to associate the best of the academic and industrial worlds. Finally, Ecole polytechnique offers trainings to enlighten citizens on the subject. Two masters (Energy Environment: Science Technology and Management Master and Ecotechnologies for Sustainability and Environment Management Master) are available for the initial training. Ecole polytechnique Executive Education, subsidiary of Ecole polytechnique on the on-the-job training, offers a blended training on Entrepreneurship of Renewable Energies for managers. Furthermore, Ecole polytechnique addresses the citizens of the global society offering four MOOC on Coursera.

Results

NA

Contribution to Scholarship

NA

Contribution to Practice

We offer a conference in two parts. First, a member of Ecole polytechnique board will share the institution answer of Ecole polytechnique to address the issue of Energy and Ecological Transition.

The second part of the session will regroup learners coming from the different trainings offered by Ecole polytechnique to understand their motivations to be trained on this topic and why with Ecole polytechnique. The group will gather students from the MOOC, the master and the on-the-job training, offering a global and diverse visions from the entire society.

Fitness

NA

Bibliography

NA



The Energy Saving Certificates Scheme: how an innovative energy saving instrument resulted in a managerial gridlock?

Adam BAÏZ, Michel NAKHLA

Mines ParisTech, France

Context

The housing and transport sectors represent the largest potential source of energy savings: however, the modification of the energy technologies and habits in those sectors is hard to attain with standard energy saving instruments (taxes, subsidies, etc.) because they consist in millions of heterogeneous actors.

Literature

Since 2013, France decided to implement the Energy Saving Certificates (ESC) Scheme: the State obligates the main energy suppliers to encourage the millions of energy consumers to adopt more efficient technologies (Giraudet 2011). So far, this instrument has been presented as both innovative and successful because it mixes several standard instruments and because it attains all its goals. However, major criticism has been raised about its control by the public administration and the effectivity of its implementation (IGF 2014, Cour des Comptes 2013, 2016). As this instrument is gaining momentum is France and in fifteen other countries, the question must be asked: could it be that the ESC Scheme is not such a good idea?

Literature Gap

So far, public policy instruments are characterized as objects, through a little number of dimensions (e.g. the level of coerciveness). This dimensional approach is inadequate to characterize and evaluate the implementation of instruments, and is therefore unable to distinguish truly innovative instruments from merely impracticable announcement effects.

Research Questions

After agreeing that innovative public policy instruments are both new and effective instruments, we ask three questions: how can we characterize instruments as processes of collective action that are meant to be implemented? how can we more systematically evaluate the effectivity of their implementation? is the ESC Scheme truly effective?

Methodology

Within the frame of intervention research, we agreed to define an instrument as a specific intended causal chain of public action, and formulated an algorithmic language along some instrumental elements (actors, actions, events, logical operators and impact vectors) in order to characterize instruments in an ostensive way. After developing a method to evaluate the newness and the effectivity of any instrument, we define an innovative instrument as a new causal chain that is effectively implemented in the socio-technical reality. We apply these methods on the ESC Scheme.

Empirical Material

In order to characterize and evaluate the causal chain of the ESC Scheme, we studied its regulatory and legislative texts and we involved the actors in charge of its evaluation and its implementation within the frame of intervention research.

Results

Within this generic framework, and what we called a combinatory design method, we chose to question the innovative nature of the Energy Savings Certificates scheme (ESC). We first characterized the causal chain of its collective action, and revealed the intricacies of multiple actors, actions, influences and conditions. Then we identified the potential implementation biases and obstacles and show that the mix of regulatory obligations and the flexibility of means is the main responsible of a managerial gridlock: because of the complexity of this instrument, the public authorities are quite unable to check and control its effectivity, which can stir up mistakes and frauds among the target actors (firms, households, etc.). To finish with, we elaborated an evaluation protocol and formulated several possible lines of innovation.

Contribution to Scholarship

The combinatory design method we developed can contribute both to the academic and the operational fields: (a) it allows a more explicit representation of all existing instruments and enable actors to design new ones; (b) it contributes to more precisely evaluate the implementation of instruments, and identify and circumvent biases and obstacles; (c) its common language is meant to gather different actors in the process of designing public policies (and more generally collective actions) and have them explicit and confront their representation of the socio-technical reality, possibilities and goals.

Contribution to Practice

As for the specific evaluation of the ESC Scheme, our results reveal the limits and the potentialities of this instrument in the context of energy and ecological transition.

Fitness

In the frame of the energy transition, the ESC Scheme should be rapidly modified in order to avoid major and irreversible managerial pitfalls, and in order to enhance new markets, industries and ecosystems. Bridging research, industry, society and policy makers is therefore crucial.

Bibliography

Baïz A. et Nakhla M., 2018. Pour une approche algorithmique de la nature protéiforme et fractale des instruments de l’action collective. Revue Politiques et Management Public, 153-172.

Cour des Comptes (2013). Les certificats d’économies d’énergie. Rapport (en ligne).

Cour des Comptes (2016). Les certificats d’économies d’énergie : un dispositif amélioré. Rapport (en ligne).

Giraudet L.-G. (2011). Les instruments économiques de maitrise de l’énergie : une évaluation multidimensionnelle. Economies et finances. Université Paris-Est.

IGF, CGEDD, CGE, 2014. Les certificats d’économies d’énergie : efficacité énergétique et analyse économique. (en ligne).



 
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