An Investigation of Use Cases for Customer-Integrated Product Validation
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany
Validation activities in the early phase of product development are key to development success. At the same time, however, early validation activities come with special challenges, partly resulting from the high degree of uncertainty and a lack of resources in this phase.
The contribution of early validation activities to a product's market success is highlighted in the literature by many authors, such as Cooper & Kleinschmidt , Helm , Gruner & Homburg  and Porter . As an enabler for early validation activities, Albers et al. introduce the so called product profile . A product profile is a model of a set of benefits that facilitates the validation of the desired provider, customer and user benefits of a product. So-called product attribute profiles provide a specific way of modelling product profiles. Attribute profiles describe a product generation through a series of product-specific, customer-experienceable product attributes . Albers et al. propose a reference product model that links the solution-open product attributes with the solution-specific elements of the system of objectives . The model relates the level of solution-open, customer-experienceable product attributes to the level of product functions and the level of technical subsystems.
The solution-open nature of development objectives set in early development phases often makes target-oriented validation difficult in practice. Solving this challenge and enabling a targeted validation in early development phases requires methods supporting the systematic specification of product profiles. A method closing this research gap is presented in this paper.
How can the specification of solution-open elements of the product profile in preparation for early creation-validation cycles be methodically supported?
Prior to developing the design support, a survey with 66 participants from German automotive and supplier companies was conducted. From the survey results we derived requirements for the developed method. We explain the findings of this paper using an example from the automotive industry. We also discuss results from the evaluation of the developed method, which we generated over a period of two years in a number of different development projects.
The paper contributes to supporting product developers in the preparation of validation activities in early development phases. Therefore, a method is presented which provides an integrated approach for the specification of product profiles. Starting from a solution-open initial system of objectives, the method enables product developers to prioritize and select product attributes for early creation-validation cycles. In addition, it provides a systematic approach for the concretization of solution-open product attributes down to alternative solutions for concrete product characteristics. The end-to-end derivation of concrete product characteristics from solution-open product attributes allows product developers to validate the initial system of objectives in early development phases. The method thus lays the foundation for enabling product developers to systematically reduce uncertainties regarding relevant customer and user requirements by means of targeted validation already in early development phases.
Contribution to Scholarship
The developed method draws on different concepts already established in practice and science which were integrated into a consistent method in the research project. For example, the method takes into account various scientifically established product models, such as open-solution product profiles and solution-specific product structures. In addition, the Kano model and different competitive positioning strategies are incorporated into the method. The scientific contribution of the developed method lies in showing how these established methods and models can be used in a complementary way.
Contribution to Practice
The developed method enables product developers to systematically reduce uncertainties regarding relevant customer and user requirements by means of targeted validation already in early development phases. This early insight allows for a customer-centric development approach throughout the development process. Also, it facilitates the allocation of development resources to particularly success-related product functions and subsystems. It thus makes an important contribution to securing development and market success.
With the support of early validation activities, the paper addresses a topic that is of great importance both in the scientific discussion and in practical product development. Due to their strong leverage effect on downstream processes, early validation activities are a key focus of many R&D management efforts.
 Cooper RG, Kleinschmidt EJ. Screening new products for potential winners. Long Range Planning 1993;26(6):74–81.
 Helm R. Planung und Vermarktung von Innovationen: Die Präferenz von Konsumenten für verschiedene Innovationsumfänge unter Berücksichtigung des optimalen Simulationsniveaus und marktbezogener Einflussfaktoren; 2001.
 Gruner KE, Homburg C. Innovationserfolg durch Kundeneinbindung: eine empirische Untersuchung. Innovation und Investition 1999;69(1):119–42.
 Porter A. Accelerated testing and validation: Testing, engineering, and management tools for lean development. Amsterdam, London: Newnes; 2004.
 Albers A, Heimicke J, Walter B, Basedow GN, Reiß N, Heitger N et al. Product Profiles: Modelling customer benefits as a foundation to bring inventions to innovations. In: Proceedings of 28th CIRP Design Conference; 2018.
 Hirschter T, Haug F, Fahl J, Mandel C, Marthaler F, Walter B et al. Zukunftsorientierte PGE – Produktgenerationsentwicklung: Ein Ansatz zur systematischen Überführung von Szenarien in Produktprofile in der Frühen Phase der PGE. In: 14. Symposium für Vorausschau und Technologieplanung; 2018.
 Albers A, Heitger N, Haug F, Fahl J, Hirschter T, Bursac N. Supporting Potential Innovation in the Early Phase of PGE – Product Generation Engineering: Structuring the Development of the Initial System of Objectives. In: Proceedings of The R&D Management Conference 2018; 2018.
Modeling market to commercialize radical innovation: What can we learn from a forgotten historical figure, the traveling salesman before marketing?
Mines de Paris, France
Marketing facilitates innovation commercialization by aligning product specifications with customer needs and by orchestrating product launches in known markets. However, radical innovations address unknown markets: the challenge is commercializing while learning. Before marketing science, nineteenth-century-firms employing travelling salesmen confronted such challenge. Their history unveils market-modeling activities relevant for innovation commercialization.
During the commercialization of radical innovation, proactive attitudes to create new markets are essential (Chiesa_and_Frattini_2011). To do so, according to the recent innovation commercialization literature, firms engage in specific market-learning approaches that display three characteristics. First, market-learning approaches are dynamic processes that include continuous feedbacks and changes in marketing strategy (Aarikka-Stenroos_and_Lehtimäki_2014). Second they rely heavily on frameworks (Dmitriev_et_al_2014) to share common market representations (Mason_et_al_2017). Third, the market-learning process could be as demanding as product development process (O’Connor_and_Rice_2013).
Firms in the pre-marketing era engaged in similar market-learning approaches to manage their traveling salesmen (see empirical material section for references).
Marketization literature (Çalışkan_and_Callon_2010) studies the socio-technical adaptations required by market creation. Two findings enable this literature to accounts for the difficulties of market learning. First, the critical variables that ensure marketization are manifold and heterogeneous. Second, they are unknown at the beginning and specific to each radical innovation.
According to innovation commercialization literature, firms engage in market learning activities during commercialization to ensure radical innovation success.
However, marketization literature claims that new markets creation requires learning from several actors on countless and unforeseeable variables.
Therefore, identifying the relevant learning variables is a gap for the innovation commercialization literature.
To identify relevant market variables, we investigate the link between market learning and innovation commercialization through the following research question:
How do market-learning activities conducted by firm during radical innovation commercialization contribute to the creation of a new market and innovation success?
We qualitatively analyzed business history papers to uncover market-learning efforts undertaken by 19th century firms employing salesmen. We looked for market learning contributing to commercialization, analyzed their common structure and their discrepancies.
Three reasons drove our methodological choice. First, firms hired travelling salesmen when they wanted specifically to stimulate and prime markets without product modification. Similarly, when commercializing radical innovation, firms endorse proactive attitudes toward their adoption network. Second salesmen and firms send letters, which spell out the market learning undertaken during commercialization, enabling us to study them specifically. Third, salesman activities are well documented, opening ways for generalization.
We aim at uncovering market-learning activities conducted by a firm to contribute to the commercialization through the analysis of business history papers.
Therefore we gathered a qualitative sample based on three criterions. First, papers should have been published in a peer-reviewed business history journal and should be describing firms employing travelling salesman during the pre-marketing era. Second, the papers should be precise enough to describe the market learning performed by the firm. Those learning are implicit in case descriptions, therefore we selected papers that recount on the instructions the firms gave to salesman and the management tools that they used.
To enable comparison, we selected papers displaying different companies, different countries and different type of products.
Our current sample encompass ten papers and we are currently analyzing others papers to see if we have reached saturation. Our sample encompasses Switzerland chocolate company implementing growth-oriented commercialization strategies (Rossfeld_2008), traveling salesman representing French silk fabrics in the seventeenth century (Bayard_2008), the commercial adventure underpinning the success of an German harmonica company (Berghoff_2001) and a stove company in the United States (Harris_2008).
Our results confirm that commercialization is a market-learning activity. The massive exchange of letters between salesmen and their firms testifies the eager for market information of the firm.
Our original results are two-folded. First, we show that although massive, market learning focuses on a limited set of variables. In each case, we have been able to identify a small number of critical market variables used to adapt the commercialization strategies. For example, a critical dimension for a seventeenth century silk fabricant is being the first to present its yearly production in a city. Therefore, silk fabricants carefully learnt on the number of their clients and the transportation time between cities to schedule the departure day of their travelling salesmen. Thus, we claim that each firm used an underlying market model to manage its commercialization process.
Second, we show that the market models are case-specific and related to the products sold. For example, in the case of Moët, the critical variable is the champagne quality. Therefore the learning focuses on the facilities available to ensure champagne preservation throughout its foreign journey.
To ensure commercialization through traveling salesmen, each firm developed an underlying product-specific market model by identifying critical variables.
Contribution to Scholarship
Our contribution relates to two literature streams. First, we concur with innovation commercialization literature on considering commercialization as a learning-oriented process. We extend this literature stream by identifying the goal of the process: a product-specific market model. In line with the literature, we claim that innovation process encompasses commercialization and ends once the critical market variables of a successful commercialization model are identified.
Second, our results contribute to business model innovation (BMI) literature. This literature displays discrepancies between the business model (BM) construct and BMI case studies (Foss_and_Saebi_2017). Theoretical BMI studies reports on important BM shifts, such as priced to freemium BM (McGrath_2010). To foster a cumulative research stream, the business model components were gradually identified. However, BMI cases studies seldom refer to the identified components (Sosna_et_al_2010). We provide an interesting theoretical framework to analyze the BMI case studies as learning processes to identify product-specific critical variables.
Contribution to Practice
We contribute to practice by identifying a specific stage of the innovation process aiming at establishing a market model to ensure innovation success. Therefore, our research calls for a specific management of the market modeling activities in organizations. Further research should be undertaken to provide strategies and tools to help practitioners manage this specific stage.
We believe that research is needed to better understand market-modeling activity during commercialization process so that radical innovations from the industry could contribute to society. Therefore, our research is an example that bridges research, industry and society to overcome the innovation challenge.
Aarikka-Stenroos and Lehtimäki, "Commercializing a radical innovation : Probing the way to the market", 2014, Industrial Marketing Management
Bayard, "Voyager plus pour vendre plus. Les commis voyageurs lyonnais au XVIII ème siècle", 2012, Entreprise et Histoire
Berghoff, "Marketing Diversity : The Making of a Global Consumer Product — Hohner ' s Harmonicas, 1857-1930", 2001, Enterprise and Society
Chiesa and Frattini, "Commercializing Technological Innovation: Learning from Failures in High-Tech Markets", 2011, Journal of Product Innovation Management
Çalışkan and Callon, "Economization, part 2: a research programme for the study of markets", 2010, Economy and Society
Dmitriev, Simmons, Truong, Palmer and Schneckenberg, "An exploration of business model development in the commercialization of technology innovations", 2014, R&D Management
Foss and Saebi, "Fifteen Years of Research on Business Model Innovation : How Far Have We Come , and Where Should We Go ?", 2017, Journal of Management
Harris, "Inventing the U. S. Stove Industry, c.1815-1875: Making and Selling the First Universal Consumer Durable", 2008, Business History
Mason, Friesl and Ford, "Managing to make markets : Marketization and the conceptualization work of strategic nets in the life science sector", 2017, Industrial Marketing Management
Mcgrath, "Business Models : A Discovery Driven Approach", 2010, Long Range Planning
O'Connor and Rice, "New Market Creation for Breakthrough Innovations : Enabling and Constraining Mechanisms", 2013, Journal of Product Innovation Management
Rossfeld, "Suchard and the emergence of traveling salesmen in Switzerland , 1860 – 1920", 2008, Business History
Sosna, Trevinyo-Rodriguez and Velamuri, , "Business Model Innovation through Trial-and-Error Learning : The Naturhouse Case", 2010, Long Range Planning
Fragmentation of online consumer information search (OCIS) generated by digital innovation: for good or ill? The customer’s perspective.
1Université Paris II Panthéon-Assas - LARGEPA, France; 2Université de Bretagne Sud - LEGO, Vannes, France
While advanced technologies allow for seamless omnichannel shopping experiences (Verhoef et al., 2017), online consumer information search remains highly fragmented as consumers constantly switch between devices (Haan et al., 2018) and navigate between various sources of information. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of this fragmentation.
This interdisciplinary research draws from literature on information search in Marketing, Information Systems (IS) as well as Library and Information Science (LIS).
Online consumer information search, defined by Wang et al. (2016) as the process by which a consumer browses and inspects a shopping environment for appropriate information to select a product or service from available options, is a major step in the consumer journey.
While different streams of research have developed knowledge about online information search behaviors and outlined their diversity and complexity (e.g. Hodkinson and Kiel, 2003; Novak et al., 2003; Simonnot, 2012), little attention has been devoted in consumer research about this complexity. Existing work generally considers search behaviors as being limited to a single website (Grant et al., 2013). Yet, in an era of “omnipresent, multifaceted and multidimensional connectivity” (Verhoef et al., 2017), this process is necessarily fragmented. This will be the focus of our investigations.
Little attention has been devoted both in Management and Information Science to the fragmented nature of online consumer information search (OCIS). To the best of our knowledge, the effects of this fragmentation on customer perception of OCIS and satisfaction with the search experience or chosen product have not been investigated.
Can we provide evidence of the existence of different types of fragmentation in the OCIS experience?
What are the impacts of this fragmentation on the perceived quality of the information search experience?
What are the impacts of the perceived quality of the OCIS experience on consumer satisfaction?
This exploratory research was conducted in two phases. A qualitative pilot study including 30 individuals allowed exploring fragmentation during an online shopping experience. A quantitative study including 505 participants was then carried out. Participants were asked to choose a recent online shopping experience for an “involving” product (product category for which the OCIS experience appeared particularly fragmented in our pilot study) and were invited to answer a questionnaire. We measured our focal constructs (fragmentation, perceived quality of the search experience, satisfaction) with scales issued from the literature and from the qualitative survey. Data analysis was performed with SPSS.
Pilot study: As the topic being studied was not personal or sensitive, we conducted focus groups to benefit from large amounts of interaction in short periods of time (Silverman, 1993). Participants were recruited to form a varied sample (gender, age, education level, place of residence). Interviews were conducted until a semantic saturation point was reached (Strauss and Corbin, 1998). Participants were invited to talk about the products they might purchase online and how they searched information about these products. Then they were asked to choose a recent online shopping experience and describe what happened during the information search process. Data were analyzed manually using Grounded Theory coding method (Strauss and Corbin, 1998).
The quantitative study involved 505 participants (55% women; mean age 39.5) recruited from an online panel (Creatests.com). First, they were asked to choose a particular recent online shopping experience of an ‘involving’ product (i.e. technological products, clothes, books, DVD, appliances, travel products). Then they were invited to answer a questionnaire regarding this experience. Focal constructs were measured with scales issued from the literature and from the qualitative survey. All psychometric properties of scales turned out to be good or acceptable. The questionnaire ended up by gathering socio-demographic information.
Pilot study: First the analyses evidenced the existence of a fragmentation phenomenon for almost all information search experiences. Second, three different types of fragmentation were identified:
- spatial (search conducted on multiple devices, in different places)
- temporal (shopping process spread over time up to several days)
- substantial (interruption of the shopping path to seek for complementary information).
Finally, this study revealed some relationships between OCIS process fragmentation and the quality of the OCIS experience, as well as with consumer satisfaction with his search and with the chosen product. It allowed defining exploratory measurement scales for each type of fragmentation and for the perceived quality of the search.
Main study: Our results showed significantly positive links between the perceived quality of the OCIS experience and consumer satisfaction with the search experience and with the chosen product. The effects of OCIS fragmentation on the quality of the search experience (comfort and perceived benefits) depend on the type of fragmentation:
- Spatial fragmentation increases the perceived benefits from the OCIS
- Temporal fragmentation contributes to greater comfort in the OCIS experience
- Substantial fragmentation contributes to the perceived quality of the OCIS
Contribution to Scholarship
This research, which contributes to advancing knowledge on online information seeking, sets forth a draft of a theory of the effects of advanced online shopping technologies on the quality of the consumer information search experience and on consumer satisfaction.
This exploratory study identifies three types of fragmentation of the online information search process: spatial, temporal and substantial.
Results show that fragmentation has a potential positive effect on perceived quality of the OCIS and that perceived quality of the search has a positive effect on satisfaction with the search and on satisfaction with the chosen product. Furthermore, fragmentation effects can be fine grinded: spatial and substantial fragmentation of the OCIS seem to enhance the perceived benefits of the search, while temporal and substantial fragmentation enhance perceived comfort.
This exploratory work calls for further studies to develop conceptual tools to take into account fragmentation in the OCIS process.
Contribution to Practice
Online consumer information search (OCIS) is a central stage in the consumer journey. In a context of consumer hyper-connectivity and multi-channel shopping, induced by digital innovation, our research explores the fragmented nature of the OCIS process and the customer’s perception. Our results, which suggest that some forms of fragmentation could enhance the quality of the search experience and the overall consumer satisfaction, sets forth practical recommendations for retailers and web designers. For example, instead of trying to retain customers on their website, retailers may want to help consumers seamlessly navigate in and out, simplifying the task of information seeking.
This interdisciplinary research, at the crossroads of marketing and IS, studies how ICT can enhance the information search experience and contribute to consumer satisfaction. We believe it is relevant to the general theme of this conference, which focuses on a key challenge of innovation: “Bridging Research, Industry and Society”.
Grant, R., R.J. Clarke and E. Kyriakis (2013). “Modelling real-time online information needs: a new research approach for complex consumer behaviour.” Journal of Marketing Management 29 (7-8), 950-972.
de Haan, E., P.K. Kannan, P. C. Verhoef and T. Wiesel. (2018). “Device Switching in Online Purchasing: Examining the Strategic Contingencies.” Journal of Marketing 82 (5), 1 19.
Hodkinson, C. and G. Kiel (2003). “Understanding Web Information Search Behavior: An Exploratory Model.” Journal of Organizational and End User Computing (JOEUC) 15 (4), 27 48.
Novak, T. P., D. L. Hoffman and A. Duhachek (2003). “The Influence of Goal-Directed and Experiential Activities on Online Flow Experiences.” Journal of Consumer Psychology 13, (1/2), 3-16.
Silverman D. (1993). Interpreting qualitative data: Methods for analysing talk, text and interaction. London : Sage.
Simonnot, B. (2012). L’accès à l’information en ligne : moteurs, dispositifs et médiations. Paris: Lavoisier.
Strauss A. and J. Corbin (1998). Basics of qualitative research: techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Verhoef, P. C., A.T Stephen, P.K. Kannan, X. Luo, V. Abhishek, M. Andrews, Y. Bart, H. Datta, N. Fong, D. L. Hoffman, M. M. Hu, T. Novak, W. Rand and Y. Zhang (2017). “Consumer connectivity in a complex, technology-enabled, and mobile-oriented world with smart products.” Journal of Interactive Marketing 40, 1-8.
Wang H., X. Guo, M. Zhang, Q. Wei and G. Chen (2016). “Predicting the incremental benefits of online information search for heterogeneous consumers.” Decision Sciences 47 (5), 957- 988.
Does an enhanced technical quality of image lead to a better perceived viewer experience? The case of UHD TV screen
1Neuron Partners, France; 2ESSEC Business School, France; 3Le Mans Université, France
Screens are present in all spheres of people's lives. R&D has been carried out for a century, to offer bigger screen sizes, improved screen technologies,and enhanced technical quality of image: from black and white to colour, from SD to HD, and today from HD to Ultra high definition television (UHDTV).
The paper examins the improvement of the technical quality of the image mediatized by a TV screen, and more specifically, UHDTV. The audiovisual literature on technical image quality focuses on quality rating of the image, or on the influence of visual content coding defects or discomfort and boredom (Wolff et al., 2006). However, the improvement of the technical parameters aims to make the visual experience more pleasant through different gains in image perception: more details, and a stronger sense of reality. Sugawara and Masaoka (2013) have shown that the perceived realness of images increased steadily as the image resolution increased.
In marketing, research on the image mediatized by a screen is based on the place of the screen in today's society (Frau-Meigs, 2011) or on impacts of specific factors of visual content on the persuasion of advertising, such as colour (Lichtlé, 2002), or typography (McCarthy and Mothersbaugh, 2002).
The link between the technical quality of TV images and the perceived viewing experience has been understudied.In this work, we explore if the enhancement of the quality leads to a better viewing experience, as intended by R&D teams. To do this, we build a bridge between technical and marketing literatures.
We are interested in the perception of the innovative UHD display, in order to understand its impact on the experience and hence on its possible adoption by customers.Will users of this new technology perceive the technical improvement provided by the UHD and its impact?Will it also improve their viewing experience?
Given the exploratory nature of the research question, a qualitative approach was chosen. We conducted 1) a series of 17 semi-directive interviews and 2) 2 focus groups (involving a total of 20 persons),in order to better understand the effect of UHDTV images on the perceived viewing experience. In the second focus group, people were exposed to the same content in HD and UHD quality.All interviews and discussions were recorded for transcription, providing 60 pages of empirical material. Following transcription, the data were analyzed for content by coding, using a "thematic" analysis method, with the theme as the unit of analysis.
In Study 1, we conducted a focus group with 12 persons, (from 25 to 59 years old) in an ecological context (a living-room with a TV). People were first exposed to fixed images in UHD definition on a large TV screen. They were asked to describe and qualify the images, to discuss the contents they would like to see in this quality.
In Study 2, we conducted semi-directive interviews with 17 respondents aged between 18 and 50 years. They first viewed 6 non-fictitious contents using UHD quality images. They were then asked open questions about their global evaluation of their viewing experience, their positive and negative feelings towards the different contents presented, and finally their potential intention to purchase an UHD TV equipment.
Finally, Study 3 involved 8 respondents (30 to 51 years old) in a focus group, in the same ecological context as Study 1. Four contents of sport programs were presented, both in UHD and in HD quality (with the same sound). They were then asked to compare the two types of images, their quality, the comfort of the experience, and their intention to view again the same images.
Three main results emerged from the qualitative material collected.
1) The respondents clearly perceive the difference between the UHD quality and HD images they are used to. They find that UHD image is “beautiful”, "better defined", "more realistic", closer to real life. Therefore, the user experience can be improved: “it's better than my TV”, “I would like to have that at home”. As a consequence of this “high-fidelity”, they even have a feeling of immersion: “I have the feeling to be in the stadium”.
2) Individuals exposed to UHD images even think that they are “hyperrealistic”, in the sense that the screen gives a quality and definition of the image that goes beyond what the eye could see in front of the real scene. It can create a feeling of visual discomfort.
3) This fidelity to reality in the image is not always attractive for respondents: "Not for all content, go for example to television news, news is already violent enough with the images we are given, I don't know if it is necessary to have a very realistic image quality”. The idea of hyperreality is also disturbing, especially for non-fictitious contents.
Contribution to Scholarship
The increase of the quality of image, and fidelity to reality are at the heart of the efforts of R&D teams in audiovisual companies. The results obtained in this work show that the technical quality of the image influences the perceived quality and user experience. However, this influence is not always positive, but varies according to the type of content. This questions the relationship, although widely recognized in the marketing literature, between quality of service and satisfaction of the experience (Zeithaml, 1988). Moreover, it also questions the link between immersion and the quality of the experience, and more specifically, the concept of hyperreality, here defined as the ability to see more than one could see in front of the real scenery, which is different from the definition generally used in marketing (Graillot 2005).
Contribution to Practice
The diffusion of UHD TV is a key issue for TV industry. This work shows that the increase in the quality of image does not always lead to a better viewing experience, but that it depends on the type of content. Since the adoption of an innovation is positively linked to the added value it provides in terms in satisfaction compared to the previous generation technology (Rogers, 1982), this work suggests that not all programs should use UHD quality and/or that the user should keep control of the definition of the images he/she wants to see.
This research is a collaboration between a marketing research team and the Orange Group's R&D department. Its result addresses one key issue in the relationship between R&D and management, and demonstrates the interest of a tight joint work between R&D and marketing in the field of innovation.
Frau-Meigs D. (2011), Penser la société de l’écran. Dispositifs et usages, Presses Sorbonne Nouvelle.
Graillot, L. (2005), Réalités (ou apparences ?) de l'hyperréalité : une application au cas du tourisme de loisirs, Recherche et Applications En Marketing, (20), 1, 43-64
Lichtlé M.-C. (2002), Étude expérimentale de l’impact de la couleur d’une annonce publicitaire sur l’attitude envers l’annonce, Recherche et Applications En Marketing, 17(2), 23–39.
McCarthy M. S. et Mothersbaugh D. L. (2002), Les effets de la typographie sur la persuasion publicitaire : un modèle général et des tests empiriques préliminaires, Recherche et Applications En Marketing, 17(4), 67–89.
Sugawara M. et Masaoka K. (2013), UHDTV Image Format for Better Visual Experience, Proceedings of the IEEE, 101(1), 8–17.
Wolff T. et Ho H.-H. et Foley J. M. et Mitra S. K. (2006), H.264 coding artifacts and their relation to perceived annoyance. 14th European Signal Processing Conference, 1–5.
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