Conference Agenda

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Program for LiM 2021
Additive Manufacturing: Powderbed, Metal 1
Wednesday, 23/June/2021:
10:00am - 11:00am

Session Chair: Dr. Peer Woizeschke, BIAS – Bremer Institut für angewandte Strahltechnik GmbH, Germany
Location: Room 2
ICM Second Floor 60

10:00am - 10:15am

Investigation of Kovar in PBF-LB/M

Arvid Abel1, Jakob Pufal1, Vitaly Rymanov2, Christian Hoff1, Jörg Hermsdorf1, Stefan Kaierle1, Andreas Stöhr2,3, Sumer Maklouf3, Jörg Lackmann3

1Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Germany; 2Microwave Photonics GmbH, Germany; 3Universität Duisburg-Essen, Zentrum für Halbleitertechnik und Optoelektronik, Germany

The iron-nickel-cobalt alloy Kovar is highly desirable in glass-to-metal hybrid components, e.g., hermetic seals, or as packaging material in high-frequency microsystems due to its thermal expansion coefficient similar to borosilicate glass. Hitherto, the processability of Kovar in additive manufacturing has only been insufficiently investigated, leaving the potential of this material for functional integrated components unused. This paper describes the processing in PBF-LB/M and the understanding of the process parameters to achieve a relative density over 99.9 % in test specimens, large volumes, and complex structures. The investigated factors were laser power, scanning speed, and hatch distance. The initial experiments were done as full factorial designs. Subsequent investigations were done within the design of experiments to develop an empirical process model for the fabrication of Kovar in the PBF-LB/M. The best results were fabricated with volumetric energy densities between 200 to 350 to achieve a maximum density of 99.94 %.

10:15am - 10:30am

Machine-comprehensive study of comparability and reproducibility for laser powder bed fusion of corrosion resistant steel 316L/1.4404

Florian Bittner1, Bernhard Müller1, Maximilian Zinke2, Aitor Echaniz3, Sebastian Matthes4, Burghardt Klöden5, Christian Kolbe6

1Fraunhofer IWU - Institute for Machine Tools and Forming Technology; 2AM metals GmbH; 3Robert Bosch GmbH; 4ifw Jena - Günter Köhler-Institut für Fügetechnik und Werkstoffprüfung; 5Fraunhofer IFAM - Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials, Location Dresden; 6FKT GmbH

Additive Manufacturing of metallic components by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) earns increasingly importance for industrial applications. However, for further industrial penetration different challenges have to be overcome. The most urging challenge is the warranty and control of a constant high quality, which includes machine-comprehensive comparability of components goodness. Important factors are the respective machine concept, used powder as well as respective processing parameters.

The results of a standard VDI 3405-2 based round robin test for steel 316L (1.4404) are discussed, at which five partners with different machines participated. The implementation is not based on ideal conditions, but addresses the respective individual best practise. Thereby, the differences between included machine concepts and scattering within a manufacturing order are discussed. With this, the existing gap of standardisation of properties for LPBF of the well-established material 316L/1.4404 shall be closed analogue to a series of other materials within the VDI-standard family 3405.

10:30am - 10:45am

Oxide dispersion strengthened steel manufactured by laser powder bed fusion and directed energy deposition

Carlos Doñate-Buendia1,2, Philipp Kürnsteiner3,4, Markus Benjamin Wilms5, Baptiste Gault3,6, Bilal Gökce1,2

1Department of Materials Science and Additive Manufacturing, University of Wuppertal, 42119 Wuppertal, Germany; 2Technical Chemistry I and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), University of Duisburg-Essen, 45141 Essen, Germany; 3Department Microstructure Physics and Alloy Design, Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, 40237 Düsseldorf, Germany; 4Christian Doppler Laboratory for Nanoscale Phase Transformations, Center for Surface and Nanoanalytics (ZONA), Johannes Kepler UniversityLinz, Altenberger Straße 69, 4040 Linz, Austria; 5Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology, 52074 Aachen, Germany; 6Department of Materials, Royal School of Mines, Imperial College, Exhibition Road, London, SW7 2AZ, UK

Additive manufacturing technologies appear ideal for the generation of custom geometries and parts. In the context of specific applications such as high-temperature industrial processes like gas turbines or furnaces, the development of parts with enhanced high-temperature strength and oxidation resistance is highly desired. Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels are considered as suitable materials for such high temperature application. To assess the effect of the processing technique on the manufacturing of ODS steels and its properties, an Fe-Cr based steel powder decorated with a 0.08 wt% of laser generated Y2O3 nanoparticles is processed by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) and directed energy deposition (DED). We show that the produced specimens show superior mechanical properties at 600ºC compared to the reference part built without nanoparticle-addition. The enhanced mechanical properties are explained by the microstructure and nanoparticle dispersion in the generated ODS steels and confirmed by melt pool simulations.