Double jeopardy within Swedish Integration: Using South-North collaborations to explore the role of gender within transdisciplinary integration projects
1Business Region Gothenburg; 2Mistra Urban Futures; 3University of Gothenburg; 4Maseno University
Integration is a wicked problem, thus must be multifaceted in their nature, conducted by transdisciplinary teams within a diverse range of projects. Like much of Northern Europe, Sweden is now a highly multicultural society, and as such is dealing with a multiplicity of integration issues. Sweden’s current approach is to integrate immigrants into the labour market, for which a lauded policy has been implemented (MIPEX). However, when looking at outcomes, the OECD data (2013) is placing Sweden at the bottom of its ranking, with 57% of 15-74 year olds born outside of Sweden in employment, compared to 67% of native-born Swedes.
A possible reason for the gap is the relatively high proportion of native-born women in employment. But, this does not explain why immigrant women’s levels of employment are consistently 10% lower than immigrant men’s. This creates a gender gap between immigrant men and women, and a gap between native-born and immigrant women. As such, immigrant women are experiencing a double-jeopardy in labour-market integration, both as women and as immigrants.
Studies exploring instances of the double-jeopardy problem have been conducted in the US (De Jong et al 2001), Canada (Boyd 1984), Australia (Foroutan 2008) and Israel (Reijman & Semyonov 1997). However, this research is still considered novel as it utilises transdisciplinarity to explore the ways in which gender is being used to inform the process of integration.
Drawing on the conceptualisation of transdisciplinarity from Zurich 2000, this research draws from a diversity of different projects and approaches to address the real-world problem of double jeopardy experienced by immigrant women. It does so by exploring the experiences and reflections from academics and researchers; government employees; sustainability strategists; social entrepreneurs and NGO volunteer and staff. The projects led by these actors are linked by the aim of providing social integration and the use of the concept of gender in doing so, albeit some more explicitly than others.
This presentation explores how the hypothesis of double jeopardy plays out in practice. The aim of our research is to understand the ways in which a transdiciplinarity of actors apply the concept of gender within labour market integration and how this affects tangible outcomes for women. This has been undertaken through a South–North collaboration, using a Swedish-Kenyan collaboration programme within Mistra Urban Futures – SKILLs, aiming towards sustainable urban development.
Our research applies a gender analysis of local case studies from impoverished areas of Gothenburg. The discussion is informed by challenges (and solutions) identified in Kisumu (Kenya) and provides a set of co-produced recommendations. The following research questions are pursued:
1. How does labour-market integration consider and use the concept of gender?
2. What effect(s) does the use of gender have upon the outcomes for women within labour-market integration projects?
3. How can the use of the concept of gender be improved within labour-market integration to provide outcomes for women that are equal, fair and sustainable?
Initial findings suggest that gender as a concept is experienced differently by immigrant women and Swedish women. In questioning how women from the Global South experience integration projects in the context of the Global North, the collaboration has identified the following aspects: agency; choice of approach; cultural awareness; role modelling; stereotyping and; tokenism – within transdisciplinary projects from both research sites. With these challenges in mind, some integration projects may prove problematic at best and unsuccessful at worst because of this under-researched dimension.
TREND (TRansdisciplinary ENgineering Design) Research Group
University of Bath,
Over the past few decades transdisciplinarity (TD) has been the subject of increased discourse in the context of large, complex, ill-defined, ‘wicked’ problems. However, there has been less consideration of the potential it offers within the practice of engineering. The TREND (TRansdisciplinary ENgineering Design) research group is funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council. The purpose of the funding is to support research to maximise the future economic and societal value of UK manufacturing through innovative manufacturing practice. The specific aim of the group is to enable effective TD working within engineering organisations, where it is considered to be appropriate. The outputs of the group will be a (1) a TD Index which allows practitioners to identify their current level of disciplinarily for a business process; the preferred level of disciplinarity for that process; and the tools (e.g. process, method, software), required to move the process to an effective TD state. (2) A tool kit of pre-existing TD enabling tools. (3) The creation of new TD enabling tools. Over the five year project the team will first conduct a literature review to understand the state-of-the-art of disciplinarity within engineering academic literature. Following, ‘foraging’ case studies of 50-100 engineering businesses will be undertaken as a means to compare and contrast the academic and industry contexts. Finally, ‘Deep-Dive’ case studies, with suitable industry partners, will map specific processes and assess the effectiveness of links and bridges between the process stages.
Transforming education and research through an Honours Programme. Case: Transdisciplinary Insights KU Leuven.
Universities are usually structured along disciplinary lines, training students and scholars in specific domains. The expertise acquired allows in-depth research within a domain, leading to breakthroughs and innovation. Yet, the division and subdivision into disciplines, the specialization into particular domains and the silo culture are sometimes hampering universities in addressing complex challenges in a cross-disciplinary way. Transdisciplinarity as a method bridges those disciplines, while also involving co-creation with stakeholders and thus opens new perspectives for research and education, improving its societal relevance. However, implementing transdisciplinary education and research is a challenge because of conservative disciplinary structures and often a ‘blue sky’ attitude. Responsibilities and funding channels are not adapted to transdisciplinary initiatives.
KU Leuven is organized in three main groups of sciences (Biomedical, Humanities and, Science & Technology) facilitating mono, multi, and within-group interdisciplinary research. In 2016, three professors from the three groups of sciences launched the Institute for the Future - KU Leuven, as an incubator that supports, catalyzes and accelerates transdisciplinary research, aiming at developing innovative, alternative solutions, scenarios, policies and/or transition thinking for current and future societal and global challenges. The ethical framework is within the sustainable development goals.
It was not easy to implement transdisciplinary courses overarching the three groups of sciences at KU Leuven. However, university-wide Honours programmes were allowed and the Institute for the Future launched “Transdisciplinary Insights” at the master level. While professors and students from the three groups of Sciences are involved, the Honours Programme “Transdisciplinary Insights” still needed to be housed within one discipline, currently the Institute of Philosophy.
Given that credits for honours programmes are not counting for the masters degree we are typically reaching highly motivated students. They are willing to move out of the traditional way of thinking and under guidance of a coach, they collaborate with peers from other disciplines and stakeholders on specific challenges submitted by members of the university, the industry, the government or society. The students receive training in transdisciplinary methodologies, and together with stakeholders, they co-create ‘Transdisciplinary Insights’ that are published in the open access e-journal Transdisciplinary Insights, created for this purpose. They typically propose a potential partial solution, or a position paper. Some challenges have run over multiple years before the ideas become mature enough to stimulate a new research line or the implementation of a partial solution.
So far, sixty students have completed the programme, from ten disciplines, and twelve countries on six challenges: vaccine hesitancy, HIV drug resistance in Africa, counseling parents after prenatal screening for Down syndrome, a blueprint for a future, resilient, and equitable society, future perspectives for dairy farms in Flanders, the prosumer concept in a circular economy. Seven professors and three Ph.D students have been involved as (co)-coaches, along with more than twenty-five stakeholders from university, society, government, and industries. One of the trained students started a Ph.D, successfully obtained funding, and gathered a number of research groups and stakeholders for further research and investigation of ways to implement changes for the challenge.
Although, the Institute for the Future and the Honours Programme Transdisciplinary Insights have demonstrated to the university the benefits of implementing Transdisciplinarity in the curriculum and having a dedicated incubator for Transdisciplinary research ideas, scaling up this approach is not obvious because of the high work load and the lack of funding. We need other ways to attract more bachelor and master students, since we believe that each student should be given the opportunity to experience Transdisciplinarity and get some skills in communication, co-creation of knowledge, sustainability, system thinking, and problem-solving. Such skills are essential for their professional development.
Concept for Formative Evaluation in Climate Services
1Helmholtz Zentrum Geesthacht, Climate Service Center Germany; 2Hamburg University, Germany
How do empirically existing roles in the scientific community match with the science-society interaction models?
The recently funded Helmholtz-Institute for Climate Service Sciences (HICSS) bridges research at Hamburg University and the boundary institution Climate Service Center Germany (GERICS), which is part of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht. One of the projects to be performed in HICSS is dedicated to Normativity, Objectivity and Quality Assurance of Transdisciplinary Processes. Within this project one of the two work packages examines transdisciplinary dialogues and their formative evaluation. Already existing methods have to be tested and adapted according to the climate service projects which serve as exemplary cases. New methods should be taken into account, as well.
The monitoring of co-development processes during the practical phase of the HICSS project will firstly deliver experiences on the application of the respective methodologies in the field of climate services. Out of which a draft concept for a formative evaluation methodology shall be derived. Secondly, the monitoring phase will deliver empirical insights into the quality of transdisciplinary research. By relating these insights to theoretical science-society models, another work package is to reveal different role models of stakeholders and relate them to science-society models and their normativity. Findings from the climate service field, which is the focus of the project, are then to be transferred to other research fields.
We understand this project as a proactive measure to establish a normatively informed concept for quality assurance in the context of transdisciplinary research. Therefore, one of the main objectives is to develop guidelines for co-creation projects in HICSS.
The poster will describe and discuss the idea of the project, that is going to start in fall. It contributes to the discussion on the quality of transdisciplinary research activities.
Integration of end users in the process of developing an innovative urban climate model - testing and evaluating the prototype
1Climate Service Center Germany (GERICS) at Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Zentrum für Material- und Küstenforschung GmbH; 2Fraunhofer-Institut für Bauphysik IBP
Co-development has become a buzzword over the past years – it seems that stakeholders should be involved in nearly everything. But how can successful stakeholder engagement be implemented? We will provide insights from the large German research and development project Urban Climate Under Change [UC]² (http://uc2-program.org/en), which aimed at the development of a prototype urban climate model called PALM-4U. Since the model should be scientifically innovative and at the same tome user-friendly for users in urban planning practice, the entire project followed a transdisciplinary approach. Therefore, partners from science (model development and data assimilation) and partners from practice (user requirements, testing and evaluation) were integrated throughout the three-year project.
UseUClim (https://uc2-klimoprax-useuclim.org), one of four subprojects, reviewed the PALM-4U´s practicability with the aid of the living lab approach. This approach was structured into three phases: 1) exploration, 2) experimentation, and 3) evaluation. In phase 1, the user requirements – ranging from technical features and operational functionalities to data editing - were assessed and then transferred to the model developers. On the basis of the collected user requirements, the model´s real-world applicability and serviceability was tested in phase 2. This was organised in a two-step approach:
1. The stakeholders from participating cities and companies were invited to a preparatory meeting, which aimed at organising and prioritising topics (graphical user interface (GUI), use cases, model capabilities etc.) that should be addressed during the two test phases. Based on this initial feedback the test phases were planned and a first draft of the model’s GUI was designed in close cooperation with the developers.
2. For each of the two test phases, the participating stakeholders took part in a two-day on-site training, in which the model´s current state of development was introduced with practical use-cases. After these two days, participants were given tasks covering different features of the model’s applications, which they should test in the following two months.
Based on their experiences the participants were asked to provide feedback using multiple techniques, namely standardised feedback-forms, direct user dialogs, feedback reports and a final workshop with all partners from science and practice. The results show that the users from urban planning practice already appreciate the current model’s concept and functionality. Further development, however, is necessary to provide the practitioners a tool that is applicable in their daily work. The main suggestions ranged from simplified import from input data and a more flexible GUI to guidelines and tools for result interpretation. These findings were made available to the model developers in the form of an evaluation report in phase 3. It is expected the results of the evaluation will encourage the partners from science to further develop PALM-4Us practicability in the second funding phase (starting in fall 2019).
LIRA-GR/2019 Project: Theory of change to integrate sanitation and hygiene on groundwater security on the Cities of Cotonou and Lomé
1Department of Geography and Territory Planning, University of Parakou (Benin),; 2Centre for Integrated Coastal and Environmental Management (CGILE), University of Lomé; 3Department of Sociology-Anthropology, University of Abomey; 4Department de Sociology, University of Lomé
In the coastal cities of Cotonou (Benin) and Lomé (Togo), urban communities-based are victim to their own ongoing sanitation and hygiene behaviours resulting in degradation of groundwater quality. This project aims to develop socio-ecological systems to restore and protect groundwater quality through changes in sanitation and hygiene behaviours in Cotonou and Lomé. Theory of change is used to frame process of the project as it enables to work collaboratively and make a comprehensive description and illustration of how and why a change on sanitation and hygiene knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) is expected to happen in Cotonou and Lomé to sustain groundwater better quality and its accessibility. The project is based on the theory that safe groundwater will not be accessible on the coastal cities of Cotonou and Lomé in the condition of poor sanitation and inappropriate hygiene practices. But socio-ecological mechanisms of sanitation management and hygiene promotion can reduce groundwater pollution. Groundwater quality improvement through a new transversal vision and participatory approach of solid/liquid waste and excreta management can ensure people's health, reduce poverty and exclusion and guarantee food security. Involving urban people, households, communities, city governors, business interest groups, academics and other key stakeholders in this transdisciplinary research project can help to achieve this goal.
Our theory of change will be articulated using a collaborative model in the way of transdisciplinary research. Collaboration between academic and non-academics experts will help to co-design, co-create and co-produce pathways of change on sanitation, hygiene and groundwater management on the cities of Cotonou and Lomé. Long-term changes that need to happen in the target citizen’s lives are revision of sanitation and hygiene behaviours to reduce groundwater pollution and guarantee access to safe water for sustainable well-being of the urban people. To achieve this long-term outcome, changes need to happen at the level of: i) urban community (solid/liquid wastes including excreta management knowledge, attitude, practice), ii) policy (integration of the sustainable development agenda on the local development plans), iii) system (removal sanitation disposal which facilitate pollutant contact with groundwater and contamination). So actions to be taken are collaborative household survey, observational visits, groundwater quality analysis (physicochemical and bacteriological parameters), mapping spatial distribution of groundwater quality and current modes of waste and excreta management modes to help urban population be more conscious about their critical behaviours. Immersion of the urban people on their own environment and management behaviours affecting groundwater quality will have effect to reinforce their psychosocial perceptions enabling to change necessary to guarantee access to sustainable water. Also, health checks will lead to understand the impacts of bad groundwater quality on the urban communities and ecosystems, to assess health risks and define control strategies plan.
These actions can provide to the key stakeholders and actors (urban people, households members, business interest groups, cities governors, policy makers…) experiences as different, change on sanitation and hygiene knowledge, attitude and practice and its effect on groundwater quality and local development on the cities of Cotonou and Lomé from the short to a long time. Citizen views on sanitation, hygiene and groundwater quality and management will change based on understanding current urban ecology, urban metabolism, its sanitation, social and economic implications and how it will be in the future for these coastal cities sustainability. As impacts, application of theory of change will lead citizens and households having capacities on solid/liquid waste management to avoid groundwater contamination and on integrated approach of sanitation and hygiene, academics having capacities on transdisciplinary approach for urban studies.
The Knowledge Integration Questionnaire (KIQ): Development and validation of a measure for assessing analytical skills in inter- and transdisciplinary work
1Dortmund University of Applied Sciences and Arts; 2Ruhr-University Bochum
Knowledge integration in inter- and transdisciplinary projects plays a major role for knowledge production in sustainability research. Whereas previous work has primarily focused on design methods of how to achieve knowledge integration in inter- and transdisciplinary processes, little attention has been given on individual knowledge integration. However, first theoretical frameworks and empirical studies examine knowledge integration as individual competence. The aim of our study is the development and validation of a questionnaire for assessing individual knowledge integration (KIQ) in inter- and transdisciplinary contexts.
Based on theoretical assumptions we conduct a pretest of five subscales with overall 93 items to measure individual knowledge integration. The resulting questionnaire will be validated on 450 participants with varying expertise in inter- and/or transdisciplinary work. We expect convergent validity to measurements of perspective taking, reflexivity and ambiguity tolerance and discriminant validity to team orientation.
Pretest outcomes confirm a five-factor structure of the questionnaire. Three factors measure the ability to combine, link and restructure knowledge from heterogeneous sources. Two factors capture the ability to transfer bodies of knowledge from one context to another.
Inter- and transdisciplinary education is necessary for solving complex environmental problems. The development of KIQ is a first step towards the goal-oriented detection and education of analytical skills for effective inter- and transdisciplinary work.
Fam, D., Neuhauser, L., & Gibbs, P. (2018). Transdisciplinary theory, practice and education. Springer International Publishing AG.
Repko, A. F. (2008). Interdisciplinary research: Process and theory. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications.
Stokols, D. (2014). Training the next generation of transdisciplinarians. In O'Rourke, M.O., Crowley, S., Eigenbrode, S.D., Wulfhorst, J.D. (Eds.), Enhancing communication & collaboration in interdisciplinary research (pp. 56-81). Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications.
Green Growth or Commons Transition? A transdisciplinary approach for the development of low carbon pathways for future Australian cities
1Institute of Urban and Regional Studies (Urbaria), Department of Geosciences and Geography, Faculty of Science, University of Helsinki; 2Open Food Network, Australia; 3Curtin University Sustainability Policy Institute, Australia; 4Action Foresight, Australia; 5University of New South Wales, Australia; 6School of Social Sciences, Monash University, Australia; 7NODUS Sustainable Design Research Group, Department of Design, School of Arts, Design and Architecture, Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland; 8Melbourne Sustainable Society Institute, University of Melbourne, Australia
The contribution of cities to climate change, and their vulnerability to its impacts, has highlighted the need to urgently decarbonise urban futures. But questions remain as to how this might be achieved. This paper presents the methodology and final outcomes from the Visions and Pathways 2040 project, a multi-stakeholder transdisciplinary project concerned with developing communicable visions of low-carbon future scenarios for Australian cities and back-casting to identify pathways for their realisation.
Visions for possible futures open up new conversations on the nature of city development between city stakeholders, breaking from the existing institutional perceptions that underpin planning decisions. They highlight tensions at the socio-technical landscape level, portray alternative regimes and systems in operation and make potential new actors and pathways for transformation visible. The process of generating visions – and the visions themselves – can be considered as a feedback loop, with the potential to accelerate existing transformation efforts. Visions alone, however, are not enough for urban planners to move forward. Pathways for their realisation also need to be developed to link the present with the future.
Participatory back-casting and narrative development were used to develop two qualitative low carbon pathways – ‘Green Growth’ and ‘Commons Transition’. The Green Growth (GG) pathway explores how political changes of the required magnitude might be triggered by action in cities, within the current economic and political framework. The Commons Transition (CT) pathway paints a new narrative with re-empowered citizens at the vanguard of sweeping social changes already underway in cities around the world. It draws on leading innovations in: sharing and shareable cities; P2P; Open Design Distributed Manufacturing (ODDM), cooperatives and platform cooperative movements; and new more radical narratives of cultural, political and economic transformation.
These narratives were then converted into quantitative settings in the Australian Stocks and Flows Framework (ASFF) to determine what would be necessary in each different pathway to achieve a reduction of consumption-based urban carbon emissions by 80% by 2040. The combination of both quantitative and qualitative aspects is used to create what is called an ‘action pathway’ that draws on both ‘socio-technological’ and ‘techno-economic’ approaches to determine and visualise what would be necessary to significantly reduce carbon emissions and accelerate sustainability transitions.
It was found that it would be possible to achieve a reduction in carbon emissions by 80% by 2040 in both scenarios, but that significant structural changes would be required. Changes common to both scenarios include a 95-100% switch to renewable technologies and accelerated shut-down of fossil fuel infrastructure; reduction in per capita and overall energy use of 50% – whether by demand reduction, technical and process efficiency, or both; switch from forest clearing to forest preservation and regeneration, and rapid increase in other land uses and initiatives (including agricultural production systems and urban forestry) that can sequester carbon; electrification of transport – both personal and commercial; reduced consumption (and export) of emissions intensive agriculture e.g. red meat; and elimination of waste going to landfill. Carbon sequestration is necessary to reach the 80% emission reduction target in both pathways, but to a lesser extent in CT than for the GG pathway, as reduced consumption and export of goods and services lowers overall emissions in other sectors. Implications for urban planning, carbon-intensive export industries and social revolution are also discussed and tools developed to facilitate use of these scenarios by individuals and organizations are presented.