Conference Agenda

Session
Mine Water Treatment
Time:
Wednesday, 14/July/2021:
12:40pm - 2:45pm

Session Chair: Tobias Stefan Roetting
Location: Meeting Room 2


Presentations
12:40pm - 1:05pm
ID: 665 / S_6_2: 1
Full Paper - Oral Presentation
Topic: 2 Passive Treatment Innovation, Bio-Geochemical Systems, 5 Mine Water Treatment Systems
Way of Presentation: Pre-Recorded
Keywords: historical perspective, wetlands, anoxic limestone drains, limestone beds

History of Passive Treatment Technology Development in the United States

Jeff Skousen

West Virginia University, United States of America

The concept of passive treatment of AMD was conceived in the early 1980 based on the observations of scientists in Ohio and West Virginia. They noted that the quality of AMD was improved after passing through a natural aerobic wetland and they postulated that oxidation reactions and settling of sludge particles caused the improvement. Among the first to construct and report on constructed wetlands were researchers at the US Bureau of Mines (Kleinmann, Hedin, Nairn, Watzlaf) but many others reported designs and results. By 1989, more than 150 wetlands had been constructed for mine drainage treatment.

Bibliography
Skousen, J., P. Ziemkiewicz, and L. McDonald. 2019. Acid mine drainage: sources and treatment in the United States. In: Encyclopedia of Water: Science, Technology, and Society. Wiley Publishers, New York.
Skousen, J., C. Zipper, L.M. McDonald, J.M. Hubbart, and P. Ziemkiewicz. 2018. Sustainable reclamation and water management practices. Chapter 21. In: J. Hirschi (ed.), Advances in Productive, Safe, and Responsible Coal Mining. Woodhead Publishing Series in Energy. Sawston, Cambridge, UK.
Skousen, J., P. Ziemkiewicz, and L. McDonald. 2019. Acid mine drainage formation, control and treatment: approaches and strategies. Extractive Industries and Society. DOI 10.1016/j.exis.2018.09.008
Skousen, J., C. Zipper, A. Rose, P. Ziemkiewicz, R. Nairn, L.M. McDonald, and R.L. Kleinmann. 2017. Review of passive systems for acid mine drainage treatment. Mine Water Environ. 36: 133-153. DOI 10.1007/s10230-016-0417-1


1:05pm - 1:30pm
ID: 614 / S_6_2: 2
Full Paper - Oral Presentation
Topic: 5 Mine Water Treatment Systems
Way of Presentation: Live
Keywords: reducing and alkalinity producing system, sulfate-reducing bacteria; limestone, alkalinity

Full-scale Reducing And Alkalinity Producing System (RAPS) For The Passive Remediation Of Polluted Mine Water From A Flooded Abandoned Underground Coal Mine, Carolina, South Africa

Gloria Dube1, Tebogo Mello1, Viswanath Vadapalli1, Henk Coetzee1, Kefyalew Tegegn1, Rudzani Lusunzi1, Shadung Moja1, Mafeto Malatji1, Munyadziwa Ethel Sinthumule2, Rudzani Ramatsekisa2

1Council for Geoscience, South Africa; 2Department of Mineral Resources and Energy

This paper documents the application of a reducing and alkalinity producing system (RAPS) named CaroRap implemented for coal mine water remediation in South Africa. RAPS combines the mechanisms of anaerobic treatment wetlands and anoxic limestone drains. These systems improve water quality by processes, amongst others, of calcite dissolution and sulfate reduction through sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Results from the system, which became operational in January 2021, show an increase in pH from an average of 2.9 to that of 5.6 coupled with an increase by 35.8 mg/L in alkalinity .

Bibliography
Bell FG, Hälbich TFJ, Bullock SET (2002) The effects of acid mine drainage from an old mine in the Witbank Coalfield, South Africa. Q J Eng Geol Hydrogeol 35:265–278. https://doi.org/10.1144/1470-9236/00121
Evans S (2019) Area in Mpumalanga is second highest SO2 emissions hotspot in the world - new study | News24. In: News24. https://www.news24.com/news24/SouthAfrica/News/area-in-mpumalanga-is-second-highest-so2-emissions-hotspot-in-the-world-new-study-20190819. Accessed 6 May 2021
Hedin RS, Nairn RW, Kleinmann RLP (1994) Information Circular 9389 : Passive treatment of coal mine drainage. 1–44
Humby T-L (2013) The Spectre of Perpetuity Liability for Treating Acid Water on South Africa’s Goldfields: Decision in Harmony II. J Energy Nat Resour Law 31:453–466. https://doi.org/10.1080/02646811.2013.11435343
Kepler DA, McCleary EC (1994) Successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS) for the treatment of acidic mine drainage. In: Proceedings of the international land reclamation and mine drainage conference and the 3rd international conference on abatement of acidic drainage. Pittsburgh, PA, pp 195–205
Maphill (2011) Free Satellite Location Map of Mpumalanga. http://www.maphill.com/south-africa/mpumalanga/location-maps/satellite-map/free/. Accessed 6 May 2021
McCarthy TS, Humphries MS (2013) Contamination of the water supply to the town of Carolina, Mpumalanga, January 2012. SciELO South Africa 109:
Minerals Council South Africa (2021) Transformation. https://www.mineralscouncil.org.za/work/transformation. Accessed 6 May 2021
Nicholas S, Buckley T (2019) South African coal exports outlook: Approaching long-term decline - EE Publishers. https://www.ee.co.za/article/south-african-coal-exports-outlook-approaching-long-term-decline.html. Accessed 6 May 2021
Novhe O, Yibas B, Coetzee H, et al (2016) Long-Term Remediation of Acid Mine Drainage from Abandoned Coal Mine Using Integrated (Anaerobic and Aerobic) Passive Treatment System, in South Africa: A Pilot Study. In: IMWA 2016 : Mining Meets Water - Conflicts and Solutions. pp 668–675
Trumm D (2010) Selection of active and passive treatment systems for AMD - Flow charts for New Zealand conditions. New Zeal J Geol Geophys. https://doi.org/10.1080/00288306.2010.500715
Younger PL (2016) A simple, low-cost approach to predicting the hydrogeological consequences of coalfield closure as a basis for best practice in long-term management. Int J Coal Geol 164:25–34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coal.2016.06.002


1:30pm - 1:55pm
ID: 628 / S_6_2: 3
Full Paper - Oral Presentation
Topic: 2 Passive Treatment Innovation, Bio-Geochemical Systems, 5 Mine Water Treatment Systems, 7 Mine Closure
Way of Presentation: Pre-Recorded
Keywords: Bacterial diversity, C:N:P stoichiometrically balance, in situ treatment, fixed-film bioreactors, and redox ladder.

A Strategy to Stimulate and Manage Indigenous Bacterial Communities to Effectively Remediate Mine Drainages

Gerhard Potgieter1, Errol Cason2, Mary Deflaun3, Estariëthe van Heerden1

1iWater (pty) (ltd); 2University of the Free state; 3Geosyntec Consultants

Drainages from mining operations frequently contain elevated levels of contaminants of concern (CoC). The unique adapted bacterial communities are characterized and their ability to reduce many CoC are showcased. Each contaminated site consists of a distinct prokaryotic community that in turn requires a specific C:N:P balanced environments to contribute to site remediation. This balanced bioremedial strategy are managed both for in situ or fix-filmed bioreactors, using hydraulic retention times, electron donor selection and ratios, and redox potential. These communities can effectively treat elevated levels of hexavalent chromium (10 mg/L), nitrate (110 mg/L), and sulfate (1 250 mg/L) in a one-pot balanced.

Bibliography
1.G. Borgonie, B. Linage-Alvarez, A. O. Ojo, S.O.C. Mundle, L. B. Freese, C. Van Rooyen, O. Kuloyo, J. Albertyn, C. Pohl, E. D. Cason, J. Vermeulen, C. Pienaar, D. Litthauer, H. Van Niekerk, J. Van Eeden, B. Sherwood Lollar, T.C. Onstott & E. Van Heerden (2015) Eukaryotic opportunists rule the deep subsurface biosphere in South Africa. Nature Communications. Nov 2015. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9952
2.Cara Magnabosco*, Kathleen Ryan, Maggie C.Y. Lau, Olukayode Kuloyo, Barbara Sherwood Lollar, Thomas L. Kieft, Esta van Heerden, T.C. Onstott. A Metagenomic Window into Prokaryotic Carbon Metabolism at 3 km Depth in Precambrian Continental Crust. . ISME J, 2015 Sept. Epub doi: 10.1038/ismej.2015.150. Impact Factor 9.302 (Multidisciplinary Journal of Microbial Ecology). Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 730-741 published 1 March 2016.
3.Podosokorskaya O.A., Merkel A.Y., Gavrilov S.N., Fedoseev I., Heerden E.V., Cason E.D., Novikov A.A., Kolganova T.V., Korzhenkov A.A., Bonch-Osmolovskaya E.A., Kublanov I.V. (2016) Tepidibacillus infernus sp. Nov., a moderately thermophilic, selenate-and arsenate-respiring hydrolytic bacterium isolated from a gold mine, and emended description of the genus Tepidibacillus. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. Volume 66, Issue 8, August 2016, Article number 001166, Pages 3189-3194. doi:0.1099/ijsem.0.001166.
4.Lau, M.C.Y., Cameron, C., Magnabosco, C., Brown, C.T., Schilkey, F., Grim, S., Hendrickson, S., Pullin, M., Sherwood-Lollar, B., Van Heerden, E., Kieft, T.L. & Onstott, T.C. 2014. Phylogeny and phylogeography of functional genes shared among seven terrestrial subsurface metagenomes reveal N-cycling and microbial evolutionary relationships. Frontiers in Microbiology 5:531. Impact factor 3.9
5.Blanco, Y., Rivas, L.A., García-Moyano, A., Aguirre, J., Cruz-Gil, P., Palacín, A., Van Heerden, E. & Parro, V. 2014. Deciphering the prokaryotic community and metabolisms in south African deep-mine biofilms through antibody microarrays and graph theory. PLoS ONE DOI:1371e114180. 1-26 , Impact factor 3.53
6.M.O. Agunbiade, Esta van Heerden, C.H. Pohl and A.O.T. Ashafa. Flocculating performance of a bioflocculant produced by Arthrobacter humicola in sewage waste water treatment. BMC Biotechnol. 2017 Jun 12;17(1):51. doi: 10.1186/s12896-017-0375-0.
7.Opperman, D.J. and Van Heerden E*. (2007) Aerobic Cr(VI) reduction by Thermus scotoductus strain SA-01. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 103, 1907 - 1913. (2.006)
8.Botes E., Van Heerden E*. and Litthauer D. (2007). Hyper-resistance to arsenic in bacteria isolated from an antimony mine in South Africa. S. Afr. J. Sci. 103, 279 - 281. (0.726)
9.Ojo, A. O., van Heerden, E. and Piater, L.A. (2008) Identification and initial characterization of a copper resistant South African mine isolate. African Journal of Microbial Research, 2, 281 - 287
10.E Botes, R Jordan, MF DeFlaun, J Howell, R Borch, FC Liebenberg, E van Heerden. Bioremediation of Hexavalent Chromium Contaminated Water In Fixed-Film Upflow Reactors – a South African First. Journal of Biotechnology, vol 150 pp 269-269, 2010.
11.E Botes, R Jordan, MF DeFlaun, J Howell, R Borch, PD Price, E van Heerden. Bioremediation Using a Two-Phase Bio / Abiotic Approach To Treat Acid Mine Drainage in South Africa. Journal of Biotechnology, vol 150, pp269-270, 2010.
12.Errol Duncan Cason, Lizelle Anne Piater and Esta van Heerden Reduction of U(VI) by the deep subsurface bacterium, Thermus scotoductus SA-01, and the novel involvement of the ABC transporter protein –Vol86, Issue 6 Pages 572-577 Chemosphere (2012).
13.Maleke Maleke & Peter Williams & Julio Castillo & Elsabe Botes & Abidemi Ojo & Mary DeFlaun & Esta van Heerden. 2014. Optimization of a bioremediation system of soluble uranium based on the biostimulation of an indigenous bacterial community. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. Impact factor 2.87
14.Erasmus, M., Cason, E.D., Van Marwijk, J., Botes, E., Gericke, M., Van Heerden, E. 2015. Gold nanoparticle synthesis using the thermophilic bacterium Thermus scotoductus SA-01 and the purification and characterization of its unusual gold reducing protein. Gold Bulletin 47(4):245-253, Impact factor 1.84.
15.Cason ED, Williams PJ, Ojo E, Castillo J, DeFlaun MF, van Heerden E. Hexavalent chromium bioreduction and chemical precipitation of sulphate as a treatment of site-specific fly ash leachates. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2017 May;33(5):88. doi: 10.1007/s11274-017-2243-4. Epub 2017 Apr 7


1:55pm - 2:20pm
ID: 639 / S_6_2: 4
Full Paper - Oral Presentation
Topic: 1 Mine Drainage Chemistry, 4 Legacy Mine Impacts, Prediction of Acid Mine Drainage and Metal Leaching (AMD-ML), Clean Up & Rehabilitation, 5 Mine Water Treatment Systems
Way of Presentation: Live
Keywords: on-site analysis, pXRF, runoff, hydrogeochemical exploration, compliance analyses

🎓 On-site XRF Analysis of Metal Concentrations of Natural Waters

Tommi Tiihonen1, Tuomo Nissinen2, Joakim Riikonen1, Pertti Sarala3, Vesa-Pekka Lehto1, Bruno Lemière4

1Dept. of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, FI-70210 Kuopio, Finland; 23AWater Oy, FI-70210, Kuopio, Finland; 3Geological Survey of Finland, FI-96101 Rovaniemi, Finland; 4BRGM, France

Real-time and on-site analysis of metals in waters is not routinely carried out for environmental monitoring. Laboratory analyses are used instead, which require sampling on-site, shipping to a laboratory and analysis making them expensive and slow. A novel analytical technique based on nanotechnology enhanced preconcentration and portable X-ray fluorescence was developed in this study. The analysis system was calibrated for Mn, Ni, Cu and Zn between concentrations of 50 µg/l and 10 mg/l and fast on-site analysis was demonstrated for two mining related sites.

Bibliography
Thapa R., Nissinen T., Turhanen P., Määttä J., Vepsäläinen J., Lehto V-P., Riikonen J. "Bisphosphonate modified mesoporous silicon for scandium adsorption." Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 296 (2020): 109980. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2019.109980
Riikonen J., Nissinen T., Alanne A., Thapa R., Fioux P., Bonne M., Rigolet S., Morlet-Savary F., Aussenac F., Marichal C., Lalevée J., Vepsäläinen J., Lebeau B., Lehto V-P., ”Stable surface functionalization of carbonized mesoporous silicon." Inorganic Chemistry Frontiers 7.3 (2020): 631-641. https://doi.org/10.1039/C9QI01140D
Riikonen J., Rantanen J., Thapa R., Le N., Rigolet S., Fioux P., Turhanen P., Bodiford N., Kalluri J., Ikonen T., Nissinen T., Lebeau B., Vepsäläinen J., Coffer J., Lehto V-P., Le N., "Rapid synthesis of nanostructured porous silicon carbide from biogenic silica." Journal of the American Ceramic Society (2020). https://doi.org/10.1111/jace.17519
Sarala, P., 2016. Comparison of different portable XRF methods for determining till geochemistry. Geochemistry, Exploration, Environment, Analysis 16, 181-192. doi:10.1144/geochem2012-162.
Lemière, B. and Harmon, R.S. (2021) XRF and LIBS for Field Geology. In: Portable Spectroscopy and Spectrometry, Applications. United Kingdom: Wiley, 2021 (Vol. 2, p. 455-498, ISBN: 978-1-119-63640-3).


2:20pm - 2:45pm
ID: 646 / S_6_2: 5
Full Paper - Oral Presentation
Topic: 2 Passive Treatment Innovation, Bio-Geochemical Systems, 5 Mine Water Treatment Systems
Way of Presentation: Live
Keywords: Biological treatment, pH adjustment, semi-passive, GBR

Gravel Bed Reactors: Semi-Passive Water Treatment Of Metals and Inorganics

Silvia Mancini1, Rachel James1, Evan Cox1, James Rayner2

1Geosyntec Consultants Inc, Canada; 2Geosyntec Consultants Ltd, United Kingdom

Diffuse impacts to surface waters are a critical issue facing mining industries, given rigorous environmental quality standards. Many conventional treatment technologies are expensive and difficult to comply with discharge criteria. Gravel Bed Reactors (GBR™) are a versatile semi-passive treatment technology capable of addressing a variety of water quality issues through altering the geochemistry of extracted mine water. GBRs™ offer simpler, cost-effective alternatives to water treatment facilities, packed or fluidized bed reactors and the possibility to re-use waste rock as packing media. GBRs™ allow installation of smaller systems in remote, challenging environments and the potential to treat mine water at source.

Bibliography
Dr. Silvia Mancini, Ph.D., P.Geo., is a Principal in the remediation group of Geosyntec Consultant’s Toronto office focused on managing soil, surface water and groundwater remediation programs. She obtained a doctoral degree from the University of Toronto and is an Adjunct Professor in the Department of Earth Sciences focusing on innovative technologies including bioremediation. Silvia’s consulting experience includes implementing and managing remediation programs using advanced technologies such as smouldering combustion (STAR), in situ chemical oxidation/reduction, gravel bed bioreactors (GBRs™), and permeable reactive barrier (PRBs). Silvia is an author of several journal articles in her field of expertise and manages government research programs focused on innovative methods and technologies for site characterization and remediation.