Conference Agenda

Overview and details of the sessions of this Conference. Please select a date or location to show only sessions at that day or location. Please select a single session for detailed view (with abstracts and downloads if available).

Please note that all times are shown in the time zone of the conference. The current conference time is: 4th July 2022, 11:03:23am BST

Session Overview
Date: Wednesday, 14/July/2021
8:45am - 9:40amMorning Session Wednesday
Location: Main Room
Session Chair: Carl Banton

Biotechnologies for the Treatment of Mining and Metallurgical Wastewater on the Context of Metal Recovery

Denys Villa Gomez

University of Queensland, Australia

Passive Mine Water Treatment in the UK – a view from Wales

William Timothy Perkins

Aberystwyth University, United Kingdom

9:40am - 9:50amHealth Break
9:50am - 11:55amEcology
Location: Meeting Room 1
Session Chair: Paul John Edwards
9:50am - 10:15am

The Effects Of Storm Events On Sediment, Nutrient, And Biofilm Dynamics In A Stream Recovering From Acid Mine Drainage

Natalie A Kruse Daniels1, Jennie Brancho1, Morgan L Vis2

1Environmental Studies Program, Voinovich School of Leadership and Public Affairs, Ohio University, United States of America; 2Environmental and Plant Biology Department, Ohio University, United States of America

This study quantified changes in nutrients, sediment transport, and algal biomass during normal and storm conditions in a treated acid mine drainage stream. Nitrate, sulfate, total reactive phosphorous (TRP), sediment deposition and total suspended solids (TSS) were measured during each sampling event. Biological response was measured by comparing algal biofilm biomass. Antecedent precipitation index (API) was an indicator of runoff potential. As API increased TSS increased, while chlorophyll a, conductivity, and sulfate decreased. TSS, nitrate, and sediment deposition were higher overall during storm events. TRP remained low at all sites during the sample period, suggesting phosphorous limitation.

10:15am - 10:40am

Effects of Vegetation on Erosion in Technosols Produced from Coal Waste

Daniel Campos Moro, Jéssica Weiler, Ivo André Homrich Schneider

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

The aim of this study was to evaluate soil loss by water erosion considering different technosols configurations produced from fine and coarse coal waste and an agricultural soil. All substrates were amended with sewage sludge to obtain 3% organic matter. The study considered two precipitation levels and the presence, or not, of the Medicago sativa (alfafa) and grass. Calculations were carried using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation. In terms of erosion control, the best configuration was attained with the mixture of coarse and fine waste. The presence of vegetation reduces in almost 100 times soil loss due rainfall.

10:40am - 11:05am

Biodiversity Benefits Of Coal Mine Water Remediation Schemes For Bird Life

Rosie O. Jaques1, Arabella M.L. Moorhouse-Parry2, Richard Carline2, William M. Mayes1, Susan L. Hull1

1University of Hull, United Kingdom; 2The Coal Authority, United Kingdom

Lagoons and reedbeds are established components of mine water treatment systems for iron-rich coal mine drainage. This study coupled British Trust for Ornithology Bird Survey monitoring with habitat survey to assess the presence and usage of two UK coal mine water treatment systems by bird species. Over thirty species were documented at the two sites including four red listed, eight amber listed and eighteen green listed species (under the BTO Birds of Conservation Concern designation). There were statistically significant associations of bird group with habitat types suggesting that a mosaic of habitats at coal mine treatment systems benefits bird diversity.

11:05am - 11:30am

Long-time Effect of Ancient Salt Production (Perm Krai, Russia)

Elena Khayrulina, Natalya Mitrakova

Perm State National Research University, Russian Federation

On the territory of the outflow of ancient brine wells in the valley of the Usolka River, soils and vegetation, transformed under the long-term impact of highly mineralized waters on the soil pore, were studied. Brines from ancient brine-lifting wells flow in streams along the soil surface and flow into the Usolka River determining its Na–Cl composition. The study area is characterized by the presence of salt-tolerant plants. Long-term influence of sodium-chloride waters on alluvial soils of the Usolka River led to the formation of a secondary gley sulfate-chloride solonchak (Gleyic Fluvic Solonchak (Loam, Salic)).

11:30am - 11:55am

Passive treatment of Acid Mine Drainage at Parys Mountain (Wales): column experiment results

Jose Miguel Nieto1, Tobias Rötting2, Peter Stanley3, Louise Siddorn3, Francisco Macías1, José María Fuentes1, Rafael León1, Riccardo Millán1

1University of Huelva, Spain; 2Golder Associates, United Kingdom; 3Natural Resources Wales, United Kingdom

Two sets of column test have been run for the design of a passive treatment of AMD at Parys Mountain. After 5 weeks of test runs, the two DAS system sets tested promote total metal removal of Fe, Al, Zn and Cu, and high retention / removal of Mn, As, Cd, Co, Cr and Ni by adsorption/coprecipitation processes. Sulfate removal was only efficient in one of the set-up. From the incoming 2340 mg/l of sulfate, the output solution concentration was 543 mg/l. No loss of permeability has been observed during the experiments.

9:50am - 11:55amPassive Treatment & Mine Closure
Location: Meeting Room 2
Session Chair: Carl Banton
9:50am - 10:15am

🎓 Performances of a semi-passive field-pilot for bioremediation of As-rich Acid Mine Drainage at the Carnoulès mine (France)

Camila Diaz-Vanegas1,2, Corinne Casiot1, Liming Lin3, Laurent De Windt4, Adam Djibrine2,3, Amandine Malcles3, Marina Héry1, Angelique Desoeuvre1, Odile Bruneel1, Fabienne Battaglia-Brunet2, Jerome Jacob2

1HydroSciences Montpellier, University of Montpellier, CNRS, IRD, Montpellier, France; 2French Geological Survey (BRGM), Water, Environment, Process and Analyses Division, Orléans, France; 3France LGEI (Laboratoire de Génie de l’Environnement Industriel), Institut Mines-Télécom Alès, Alès, France; 4MINES ParisTech, PSL University, Centre de Géosciences, Fontainebleau, France

Passive and semi-passive treatment systems show great potential to treat AMD originating from abandoned mines. The aim of this study was to determine iron and arsenic removal yields of two field treatment devices, which were designed to optimize natural process of bio-oxidation and co-precipitation to clean-up mine waste water. Almost one year of monitoring showed efficiency and stability of the treatment under environmental and operational variations. Using assisted aeration and bacterial support in the devices, average arsenic and iron removals of 67% and 43% were achieved. Additional steps will be considered to reach water quality and sludge disposal requirements.

10:15am - 10:40am

Performance Of The Hybrid Linear Flow Channel Reactor: Effect Of Reactors In Series For Enhanced Biological Sulphate Reduction And Sulphur Recovery

Tynan Steven Marais1, Rob John Huddy1, Rob Paul van Hille2, Susan Therese Largier Harrison1

1University of Cape Town, South Africa; 2Moss Group

Acid rock drainage (ARD) is a global crisis that will have long-lasting environmental consequences. The application of semi-passive biological sulfate reduction (BSR) is a potential solution for the remediation of persistent low-volume ARD effluents. However, major challenges of BSR, including slow reaction kinetics and management of the generated sulfide, still need to be addressed. The development of a hybrid Linear Flow Channel Reactor (LFCR) has shown promise for remediation of sulfate-rich effluents. In this study, the operation of two hybrid LFCRs connected as a dual reactor system was assessed for the improved removal of residual sulfide and COD.

10:40am - 11:05am

Saline Pit Lakes – What Biodiversity Values Can They Offer At Closure And Beyond?

Mark Lund, Melanie Blanchette

Mine Water and Environment Research Centre, Edith Cowan University, Australia

Closure of saline pit lakes is problematic as they are considered to have few prospects for future uses. In 2019, we assessed limnology and biodiversity of a two saline pit lakes (≈3.2-10.5 mS cm-1) from each of Australia’s main coal regions (Hunter Valley and Bowen Basin), one of which was rehabilitated.

Quarterly concentrations of nutrients, metal/metalloids and major ions were measured top and bottom with physico-chemical profiles throughout the water column. Aquatic biodiversity was assessed through macroinvertebrates, diatoms, and plankton communities.

Lakes were temperature but not salinity stratified and had limited metal/metalloid concentrations of concern. Salinity did not appear to limit biodiversity.

11:05am - 11:30am

Recharge-driven Underground Dewatering And Post-closure Groundwater Recovery

Simon Sholl1, Stephen Wheston2, Geoff Beale1

1Piteau Associates, Canon Court West, Abbey Lawn, Shrewsbury SY5 8AN, United Kingdom; 2Tembusu Ltd, 1 Killastafford Cross, Cashel, Co Tipperary, Ireland

Lisheen Mine, located in Tipperary, Ireland, was operational between 1999 and 2015. Through most of mine life, dewatering rates were typically within a seasonal range of 60 to 90 MLD, and rapidly changed with precipitation, which reflected the low storage of the limestone bedrock. After closure, groundwater levels in the mine workings rose over 120 m in the first three months, further demonstrating the low storage of the bedrock. Full recovery of the workings was confirmed in early 2018, 2 years after closure, when the natural seasonal variation in groundwater levels had re-established.

11:30am - 11:55am

Finite-element Modelling Approach To Study Flow Processes During Groundwater Rebound In Abandoned Underground Hard Coal Mines

Timo Kessler, Maria-Theresia Schafmeister

University of Greifswald, Germany

Groundwater rebound is one of the key challenges for the renaturation of underground mines. Numerical models can support the computation of rebound curves and the identification of long-term groundwater levels after steady-state conditions are reached. The present finite-element model case was to test the combination of different flow types and parameter configurations inside mine workings in order to optimally represent the flow patterns in cavity volumes and fractured rock masses. The approach may be an alternative to common pond-and-pipe models, particularly, if estimated cavity volumes of mine workings are uncertain or if groundwater levels in the surroundings are precarious.

9:50am - 11:55amMine Hydrogeology
Location: Meeting Room 3
Session Chair: Andrew Clifford Johnstone
9:50am - 10:15am

Using Data Science and Machine Learning to Improve Site Hydrogeological Conceptual Models

Tim Robert Ezzy, John Fortuna

Principal Hydrogeologist, Golder Associates, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia

A key goal of many mining groundwater investigations is to identify the main geological features, hydraulic boundaries and connection pathways that will materially influence: a) operations of a project, and b) the natural resources connected to the groundwater system. Exploratory data science techniques such as machine learning provide the experienced mining hydrogeologist opportunities to accelerate understanding of the role of key features within a site hydrogeological conceptual model (HCM) that may affect groundwater management. This has implications for both regulatory approval processes and operational efficiency.

10:15am - 10:40am

Open Pit-Mine Water Management In Equatorial Area

Yogi Pratama, Fahmi Syaifudin, Kris Pranoto


PT Kaltim Prima Coal, currently the largest open-pit coal mining company in Indonesia, is located in East Kalimantan. A province passed by the equator experiences heavy rainfall throughout the year. Annual average rainfall is recorded at 2,152mm. Controlling water inflow quantity is the most important thing in water management to have decent water quality. Proper design configuration consists of dry dam as flow detention and labyrinth pond for quality adjustment. Water discharge reduction up to 90% in average brings enormous benefit for water management system. Also, the design becomes the most feasible option in post mining.

10:40am - 11:05am

A Set of New Technology and Equipment of Advanced Water Detection and Drainage in Coal Mining Face with Borehole Geophysical Exploration

Qiang Wu1, Yifan Zeng1, Chunsheng Liu2, Honglei Liu1, Shouqiang Liu1, Fangpeng Cui1, Jingchuan Ma1

1China University of Mining and Technology,Beijing,China, China, People's Republic of; 2Wuhan Changsheng Coal Security Technology Co., Ltd., Wuhan 430312, China

In this paper, the latest research and challenges of the technologies and methods for water detection and drainage in coal mining faces in China are analyzed systematically. Through the comparison of two traditional water detection and drainage technologies, underground geophysical exploration technologies and pre-drilling technology, a new set of advanced water detection and drainage method based on borehole geophysical exploration is proposed. The equipment for borehole geophysical exploration technology is developed, including borehole radar advanced water detector and advanced electromagnetic sounder for wireless tomography while drilling.

11:05am - 11:30am

Influence of Coal Mining on Water Environment and Ecology in the Yellow River Basin

Fawang Zhang1, Zhiqiang Zhang1,2,3

1Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China; 2Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230009, China; 3Hebei GEO University, Shijiazhuang 050031, China

The upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River are important coal production bases in China, and the current situation of "more coal and less water" has been the main factor restricting its economic development. Based on the coal resources in the upper and middle reaches of the Yellow River and the history of the Yellow River’s dry-up, this article puts forward the main environmental problems faced by the Yellow River. The impact of coal mining on the natural water cycle, water environment, soil erosion, and water-sediment relationship is systematically analysed, and the coordinated development proposal was finally put forward.

11:30am - 11:55am

Incorporating 2D Analytical Results into 3D Graphical and Multidisciplinary Mining Models.

Hannah Redfern, James Catley, Grace Yungwirth

Golder Associates (UK) Ltd

Front end mining studies inform the project development process by assessing key risks and developing an increased understanding of the available site data. 2D analytical models can be appropriate to support hydrogeological assessments during early studies given the level of data available, and the level of confidence required. Incorporating these results into a 3D model can transform a simple methodology into a visual representation which can be integrated with other aspects of multi-disciplinary studies. This methodology incorporates groundwater flow analyses into a 3D surface within standard industry software, Leapfrog Works™, to support an assessment for a proposed open pit mine.

11:55am - 12:40pmLunch
12:40pm - 2:45pmMine Drainage Chemistry & Passive Treatment
Location: Meeting Room 1
Session Chair: Arabella Mary Louise Moorhouse-Parry
12:40pm - 1:05pm

🎓 Seasonal Geochemical Variation of Sediments in the Sabie River, Mpumalanga, South Africa

Rudzani Lusunzi1,2, Frans Waanders2, Robert Khashane Tshishonga Netshitungulwana1

1Council for Geoscience, South Africa; 2North West University, South Africa

There was no significant variation observed in terms of metal dispersion (Cr, Zn, Cu, Ni, Pb, As) during wet and dry seasons respectively. The mineralogy of sediments indicated that acid-producing minerals hematite and jarosite found in mine wastes are potential sources of pollution to the Sabie River. The CF, PLI and Igeo showed that sediments were unpolluted to extremely polluted by As. Acid-neutralizing mineral dolomite found in the sediments can act as buffers for potential acid. There was no evidence of metal dispersion from the Nestor tailings storage facility to the adjacent water resources, Klein-Sabie and Sabie River respectively.

1:05pm - 1:30pm

Evaluation Of A Short Period Increasing Water Influx In A Mine Drainage Facility Of A Former Hard Coal Mine

Birgitta Wiesner

RAG AG, Germany

RAG AG currently operates a mine drainage facility at the abandoned coal mine Amalie in the city of Essen, Germany. Throughout April 2020 a short-term increased water influx occurred at this mining site at one dam. To identify on-going processes in the mining plant water chemistry was analysed and investigated. One result was, that the break of a dam lead to a new water influx into the water system of the mine. This new water influx resulted in a permanently higher amount of water entering the mine and a significantly change in water composition by increased amounts of dissolved salts.

1:30pm - 1:55pm

Recovering Rare Earth Elements from Acid Mine Drainage with Mine Land Reclamation

Chin-Min Cheng, Tarunjit Butalia, John Lenhart, Jeffrey Bielicki

The Ohio State University, United States of America

In this study, we demonstrated a trap-extract-precipitate (TEP) process that effectively recovers rare earth elements (REEs) from coal mine drainage (CMD). This three-stage TEP process uses environmentally benign industrial by-products to retain CMD REEs from CMD. It then applies an extraction/precipitation procedure to produce a concentrate feedstock (>7.5 wt. % of total REEs) that can be economically processed to produce marketable rare earth oxides. We envision the TEP process can be integrated with abandoned mine land reclamation to create a commercially viable approach to mitigate CMD and restore lands that are adversely impacted by historical mining.

1:55pm - 2:20pm

Distributions of Rare Earth Elements in Coal Mine Drainages

Chin-Min Cheng, Tarunjit Butalia, John Lenhart, Jeffrey Bielicki

The Ohio State University, United States of America

In the U.S., rare earth elements (REEs) are reported to be closely associated with coal deposits, especially in the Appalachian Basins. Historical coal mining in the Northern Appalachian Coal field of the United States has produced significant amount of coal drainage (CMD). In this study, we investigated 29 abandoned CMDs in eastern Ohio, USA. The main objective of this study is to understand the geochemical behavior of REEs in CMD. Results obtained from this study provide the knowledge that will form the basis of a reactive transport model, which can be used to predict REE retention and recovery.

2:20pm - 2:45pm

Passive Solar Photocatalytic Treatment in Mining Process-affected Water

Jeffrey Thomas Martin1, Tim Leshuk1,2, Brad Wilson1,3, Zac Young1, Frank Gu1,2

1H2nanO Inc., 151 Charles St. W., Suite 299, Kitchener, ON, Canada; 2University of Toronto, Department of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, 200 College St., Toronto, ON, Canada; 3Stantec, 100-300 Hagey Boulevard, Waterloo, ON, Canada

H2nanO Inc. has developed SolarPass, a floating reactive barrier comprised of buoyant photocatalyst beads that provides a passive, light-activated treatment process for target contaminants, while simultaneously blocking volatile emissions. Recently, H2nanO validated the efficacy of SolarPass for in-situ treatment of mining tailings water through an outdoor pilot-scale system in Alberta, Canada. Under natural sunlight illumination, target contaminants were degraded, including volatile sulfurous compounds and organics, while simultaneously reducing emissions by >70%. These results demonstrate that the novel SolarPass process can address diverse challenges with mining-influenced waters and provides an effective solution for passive tailings and process water management and remediation.

12:40pm - 2:45pmMine Water Treatment
Location: Meeting Room 2
Session Chair: Tobias Stefan Roetting
12:40pm - 1:05pm

History of Passive Treatment Technology Development in the United States

Jeff Skousen

West Virginia University, United States of America

The concept of passive treatment of AMD was conceived in the early 1980 based on the observations of scientists in Ohio and West Virginia. They noted that the quality of AMD was improved after passing through a natural aerobic wetland and they postulated that oxidation reactions and settling of sludge particles caused the improvement. Among the first to construct and report on constructed wetlands were researchers at the US Bureau of Mines (Kleinmann, Hedin, Nairn, Watzlaf) but many others reported designs and results. By 1989, more than 150 wetlands had been constructed for mine drainage treatment.

1:05pm - 1:30pm

Full-scale Reducing And Alkalinity Producing System (RAPS) For The Passive Remediation Of Polluted Mine Water From A Flooded Abandoned Underground Coal Mine, Carolina, South Africa

Gloria Dube1, Tebogo Mello1, Viswanath Vadapalli1, Henk Coetzee1, Kefyalew Tegegn1, Rudzani Lusunzi1, Shadung Moja1, Mafeto Malatji1, Munyadziwa Ethel Sinthumule2, Rudzani Ramatsekisa2

1Council for Geoscience, South Africa; 2Department of Mineral Resources and Energy

This paper documents the application of a reducing and alkalinity producing system (RAPS) named CaroRap implemented for coal mine water remediation in South Africa. RAPS combines the mechanisms of anaerobic treatment wetlands and anoxic limestone drains. These systems improve water quality by processes, amongst others, of calcite dissolution and sulfate reduction through sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Results from the system, which became operational in January 2021, show an increase in pH from an average of 2.9 to that of 5.6 coupled with an increase by 35.8 mg/L in alkalinity .

1:30pm - 1:55pm

A Strategy to Stimulate and Manage Indigenous Bacterial Communities to Effectively Remediate Mine Drainages

Gerhard Potgieter1, Errol Cason2, Mary Deflaun3, Estariëthe van Heerden1

1iWater (pty) (ltd); 2University of the Free state; 3Geosyntec Consultants

Drainages from mining operations frequently contain elevated levels of contaminants of concern (CoC). The unique adapted bacterial communities are characterized and their ability to reduce many CoC are showcased. Each contaminated site consists of a distinct prokaryotic community that in turn requires a specific C:N:P balanced environments to contribute to site remediation. This balanced bioremedial strategy are managed both for in situ or fix-filmed bioreactors, using hydraulic retention times, electron donor selection and ratios, and redox potential. These communities can effectively treat elevated levels of hexavalent chromium (10 mg/L), nitrate (110 mg/L), and sulfate (1 250 mg/L) in a one-pot balanced.

1:55pm - 2:20pm

🎓 On-site XRF Analysis of Metal Concentrations of Natural Waters

Tommi Tiihonen1, Tuomo Nissinen2, Joakim Riikonen1, Pertti Sarala3, Vesa-Pekka Lehto1, Bruno Lemière4

1Dept. of Applied Physics, University of Eastern Finland, FI-70210 Kuopio, Finland; 23AWater Oy, FI-70210, Kuopio, Finland; 3Geological Survey of Finland, FI-96101 Rovaniemi, Finland; 4BRGM, France

Real-time and on-site analysis of metals in waters is not routinely carried out for environmental monitoring. Laboratory analyses are used instead, which require sampling on-site, shipping to a laboratory and analysis making them expensive and slow. A novel analytical technique based on nanotechnology enhanced preconcentration and portable X-ray fluorescence was developed in this study. The analysis system was calibrated for Mn, Ni, Cu and Zn between concentrations of 50 µg/l and 10 mg/l and fast on-site analysis was demonstrated for two mining related sites.

2:20pm - 2:45pm

Gravel Bed Reactors: Semi-Passive Water Treatment Of Metals and Inorganics

Silvia Mancini1, Rachel James1, Evan Cox1, James Rayner2

1Geosyntec Consultants Inc, Canada; 2Geosyntec Consultants Ltd, United Kingdom

Diffuse impacts to surface waters are a critical issue facing mining industries, given rigorous environmental quality standards. Many conventional treatment technologies are expensive and difficult to comply with discharge criteria. Gravel Bed Reactors (GBR™) are a versatile semi-passive treatment technology capable of addressing a variety of water quality issues through altering the geochemistry of extracted mine water. GBRs™ offer simpler, cost-effective alternatives to water treatment facilities, packed or fluidized bed reactors and the possibility to re-use waste rock as packing media. GBRs™ allow installation of smaller systems in remote, challenging environments and the potential to treat mine water at source.

12:40pm - 2:45pmLegacy Mine Impacts
Location: Meeting Room 3
Session Chair: Julia Dent
12:40pm - 1:05pm

Assessment of the Constraints on Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems Due to Rising Mine Water and Mine Water Management

Lee M Wyatt1, Ian A Watson1, Sally Gallagher2, Joanne Grantham2

1Coal Authority, United Kingdom; 2Environment Agency, United Kingdom

Many urban areas of the UK have underground mine workings, which were dewatered during mining. Cessation of pumping and resultant rising mine water changes the natural and post mining hydrogeological properties of the subsurface. Sustainable drainages systems are the promoted common approach to manage surface water. Groundwater changes can either be influenced by these systems or their presence can influence effectiveness; leading to an increased flooding risk and contrary to the aims of sustainable drainage. This paper describes a trial screening tool developed to help assess the suitability and site specific design of sustainable drainage now and in the future.

1:05pm - 1:30pm

Site Specific Optimisation Assessment Of Circum-neutral Water Treatment Using a Cost-treatability Curve Assessment

James Marsden1, Steven Pearce1, Tim Sambrook1, Julia Dent2, Andrew Barnes3

1Cambrian Environmental Technologies Ltd., 1a Gower Street, Cardiff, Wales, CF24 4PA; 2Mine Environment Management Ltd., 3a Vale Street, Denbigh, Wales, LL16 3AD; 3Geochemic Ltd., Lower Race, Pontypool, Wales, NP4 5UH, United Kingdom

Pollutant load reduction from operational and legacy mine water can pose a financial burden. Many mine sites globally generate discharges in the circum-neutral range. Recent regulatory and social pressures have increased focus on improving discharge quality for these sites. Because treatment of circum-neutral drainage depends on site specific conditions, and is sensitive to water quality targets, an assessment methodology based around a modular approach to water treatment has been developed. This methodology assesses treatment options to meet a range of water quality targets with respect to cost, allowing generation of a cost-treatability curve based on site specific factors or “levers”.

1:30pm - 1:55pm

Evaluating Circum-neutral Mine Drainage: Case Studies of Advanced Testing Methods Generating Representative Empirical Data

Steven Richard Pearce1, Diana Brookshaw1, Seth Mueller2, Andrew Barnes3

1Mine Environment Management Ltd, United Kingdom; 2Boliden Mineral AB, Boliden, Sweden; 3Geochemic Ltd, United Kingdom

Standard acid mine drainage (AMD) characterisation testing methods focus on acidity and can underestimate risks posed by circum-neutral mine drainage. For circum-neutral sites, amended testing methods are required to provide representative empirical data. Case studies of where such amended testing methods have been used to refine assessments of discharge quality from circum-neutral drainage sites are discussed.

1:55pm - 2:20pm

Algae Bioaccumulation Capacity for Metals in Acid Mine Drainage (AMD)-a Case Study in Frongoch Mine, the UK

Tianhao Du1, Anna Bogush2, Paul Edwards3, Peter Stanley3, Luiza C Campos1

1Department of Civil, Environmental & Geomatic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University College London, London, WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom; 2Centre for Agroecology, Water and Resilience, Coventry University, Coventry, CV8 3LG, United Kingdom; 3Natural Resources Wales, 29 Newport Road, Cardiff CF24 0TP, United Kingdom

Algae living in the AMD water around the Frongoch Mine, the UK, were collected and identified by microscope. Metals’ concentration was evaluated in AMD water and algae in two seasons (June and October) in 2019 to assess the bioaccumulation capacity of algae. Two types of algae, Ulothrix sp. and Oedogonium sp., were found to be the main species at the Frongoch mine, and they revealed a high capacity of metals bioaccumulation. Concentrations of metals in AMD water from higher to lower were Zn>>Pb>Cd>Fe>Cu. Study results identified the bioaccumulated metals concentrations in algae from higher to lower were Fe>Pb>Cu>Cd>Zn.

2:20pm - 2:45pm

UNEXMIN and UNEXUP Projects: Development of Submersible Robots for Survey of Flooded Underground Mines

Stephen Henley

Resources Computing International, United Kingdom

Submersible robots have been developed in the EU-funded UNEXMIN and UNEXUP projects, for surveying and exploration of flooded underground mines. They carry cameras and instrumentation to determine physical and chemical properties of wall rocks and water. On-board water samplers allow further laboratory analysis of the water.

Trials have been carried out at mines around Europe. Extensive dives yielded much new data on geology and archaeology, as well as the water which in one mine had been almost undisturbed since flooding to river level in the late 1850s. Some information is also presented on an important current project.

3:00pm - 5:00pmVirtual Tours

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