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Modeling electric-field driven nonequilibrium phenomena for applications to pulsed power, electron beam generation, transport in materials, and electromanipulation for biomedicine
R. P. Joshi, M. Brown, W. Milestone, M. Sanati, J. Mankowski, J. Dickens, A. Neuber
Texas Tech University, United States of America
This talk will briefly touch upon the many innovative applications involving nonequilibrium and ultrafast processes in areas of pulsed power and high power microwaves driven by high electric fields. Many applications either involve the use of high electric fields to help enhance system currents or power generation (as in high power microwave systems), or to take advantage of non- equilibrium transient phenomena which can produce larger responses (e.g., the transient drift velocity overshoots in photoconductive switches), or be used to curtail the role of slower processes (such as dynamic shielding based on charge transport that typically require longer times), or help attain high internal electric fields in a targeted manner through robust displacement currents (e.g., the field penetration into sub-cellular organelles in biomedical applications). It is, therefore, possible that somewhat different system responses and outcomes can be achieved due to the ultrashort temporal regimes, or under the influence of high local electric fields. This operating domain can often trigger novel physics, or lead to effects dominated by nonequilibrium processes, or simply bring certain mechanisms to the forefront that might otherwise have remained negligible under near-equilibrium conditions.
This presentation will focus on our efforts at modeling and simulations of phenomena dominated by high electric fields, with inclusion of the transient processes. The goal is towards a better understanding for successful and more efficient applications to pulsed power, high power microwave generation, and biomedicine. The talk would include aspects of electron emission, outgassing in high power machines, operation of ultrafast photoconductive switches, materials engineering to curtail deleterious effects, electrochemotherapy and possible nerve stimulation, etc. The connection between engineering and the underlying science will also be discussed that can then lead to optimization.