Conference Agenda

Overview and details of the sessions of this conference. Please select a date or location to show only sessions at that day or location. Please select a single session for detailed view (with abstracts and downloads if available).

 
 
Session Overview
Date: Wednesday, 26/Aug/2020
11:00am - 11:25amOpening Day 1: Opening
Session Chair: Georgi V. Georgiev
Online (Time GMT+1) 
11:25am - 11:55amKeynote 1: Dr Jonathan Hey
Session Chair: Jean-François Boujut
Online 
11:55am - 12:40pmPodium 1: Measuring Design Creativity and Its Impact
Session Chair: Nathan Crilly
Online 
 

Retrospective and Prospective of the Study of Design Creativity: 80 Years into the Past and the Future

Ricardo Sosa1,2

1Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand; 2Monash University, Australia

Design creativity is a special type of imaginative capacity that plays an important, albeit still little understood, role in design activity. This paper returns to the primary sources to inform a critical review of the early studies of creative reasoning that have heavily influenced what we know and how we know it. It does this to inductively and reflectively formulate a prospective for the future study of design creativity that emphasizes a designerly outlook, facilitation skills, associative reasoning, the unearthing of assumptions, methodological awareness, types and stages of design ideas, design briefs, and purpose of ideation. A rethinking of the premises underlying the study of creative ideation has the potential to transform how we study, teach, and support the creative aspects of design practice in the twenty-first century and beyond.



On the novelty of software products

Alejandra Beghelli1, Sara Jones2

1Universidad Adolfo Ibañez, Goldsmiths, University of London; 2City, University of London

The identification of the key factors that make a tangible product creative has been the focus of significant research in the area of design. However, the same effort for software products is almost non-existent. With the ever-increasing importance of software applications in day-to-day life, such endeavour becomes more necessary. In this paper we report on preliminary results that build on our understanding of how we evaluate the creativity of tangible products, to identify key criteria that can be used in assessing the creativity of intangible software products. We argue that this provides a basis for designers to work together with software developers in pushing the boundaries of software innovation.



Creativity Assessment via Novelty and Usefulness (CANU) – Approach to an Easy to Use Objective Test Tool

Lorenz Prasch, Philipp Maruhn, Marcel Brünn, Klaus Bengler

Technichal University of Munich, Germany

Creativity, or the ability to generate new and useful ideas or products, is considered a key factor in modern society. The role it plays in the workplace and day-to-day activities is on the rise and - in the light of recent advances in artificial intelligence - will continue to increase. Considering the importance of the subject at hand, the fact that there is no standardized, reliable and scalable measurement tool is astonishing. In this paper, we introduce the creativity assessment via novelty and usefulness (CANU), an approach to an easy-to-use online measurement tool for creative performance. Using specifically tailored tasks, we aim to assess participants' performance in regard to the novelty and usefulness of solutions they produce.

 
12:40pm - 12:50pmBreak
 
12:50pm - 1:50pmPodium 2: Applied Design Creativity
Session Chair: Helena Hashemi Farzaneh
Online 
 

Co-Design Visions of Public Makerspaces in China

Busayawan Lam1, Youngok Choi1, Xi Chen1, Sophia de Sousa2

1Brunel University London, United Kingdom; 2The Glass-House Community Led Design

This paper discusses the design and outputs of co-design workshops used to facilitate the co-creation of a shared vision for public makerspaces in China and the design of such space. The workshops were held with Chinese and non-Chinese participants to identify similarities and differences in terms of approaches, outputs and key considerations. Initial results suggested that these workshops were effective at supporting value co-creation, as they excel at engaging participants and enable them to collaborate as equal partners. It was observed that Chinese participants were rather pragmatic and conscious of sustainable growth.



Businesspersons’ idea generation confidence shifts through a minimum design thinking training

Nanami Furue

Tokyo University of Science, Japan

Design thinking has long been focused as one of the methods for generating innovation. However, the universal effect of applying design thinking to the real business has sometimes been questioned. This paper aims to get more depth understanding towards change of the confidence at pre/post-minimum -design-thinking training on businesspersons. Through an analysis of answers from questionnaires collected at a half day design thinking workshop for businesspersons in Japan, two new hypotheses were suggested as (i) those who have originally high creative self-efficacy will lose their confidence and feel less easiness on idea generation after design thinking training and (ii) those who are not confident will gain their confidence and feel more easiness on idea generation after design thinking training. This study implied difference of idea generation confidence shift by difference of the original self-confidence before and after the minimum design thinking training.



Participation of healthcare representatives in health-related design sprints

Mira Alhonsuo1, Melanie Sarantou1, Samantha Hookway2, Satu Miettinen1, Maarja Motus3

1University of Lapland, Finland; 2University of Gothenburg, Academy of Design and Arts; 3Estonian Academy of Art

This paper examines the participation of various healthcare specialists and representatives in three design sprints aimed to co-design healthcare services through service design approaches. The design sprints were executed during the spring of 2019 in Gothenburg, Sweden; Tallinn, Estonia; and Rovaniemi, Finland, each lasting four to five days. This paper discusses the varied roles of healthcare representatives as participants in health-related design sprints and how these different participatory roles can optimise, support and catalyse design sprint processes to develop health services. The findings show that by being part of a team, healthcare representatives can learn to use design methods and design thinking, which have an impact on future development work for healthcare services. The value of the paper lies in presenting a practical framework for use in design sprints by healthcare representatives towards the development of health-related services.



Fixation in the creative practices and Perceptions of Independent Ceramic Designers

Qianang SUN, Eunyoung KIM

Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Japan

Fixation, as a mental activity, often discussed in the design process and creative expression. Most studies conducted experiment aims to find how to reduce the fixation in design processes(in vitro), so that enhance the creative expression, and there is rarely concern about how do designers deal with the fixation in their real works(in vitro). Ceramic design not only provides the utilitarian product but to meet people's novel and aesthetic needs nowadays. The independent designers attracted more and more attention for their stylized works. In this paper, we have interviewed thirteen independent ceramic designers to explore their creative practices and perceptions of the fixation in their design processes. We have adopted thematic analysis in this research, and three main factors played a crucial role in preventing the fixation involving 1) transformation, 2) repetition and 3) combination. This study will benefit craft designers, related stakeholders, also provide a reference for design education.

 
1:50pm - 1:55pmBreak
 
1:55pm - 2:55pmPodium 3: Diverse Perspectives on Design Cognition
Session Chair: Gaetano Cascini
Online 
 

Enhancing creativity by demonstrating individual vulnerability to fixation

Maria Adriana Neroni, Nathan Crilly

University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

Creative design behaviour can be inhibited by fixation and so reducing the risk of fixation is a focus of much design creativity research. Research in other fields indicates that an effective way of encouraging people to guard against a risk is to demonstrate that they, as individuals, are vulnerable to those risks. To study the effect of demonstrating individual vulnerability to fixation, we conducted an online experimental study using number and word tasks that are known to induce fixation. The first task was used to provide a ‘demonstrated vulnerability’ treatment (revealing the participants’ own fixated behaviour to them) and to provide the explanation for a comparable ‘asserted vulnerability’ treatment (warning participants about general fixation effects). In the subsequent creative task, the ‘demonstrated vulnerability’ group outperformed those in the ‘asserted vulnerability’ group and also those in a control group.



Brain Activity in Constrained and Open Design Spaces: An EEG study

Sonia Liliana da Silva Vieira1, John S. Gero2, Jessica Delmoral3, Shumin Li1, Gaetano Cascini1, António A. Fernandes4

1Politecnico di Milano, Italy; 2UNCC, Charlotte, NC; 3INEGI FEUP, Portugal; 4FEUP, Portugal

Creativity is widely recognized as an essential skill for changing the design space from constrained to open spaces. This study measures brain activation related to activity between those spaces by comparing the neurophysiological activation of 18 professional industrial designers in two prototypical tasks, a problem-solving constrained layout task and an open design task. The analysis focused on stages of the constrained and open design spaces, namely, reading and problem-solving, sketching and reflection. We look at the cognitive demand in closed and open spaces and how it translates in brain activation. Results indicate significant differences in activations between the problem-solving task and the design task. The results provide further evidence to discriminate between activities when designing and problem-solving. In particular, reading open or closed requests seems to evoke different levels of perception and conception, prompting designers to change their solution space, which translates in expanded activation in the open design task.



An analysis of socio-cognitive activities during co-creative design supported by spatialized augmented reality

Cédric Masclet, Laetitia Baldacchino, Jean-François Boujut

UGA, France

This study investigate the mechanisms by which spatialized augmented reality (SAR) technology can affect socio-cognitive processes in groups involved in co-creative design sessions. A protocol analysis has been conducted to investigate three different design session involving eperienced designers and end-userson a product design task: a design session supported by classic design representations (no augmented reality), a design session supported by non-spatialized augmented reality (AR), and a session supported by SAR technology. While results don’t show that SAR or AR technology increase end-user/client implication, they illustrate the ability for these technologies to allow browsing through more ideas during a co-creative design session. Furthermore, it tends to reduce time spent on ideas, compared to a traditionnal session. We also noted that introduction of these different technologies does not modify the profiles of the sessions in terms of cognitive activities. This tends to demonstrate that the technology does not impair the design activities.



Sustaining creativity with neuro-cognitive feedback: a preliminary study

Tripp Shealy1, John Gero2, Julie Milovanovic3, Mo Hu1

1Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, USA; 2Department of Computer Science and School of Architecture, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC, USA; 3AAU-CRENAU, Graduate School of Architecture, Nantes, France

Ideation is a key phase in engineering design and brainstorming is an established method during ideation. The proposal of ideas tends to peak at the beginning of the brainstorming process and quickly decreases over time. In this preliminary study, we tested an innovative solution to sustain ideation by providing engineering designers feedback about their neuro-cognition. We used a novel neuro-imaging technique called functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to monitor engineering design students during a brainstorming task. Half were given real-time feedback about their brain activation. Our results show that these students applied more cognitive effort in the region of the brain generally associated with memory retrieval and making associations compared to the control group of students that were not provided neuro-feedback. Students that received neuro-feedback also generated significantly more concepts over time and displayed a higher fluency of engineering design solutions.

 
2:55pm - 3:30pmShort 1: Creative Design Processes and Methods
Session Chair: Julie Milovanovic
Online 
 

AN INTERACTION-BASED DESIGN THINKING APPROACH FOR ARCHITECTURE AS A COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEM

Tao Shen1, Yukari Nagai2

1College of Design and Innovation, Tongji University, Shanghai , China; 2Knowledge Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Nomi City, Japan

Creativity is a vital part of design studies, and many literatures have approached design creativity from the perspectives of cognition and social behaviors. Several methods and tools have been introduced for enhancing design creativity, most of which focus on two aspects—the process and outcome of design. However, these methods for creative architecture design mainly follow a reductionist approach, and the complex nature of the 21st century architecture is often ignored. In this paper, we first review the simplicity and complexity of architecture, based on which we acknowledge architecture as a complex adaptive system, and present a new design thinking approach for creative architecture design, named “Concept Topology Optimization” (CTO). A case study that utilizes CTO is conducted to explore the application of the proposed method in the architecture space design, and a controlled experiment demonstrates the effectiveness of this method by measuring the idea quality and quantity.



The problematization for creativity in design

Luiza Grazziotin Selau1,2,3, Julio van der Linden1, Carlos Duarte2, Teemu Leinonen3

1UFRGS - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul; 2IADE - Universidade Europeia; 3Aalto University

This paper discusses the relations between stages of design projects. The literature review is based on authors who already discussed the subject to present a reflection on the stages of the process, focusing on the stage of problematization in order to establish relationships and show the importance of this stage in projects. It is intended to show that the problematization has an impact on the creativity phase and, consequently, on the results of the project. The literature review shows the link between the problematization and the design process as a whole. Besides proposing that with a well developed problematization the designer acquires the necessary knowledge about the project so that the creativity stage is well-done and the project results are more assertive. In this way, it is considered that the problematization has importance in the whole project process. So article shows the importance of this step for a design project.



A Bottom up Functional Domain Synthesis Approach for Creative Conceptual Design.

Yu-Tong Li, Yu-Xin Wang

China University of Petroleum, China, People's Republic of

A bottom-up functional synthesis approach for mechanical products in accordance with the equivalence relations in granularities, topologies, and attributes based on the domain synthetic theory in quotient space is proposed. The equivalence partition rules are objective and independent of a designer's experience and knowledge. Different equivalence partition rules will lead to different sub-functions, working principles, and function-structures to be generated. Then, the partition schemes based on the granularity equivalence relations are secondly divided into two quotient spaces corresponding to the time sequence equivalence relation and the space position equivalence relation, respectively. In this way, the synthesized sub-functions, which are formed and contributed by all of basic operation actions in the divided subsets, can take place in time and space continuously and orderly.



Literature review: Existing methods using VR to enhance creativity

Zhengya Gong, Georgi V. Georgiev

Ubiquitous Computing (UBICOMP),University of Oulu, Finland

Abstract: Virtual reality (VR) technology has introduced a range of equipment, contexts, and stimuli with possible applications in the context of design creativity. In response, recent studies have investigated VR as a tool that can be applied to enhance creativity. As a part of such research, this paper reviews existing studies and provides a state-of-the-art literature review based on the componential theory of creativity. Based on studies that investigate the use VR to enhance creativity, we found that VR can be used to improve specific factors to enhance creativity, and a natural environment can be considered a positive factor for enhancing creativity. Therefore, we propose a hypothesis that VR technology could be a useful method to simulate nature for enhancing creativity; experimentation based on the hypothesis is expected to be conducted in the future.

 
Date: Thursday, 27/Aug/2020
11:00am - 11:05amOpening Day 2: Opening
Session Chair: Georgi V. Georgiev
Online (Time GMT+1) 
11:05am - 12:05pmPodium 4: Responsible Design
Session Chair: Ricardo Sosa
Online 
 

Success-oriented eco-ideation sessions: lessons learnt from the use of ten eco-design guidelines

Lorenzo Maccioni, Yuri Borgianni

Free University of Bozen|Bolzano - Faculty of Science and Technology, Italy

The fields of eco-design and design creativity have not found strategic synergies yet. This applies despite the fact that the paramount objective of eco-design, i.e. sustainable development, might benefit from the radical design changes creativity can engender. In parallel, those significant changes should also support the transformation of products towards designs that exhibit major success chances, which is still in line with the perspectives of sustainable development. The authors have developed ten guidelines to guide eco-design towards creative and successful outcomes and the present paper illustrates the first experimentation thereof. The results of the experiment show that the compliance with the guidelines determines a satisfactory trade-off between environmental friendliness and success chances, as well as fully increasing the novelty of ideas. The outcomes are however affected by a remarked misalignment between the views of the two evaluators, i.e. an industrial player and an academic expert in eco-design.



Revealing the hidden: using co-design to explore campus sustainability through data physicalisation

Ian Gwilt, Aaron Davis

University of South Australia, Australia

Cites around the world are looking for ways to reduce the energy consumption associated with the built environment, but there are a number of significant challenges in this. These include, difficulties in making energy consumption data meaningful, particularly when people are not financially liable for consumption, and communicating the complexity associated with energy mix. In this research, data physicalisation principles are applied through a co-design approach to investigate how the users of a university campus understand the concept of energy. Key findings include a tension between a scientific understanding of energy and the experience of various forms of human energy including both physical and metaphysical understandings of energy, and the importance of translating energy data from the quantitative into an emotional context in which people can be encouraged to stop and take note. This is reflected upon in the context of sustainability transitions and behaviour change approaches more generally.



Understanding emotional responses and perception within new creative practices of biological materials

Nurul Ayn Ahmad Sayuti1,2, Saeema Ahmed-Kristensen1

1Design Products, Royal College of Art, London, United Kingdom; 2Industrial Design, Faculty of Art & Design, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia

There is an increasing trend for designers to use living systems, through biodesign and biophilia in the urban environment. As new creative processes emerge, the perception and emotional responses of users towards these new systems are somewhat unknown. This paper aims to study the emotional responses and perceptions towards biological materials that are embedded in existing product designs. Data was collected from 58 respondents through an online questionnaire. The findings from this exploratory study show that the significant differences by comparing the respondents with a background in design and non-design towards the level of desirability, practicality, aesthetically pleasing and the common use towards artificial and real biological materials. This paper extends existing understanding of perception and emotional responses to design incorporated living systems and can begin validating existing studies which have brought different perspectives towards the functions, practicality, aesthetical value and emotional attachments of products.



Sensemaking in the design space: in-betweenness and identity construction of design managers

Tarja Pääkkönen, Sarantou Melanie, Satu Miettinen

University of Lapland, Finland

Identities and notions of the in-betweenness of designers in management positions in Silicon Valley might be shaped by one another given changing sensemaking contexts. As organising becomes less bounded with shorter job tenures designers have been constructing their identities in interactions with diverse stakeholders. Tools, skills and values together with previous experiences continuously shape design manager identities. This research explored design manager in-betweenness by linking it with identity construction, critical sensemaking and social constructionism. While hybrid design managers produce profits and innovations by utilising user data, they also might steer their organisations towards more inclusive values and global responsibility. Internal struggles may follow while there is a need for open interdisciplinary reflection. A broader global understanding of the design space is suggested. Implications for education extend beyond the design field. Deeper reflection on ethics and production consequences across occupational silos enhances critical thinking, enabling collective identity cultivation in organisational sensemaking

 
12:05pm - 12:15pmBreak
 
12:15pm - 12:55pmShort 2: Creativity in Collaborative and Participatory Design
Session Chair: Hernan Casakin
Online 
 

Participatory Design Research of Vegetable-based Snack Products with Adolescent Participants

Alice Sophie Melissa Mort Gilmour, Steve Gill, Gareth Loudon

Cardiff Metropolitan University, United Kingdom

The childhood obesity epidemic is often attributed to the widespread marketing of High Fat, Salt and Sugar (HFSS) foods. Currently, there is a lack of vegetable-based New Product Development (NPD) targeting adolescent consumers. The study aimed to investigate adolescents’ willingness to incorporate three vegetables: cauliflower, potatoes and cabbage into vegetable-based snack products. Two participatory design research sessions were conducted with Welsh adolescents aged 12- to 13-years-old (n=41). The adolescents undertook three activities: (1) listing snack products currently eaten; (2) determining foods they associated with cauliflower, potatoes and cabbage; and, (3) designing a new vegetable-based snack product. Abductive thematic analysis resulted in four themes: taste preferences, commercial branding, convenience, and health consciousness. Developing healthy vegetable-based snack products could potentially improve the dietary quality of adolescents. This is one of the first participatory design research studies to include adolescents in the NPD process for healthy snack products.



Process of Mess Mapping™ the Challenges of Cross-Border Mobility in the Barents Region

Mari Suoheimo1, Toni Lusikka2

1University of Lapland, Finland; 2VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

There is a challenge in identifying problems in common to tackle them creatively and jointly in Mobility as a Service (MaaS) development. This all requires collaboration and commitment, which is a wicked problem and a novel perspective in transportation and MaaS development. Mess Map™ is a tool to aid in creating shared understanding in cross-border mobility in the Barents region. Mess Map™ is a giant map that aims to map the whole complexity through a dialogue among the relevant stakeholders involved. In this case study, there were five transportation and MaaS projects besides other relevant stakeholders involved. The meetings were facilitated and run from a service design perspective that has a co-creational and holistic aim. The objective was to understand how the tool can be used in a service design process and how it can help the stakeholders to engage and find common goals.



Let’s hear children voice. An implementation of a design process model to understand kid’s view on tangible interaction.

Marta Cortés Orduña1, Ivan Sanchez Milara1, Marianne Kinnula2, Tonja Molin-Juustila2, Anne-Marie Oikarinen3, Jukka Riekki1

1Center for Ubiquitious Computing. University of Oulu, Finland; 2INTERACT research unit. University of Oulu, Finland; 3University of Oulu, Finland

Children provide innovative insights and perspectives when designing and evaluating prospective technologies and interaction methods. However, utilizing children as design informants requires thinking carefully on the methodologies used in the different steps of the design process. In this paper, we present our insights on a case-study in which a group of 24 kids (9-12 years old) participated in different steps of a design process with the goal of understanding children view on new technologies and their perception on tangible interaction. We utilized a lightweight design process model: children first reflect on the use of technologies and participate in an ideation session. Based on this, university researchers build different prototypes that are evaluated in a final session by the kids. We expect our learnings on the whole design process we propose, help researchers in the field of collaborative design when organizing design activities with kids.



DROWNING-PREVENTION BY DESIGN: THE SEMIOTICS OF PROTOTYPING IN LOW-RESOURCE ENVIRONMENTS – CASE STUDY ZANZIBAR

Franziska Conrad, Lucy Devall

Arts University Bournemouth, United Kingdom

This paper presents an overview of an exploratory case study collaboration between Arts University Bournemouth (AUB) and the Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) in support of an RNLI delivery programme for international community management of drowning prevention in low-resource environments. The study focuses on the development of low-volume public rescue throw-lines that can be community made and maintained, the assembly and use of which are supported by a set of RNLI-developed instruction manuals intended for universal dissemination. The study examines the clarity of the instructions in the context of the makers’ interpretation of the manuals within the local constraints of Zanzibar. Preliminary findings indicate that these universally intended instruction manuals, in their current format, are open to interpretation, producing unsafe drowning prevention rescue lines that do not meet safety-critical standards. A re-design of the manuals through creative collaboration in a local context are the outcomes of this research.



Emotions: The invisible aspect of co-creation workshops

Mariluz Soto Hormazábal, Caoimhe Beaule, Satu Miettinen, Mira Alhonsuo

University of Lapland, Finland

This article focuses on the emotions service designers experience in their role as facilitators. We will explore emotions in the context of a co-creative environment, and discuss how encounters between participants and facilitators generate different perspectives despite a common environment. Facilitators’ perceptions of participant emotions are lacking in accuracy due to the influence of their own emotional experiences during a workshop. This article suggests that knowledge and understanding of the emotional aspect of co-creation workshops could provide facilitators with additional support when conducting workshops, and lead to better outcomes and more meaningful experiences for all involved.

 
12:55pm - 1:55pmPodium 5: ICT and Creative Tools for Innovation
Session Chair: Netta Iivari
Online 
 

The Effect of Abstraction Methods in Bio-inspired Design – A Workshop and a Team Project Perspective

Lea Götz, Ida Vinkas, Helena Hashemi Farzaneh

Technische Universität München, Germany

Bio-inspired design can inspire highly innovative technical solutions. However, biological inspirations in most cases have to be abstracted to transfer useful analogies to the technical domain. Is it worth the effort to use supporting methods, namely BioCards and KoMBi, or can design teams develop bio-inspired solutions of the same quality without these methods? To answer these questions, we conducted workshops with pairs of engineering design students collaborating in an agile development project. The results of our study show that the task-specific quality of solution ideas increased significantly when using the BioCards method. The analysis of the prototypes developed throughout the project shows that the use of both abstraction methods has the highest effect on the abstraction level of analogical transfer and on the depth of understanding of the biological inspiration. These results indicate that the use of abstraction methods is recommendable for bio-inspired design teams in a comparable setting.



Similarity Computation Supporting the Inventive Solutions

Xin Ni1, Ahmed Samet2, Denis Cavallucci3

1INSA de Strasbourg; 2INSA de Strasbourg; 3INSA de Strasbourg

Creativity sessions in industry, when they are based solely on people's knowledge, produce less and less value. This is mainly due to the need to further expand the spectrum of knowledge needed to solve problems. We are therefore increasingly witnessing the limits of our knowledge capabilities to meet the demands of today's inventive problem-solving in industry. The research presented in this paper proposes a method of semantic association between problems extracted from an unstructured textual corpus of a patent using Google's Word2vec algorithm followed by cosine similarity to create original pairings between problems from different but semantically close domains. We postulate that such a method is a preamble to the automation of TRIZ and thus avoids the difficulties of not having been updated for a few decades.



Opportunities with Uncertainties: An Outlook of Virtual Reality in Early Stage of Design

Xinhui Hu, Georgi V. Georgiev

Center for Ubiquitous Computing, University of Oulu, Finland

Adopting immersive Virtual Reality (VR) technology in the early stages of design has been an appealing idea to designers, as research showed that immersing people in a virtual environment could efficiently elicit empathy and facilitate deeper understandings of out-group members. However, after exploring and synthesizing literature across fields of design, psychology, and neuroscience, this study found the opportunities brought by VR are accompanied by uncertainties. In this study, we (1) identified the benefits of adopting immersive VR in the early design stage, such as enhancing empathy and promoting design equity, (2) discovered previously unrealized problems that VR may bring to the design process, especially the potential biases due to emotional connection, and (3) determined the future direction for relevant research: gaining deeper knowledge about operators' mental activities to mitigate the biases and uncertainties.



The Wrong Theory Protocol: A design thinking tool to enhance creative ideation

Vanessa Svihla1, Luke Kachelmeier2

1University of New Mexico, United States of America; 2US Air Force

Supporting designers to empathize with stakeholder points of view while still developing creative solutions is challenging, particularly when stakeholders’ lives and experiences are quite different from their own. In this study, we characterize a new ideation technique, wrong theory protocol (WTP), that has supported student designers to come up with empathetic and creative ideas. Participants included students enrolled in undergraduate and graduate courses at a Hispanic-serving, research university in the southwestern US. In WTP, participants first frame a problem and are then prompted to come up with solutions that would harm and humiliate the intended users before coming up with good ideas. Using artefacts from WTP sessions, we analysed the diversity of both harmful/humiliating and good ideas. WTP participants produced divergent, empathetic ideas, suggesting WTP supports creative ideation.

 
1:55pm - 2:05pmBreak
 
2:05pm - 2:40pmShort 3: Teaching Design Creativity
Session Chair: Niccolò Becattini
Online 
 

Forcing Creativity in Agile Innovation Processes through ASD-Innovation Coaching

Albert Albers1, Carsten Hahn2, Manuel Niever2, Jonas Heimicke1, Florian Marthaler1, Markus Spadinger1

1Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany; 2University of Applied Sciences Karlsruhe, Germany

The challenge to handle uncertainties as well as a rapidly changing and challenging environment in product development is increasingly faced by implementing agile approaches into the companies’ organization. To foster the goal of agility in product development processes the approach of ASD-Innovation Coaching helps organizations to leverage their innovation potential. This research defines the concept of ASD-Innovation Coaching, which enables product development teams to introduce and deepening their competencies into an agile and structured innovation process with the aim of implementing a degree of agility that is appropriate to the complexity of the task to be accomplished. The necessary activities of an ASD-Innovation Coach are described and located contentwise in order to enable problem-solving teams in agile development projects of ASD - Agile Systems Design. Coaching the team with a deep understanding of the technical system and agile approaches fosters systematic agility and generates increased creativity into development projects.



On the design of playful training material for information security awareness

Johan Lugnet, Åsa Ericson, Martin Lundgren, Johan Wenngren

Information Systems, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden

This paper presents the rationale for the design of a card deck game sustaining information security training. The efforts have followed design thinking, been inspired by an approach for problem-based learning, and used gamification. The card deck game primarily aims to support entrepreneurs in small and medium-sized manufacturing companies, heading towards the introduction of digital services, yet is also useful for anyone to practice risk awareness. Information security, here in short representing the efforts to protect information and mitigate risks to uphold confidentiality, integrity and availability, is by SMEs often seen as a technical problem, but is depending on human behaviour. Literature on security training, emphasises the relevance of interpersonal dialogues and reflection, such reflection is not supported by traditional education, as for instance reading theory and answering questions. The application of gamification has shown to increase awareness, where the play becomes an eye-opener to progress focused dialogues and learning.



Bridging Design Thinking and EntreComp for Entrepreneurship Workshops: A Learning Experience

Duncan Campbell1, Gerasimos Balis2, Bijan Aryana3

1Lancaster University, United Kingdom; 2University of Bristol, United Kingdom; 3Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden

Design Thinking (DT) is commonly used in Entrepreneurship Education, however it’s capacity to support entrepreneurial competencies has not been explored sufficiently. In this study, we used a multi-method approach to gain an in-depth understanding of participants’ learning journeys in two early entrepreneurship events. These were structured around DT and specifically IDEO’s implementation of Human Centred Design (HCD). Through semi-structured interviews and non-participant observation we were able to link the stages of HCD to specific competencies and identify competencies that manifest across the wider process. We draw conclusions on the contribution of DT in the development of these competencies and make suggestions for using EntreComp to add nuance to DT interventions. Finally we discuss the impact of facilitation, professionalism, customization and logistical factors on the success of DT interventions.



Teaching creative design and systematic creativity: overview and case study

Iuliia Shnai, Anastasia Chakir, Leonid Chechurin

LUT University, Finland

The growth of eLearning technologies seriously outpaces the research-based recommendation on how to apply these tools for effective results. The emerging education technologies provide an opportunity for teaching improvement. This research refers to the teaching in the field of creative design. The study helps to understand which education innovative teaching methods and learning strategies are used for teaching creative design and specifically TRIZ. The aim of this paper is to overview the innovative teaching methods for creative design and education technologies used for its teaching.The review demonstrated that the most influential approaches to teaching creativity are problem solving and collaborative learning with limited technology implementation and description. The experience of teaching demonstrates that flipped classroom setup increases the engagement measured by students' high video views and involvement in the class.

 
2:40pm - 3:10pmKeynote 2: Prof Jill Perry-Smith
Session Chair: Saeema Ahmed-Kristensen
Online 
Date: Friday, 28/Aug/2020
10:25am - 10:30amOpening Day 3: Opening
Session Chair: Georgi V. Georgiev
Online (Time GMT+1) 
10:30am - 11:00amSIG Meeting: SIG Design Creativity
Session Chair: Yukari Nagai
Online 
11:00am - 11:05amBreak
 
11:05am - 11:35amLive presentation: Fab Lab Oulu
Session Chair: Ivan Sanchez Milara
Online 
11:35am - 12:35pmPodium 6: User-centred Design Creativity
Session Chair: Ian Gwilt
Online 
 

Facilitating design for the unknown: An inclusive innovation design journey with a San community in the Kalahari Desert

Heike Winschiers-Theophilus1, Veera Virmasalo2, Marly Samuel1, Brit Stichel3, Helena Afrikaner1

1NUST, Namibia; 2Malmö University; 3Flensburg University of Applied Sciences

This paper presents a 2-year collaboration that explored how we as design researchers may support an isolated and marginalised indigenous San community to innovate technology products for affluent consumer markets on the other side of the world. The goal was to design a product that brings income to the community, builds skills while facilitating a creative design of self-expression. Community-based co-design was integrated into an inclusive innovation approach. The resulting product was a series of fridge magnet souvenirs using augmented reality technology. As the community was designing not only for a technology but also for an audience unknown to them, we conceptualised the unknown within the process. Our role extended to facilitating negotiations between commercial goals and communities’ creative self-expression. We present the appropriated community-based co-design process and reflect on how our facilitation of the unknown affected the process, the creativity and the self-expression by the San participants.



Value conflict, convergence and evolution – values shaping cross-disciplinary design

Netta Iivari

University of Oulu, Finland

Values are shaping and underlying our behaviour, including creative design. In cross-disciplinary design, there may be a multitude of values shaping and underlying design. So far, there is a lack of studies on values in cross-disciplinary design. This study utilizes a value lens to examine cross-disciplinary design of a learning application within which Human Computer Interaction (HCI), educational science and Information Technology (IT) specialists as well as users acted as design participants. The study reveals numerous values implicated in design. Educational science specialists emphasized a multitude of values; sometimes even conflicting ones, in their design for learners, while HCI specialists and IT specialists advocated Security and Self-Actualization values for users. Both value conflicts and convergence emerged and those were identified both between and among these designer groups as well as between designers and users. Evolution and negotiation of values was also observable. Implications for research and practice are discussed.



DESIGN FOR ONE: PERSONALISATION AND EXPERIENCES OF DESIGN RESEARCHERS AND PARTICIPANTS

M.C. den Haan, R.G.A. Brankaert, Y. Lu

University of Technology Eindhoven, Netherlands, The

Personalisation in design is desired to address the uniqueness of people, and the design for one process is suitable to achieve this. However, more research is needed on people’s experience with such a process to learn from it and improve it. We describe and examine the design for one processes of three different design cases, where young design researchers co-design with older adults to create personal designs. We found that the process is beneficial to interpret results better. However, the workload needs to be considered, and we can potentially extend further in personalizing the process by defining the users’ creative strengths beforehand. Furthermore, we discuss applying this design for one process with other target groups and discuss the value of the unique findings of each particular case. Hereby, we contribute to how to execute and evaluate the design for one process and further enhance it for application in sensitive settings.



Empathy and Idea Generation: Exploring the Design of a Virtual Reality Controller for Rehabilitation Purposes

Yazan A M Barhoush1, Georgi V Georgiev1, Brian Loudon2

1Center for Ubiquitous Computing, University of Oulu, Finland; 2Loud1Design, Glasgow, UK

The paper explores the ideation and design of a Virtual Reality (VR) proof-of-concept controller for rehabilitation of users with limited physical mobility (upper-limb disability). An existing tracker solution is used to map input (actions and movements) in VR. The main challenge was integrating some of the default functionalities existing in current commercial VR controllers, while providing an empathic setup and a use-case for disability rehabilitation, as well as keeping the controller compact, lightweight, and handheld. The prototyping process followed a human-centred explorative design idea generation. Only limited functionality of existing commercial controllers was maintained, with the feasibility and readiness for implementing additional functionalities to use the controller with existing applications and future use cases. An experiment was performed to investigate the usability of the system and the effectiveness and reliability of the controller in empathic re-mapping of real-life disability to VR.

 
12:35pm - 12:45pmBreak
 
12:45pm - 1:20pmShort 4: Applied Design Creativity
Session Chair: Yuri Borgianni
Online 
 

The effects of customers' cultural values on their perceptions of lodging service quality: A comparative analysis of customers at traditional Japanese inns

Nguyen PB Chau

Hitotsubashi University, Japan

Growth in international travel has led to the need to be aware of cultural elements in designing services. This paper examines how consumers’ culture influences their perceptions of lodging service quality with strong cultural characteristics, by comparing the evaluation of Asian and Western guests at Japanese-style inns (ryokan). Results show differences in their perceptions, with Western guests evaluating the service more preferably than Asian customers. The study suggests lodging facilities to consider the culture of their guests when designing their service environment.



Analysing Divergent-Convergent Activities in the Architectural Studio, with the aid of the 'Knowledge Construction Activities' model

Hadas Sopher

Technion, Israel

Design activities and divergent-convergent developmental activities are considered to be of essential importance in developing design solutions, making them an important learning objective in the architectural studio. However, since most studio assessments focus on the quality of the artefact, learners are not provided with adequate feedback as to their achievements in applying these activities during the learning process. In response, this study utilizes the "Knowledge Construction Activities" (KCAs) model as a means to measure the application of the stated activities in learners' performance throughout the course. Learners' design decisions and the modifications applied upon them to generate design development are coded into measurable learning graphs, making it possible to identify peaks of divergent-convergent activity as well as reduced practice. A case study of three undergraduates highlights in detail each subject's performance, providing the means to support a custom-tailored approach to teaching.



Relationship between design thinking and personality traits

Rui Mao1, Yuichi Washida2, Nanami Furue3

1Hitotsubashi University, Japan; 2Hitotsubashi University, Japan; 3Tokyo University of Science, Japan

This paper is an attempt to gain more better insight of into design thinking from a micro-viewpoint by through the associatingon of design thinking with human beings’ personality traits. Based on the previous research, we conjecture that personality traits are also associated with the capacity for utilizing design thinking. In order tTo examine test the our hypotheseis, we focused on the five-stage Design Thinking model proposed by the d.school and utilized FFM (Five-Factor Model) to a description ofbe personalityies. 28 students, who have experiences of design thinking activities, participated in the study who have experiences of design thinking activities. We used correlation analysis and observed the significant relationship between personality traits and individuals’ capacity for utilizing design thinking.



A Statistical Analysis for the Car Key Fob Crowdsourced Design Evaluation Results based on the cDesign Framework

Hao Wu1, Jonathan Corney2, Jing Gan1

1Sichuan University, China, People's Republic of; 2University of Strathclyde, UK

The “power of the crowd” has been repeatedly demonstrated and various Internet platforms have been used to applied collaborative intelligence to areas that range from open innovation to conceptual design. However, crowdsourcing applications in the fields of design research and creative innovation have been much slower to emerge. In this paper, the statistical analysis methods (i.e., normal probability plots) were used to validate the crowdsourced design evaluation results in the authors’ previous crowdsourced design case study (i.e., car key fob design task). The discussion about the ranking distributions and results suggested that standard distribution trendlines and r2 results proved the effects of the ranking evaluation method used in the case study. The distribution determined that the evaluation process and results matched a normal distribution. As the contribution to knowledge, this paper applied the statistical analysis method to measure and approve the crowdsourced design evaluation method and its results.

 
1:20pm - 2:20pmPodium 7: Design Creativity in Education
Session Chair: Sara Jones
Online 
 

A Renewed Understanding of Creativity is Paramount prior to Introducing Students to a Life Design Attitude

Kirsten Bonde Sørensen

Danish School of Media and Journalism, Denmark

Students of today are faced with the reality of an unpredictable working life in a constantly turbulent and fast-changing world. This has led to an intense focus on entrepreneurship. Yet,we seem to overlook the fact that students are increasingly challenged by stress and depression. We need to rethink education to include knowledge and tools not only for creating a job, but for reshaping life in general. This paper is part of a larger body of research aimed at introducing students to a Life Design Attitude. Research has proven that design can be used in value clarification and lead to changes in inappropriate beliefs and behaviour. In other words, design can be used to create better lives. However, by comparing data from three workshops this paper concludes that prior to introducing students to a design-attitude to life there is an urgent need for a renewed understanding of creativity in educational institutions.



Self-assessment of creative performance with a learning-by-doing approach: getting familiar with Novelty, Quality, Quantity and Variety

Niccolò Becattini1, Tiziano Montecchi2, Christopher Nikulin2, Gaetano Cascini1

1Politecnico di Milano, Italy; 2Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Chile

The paper discusses the outcomes of tailored ideation workshops (duration: 3 hours) for students of Design Engineering, not trained in design creativity dimensions and their assessment. 65 participants generated ideas to address a design problem, first individually and then in groups of 4/5 people. They were asked to cluster their ideas intuitively and then according to the structure of the genealogy tree. The reflections on the ideation experience (structured consistently with the Kolb cycle) helped them to easily consolidate their understanding of typical metrics of creativity (Novelty, Quality, Quantity and Variety). A survey questions them after four months from the workshop and the results show that the metrics are still clear, despite some controversial results appear for quantity. The investigation also shows that novelty has become the main driver to self-assess the effectiveness of their creative ideation performance.



Semantic measures in design conversations as predictors of creative outcomes in design education

Georgi V. Georgiev1, Hernan Casakin2

1Center for Ubiquitous Computing, University of Oulu, Finland; 2School of Architecture, Ariel University, Israel

The analysis of conversations maintained during the design activity can help to gain a better insight into design thinking and its relation to creativity. A semantic analysis approach was employed to inspect the content of communications and information exchange between students and instructors. The goal was to explore design conversations in terms of Abstraction, Polysemy, Information Content and Semantic Similarity measures, and analyse their relation to the creativity of final design outcomes. These were assessed according to their Originality, Usability, Feasibility, Overall Value and Overall Creativity. To this end, design conversations from the 10th Design Thinking Research Symposium (DTRS10) dataset were used. Main results show a significant relationship between Information Content and Originality and Overall Creativity. For instructors, Semantic measures were mainly related to Feasibility, whereas for students the focus was set on the Overall Value of the final solutions.



Too many attributes!: Diminishing the cognitive load of metaphor generation for product design

Alejandra Beghelli1, Pablo Prieto2

1Universidad Adolfo Ibañez, Goldsmiths, University of London; 2Engineering Design Department, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María

Many successful products result from a creative ideation process guided by the use of metaphors. Metaphors are used to embed meaning or values in a final product, or as a tool to structure design problems and generate creative solutions. In the former case, the source of inspiration is selected because it naturally exhibits the required traits, whereas, in the latter, the source might be randomly chosen. In both cases, the final result is achieved by transferring one or more attributes from the source to the target product. Given that the number of transferrable attributes is very high compared to the capacity of human’s working memory, how can we ensure that we are exploring all possible solutions? Are generated metaphors better when all options are in plain sight? In this paper we describe preliminary results drawn from the use of a tool aimed at facilitating metaphor generation for product concepts.

 
2:20pm - 2:30pmBreak
 
2:30pm - 2:55pmShort 5: Case Studies of Design Creativity
Session Chair: Hadas Sopher
Online 
 

A Topological Variation-Oriented Approach for Enhancing Creativity in Product Design Education

Fei FEI1, Yukari Nagai2, Yang YU2,1

1Dalian Polytechnic University, China, People's Republic of; 2Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology

This thesis introduces an approach for aiming at promoting the effect of product design creativity by using topological properties variations.

The topological variation – oriented approach for creativity generation (TVC) as a visualized sheet that evolved from a rich picture and showed the relationship between products and human was constructed through four territories: human, product, interaction, and experience. Each field is distributed in a vertical direction from left to right in a logical order of product, human, interaction, and experience. Each field is divided into several elements, and corresponding elements of each field are arranged in a horizontal direction. When topological properties variations occurred, certain new relationships arose in the elements and the novel products were generated strong possibility. Subjects use this approach to get creative ideas that are significantly innovative. It can attract the attention of consumers to the greatest extent.



A Framework to Analyse Digital Fabrication Projects: The Role of Design Creativity

Sohail Ahmed Soomro, Georgi V. Georgiev

Center for Ubiquitous Computing, University of Oulu, Finland

In this study, we formulate a framework to evaluate open-ended projects related to digital fabrication. The framework consists of two dimensions, i.e. human intellect and technology. Human intellect is judged by three sub-dimensions – creativity, computational thinking, and skills. In order to study the technology dimension, the four sub-dimensions include process, outcome, development stage, and reproducibility. To test the proposed framework, a case study was applied on digital fabrication projects done in Fab Academy 2019. Final projects of students are selected to implement the framework since final projects exemplify most of the skills learned by a student of the digital fabrication course. In addition, the proposed framework is also assessed in the light of existing literature done to evaluate learning in similar types of projects. The results establish the relationship among different sub parameters of human intellect and technology, and present the open-ended project evaluation results.



Necessity of key stakeholder-based role-plays for NPD projects -- A case study for a project team of Non-Industrial Robotics in Japan

XIANG YU, JIAWEI GAO, YUICHI WASHIDA

Business School/ Hitotsubashi University, Tokyo, Japan

Companies have been increasingly opting to utilize project teams to contend with highly turbulent and dynamic conditions while under current uncertainty markets, stakeholders have tremendous influences on the performance of NPD projects. On the other hand, it is normal that the conflicts between different key stakeholders’ interests exists and the new interest may be generated among the NPD progress. Due to these reasons, managing the relationships among the stakeholders in NPD projects is an extremely complicated work and thus the key stakeholder-based role-plays may be vital for the NPD performance. In this paper we analyze the dynamic of key stakeholders of the first three stages of the non-industrial robotic NPD in Japan and propose that the key stakeholder-based role-plays is needed for the future two NPD stages.

 
2:55pm - 3:10pmClosing: Closing
Session Chair: Georgi V. Georgiev
Online 
3:10pm - 3:25pmAnnouncement: Announcement
Session Chair: Georgi V. Georgiev
Online 

 
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