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Agrifood Ecosystem: Exploiting Convergence Between Artificial Intelligence and Blockchain
Authors: Adriana Carotenuto (University of Naples Federico II, Italy), Tiziana Russo Spena (University of Naples Federico II, Italy), Cristina Mele (University of Naples Federico II, Italy), Marialuisa Marzullo (University of Naples Federico II, Italy), Swapnil Murlidhar Morande (University of Naples FEDERICO II, Italy)
The term "Artificial Intelligence" (AI) was used for the first time to describe "the science and engineering of the manufacture of intelligent machines"(McCarthy,1956). All data that is collected via an artificial intelligence device is organized and transmitted; but most artificial intelligence applications have to handle large volumes of data and the flow of data collection speed. Blockchain technology relies on a peer-to-peer network facilitating the exchange of data, the access to transparent and shared information (Seebacher, S., Schüritz, R.,2017); it helps AI to decentralize data and validate it without the possibility of manipulation (Helbing, D.2019). The Blockchain and Artificial Intelligence together with IoT devices are converging in many businesses that shows significant potential for elevating the use of data and other resources (Lin ,et al. 2018; Vermesan, O.,et al. 2017; Banafa, A.2017). For example, agrifood sector (Samaniego-Cobo, T.,et al. 2018) requires the higher standard of transparency and traceability to the exchange of information in the supply chain; the smart technologies are expected to contribute greatly to such efforts (Tripoli, M., Schmidhuber, J.2018). Few scholars analyse the convergence between technologies to foster business and innovation opportunities (Ng, I. C. 2014; Lin, J.,et al. 2018; Ng, I., & Wakenshaw, S.2018) and often the studies are limited to some technical aspects such as safety and transparency of transactions (Siriram, R. 2011; Kim, J., & Lee, S.2013).Recent studies within service-innovation literature have pointed to the service ecosystems perspective to cope with increasing complexity of market, technology and innovation (Vargo and Lusch, 2016; Ng, I., & Wakenshaw, S.2018). Russo Spena and Mele, 2018).They have recently recognized the need to focus on how digitization functions as “a new layer of connected intelligence that augments the actions of individuals and organizations, transforms data, and improve value co-creation and well-being (Demirkan et al., 2015, Vargo and Lusch, 2019; Ng, I. C., Nudurupati, S. S., & Tasker, P.2010).The topic is of fundamental importance both for business scholars and professionals, but the studies on the subject are still limited.This paper aims to better understand the emerging of the Agrifood ecosystem with respect to the convergence of new technologies to support innovation.The research adopts a case theory method useful for analyzing complex social phenomena and their dynamics (Gummesson,2017). The focus in on agrifood business and the way in which multiple actors became connected and integrate resources for value creation and innovationThe convergence between the two technologies brings a change in the ecosystem of traditional intelligent agriculture to solve wider aspects such as the certainty of the origin of food, and others that define a change in the actors involved in the food chain and therefore in the relationship between these.