Gamification refers to transforming services to be more game-like in order to evoke similar experiences and motivations that games do for the purpose of affecting behavior. Systems and services increasingly include affordances for gameful experiences (Hamari, Hassan, & Dias, 2018; Vesa, Hamari, Harviainen, & Warmelink, 2017) and gamification is implemented in many different contexts for example, commerce, health, sustainability, software development, and research (Hamari, Koivisto, & Sarsa, 2014; Seaborn & Fels, 2015). Hunting for Pokémons in Pokémon Go is one example of gamification that helps battle physical and social inactivity in the general population (LeBlanc & Chaput, 2017). The gameful experience is of seminal importance for the effect of gamification since it acts as a mediator between the motivational affordances of gamified services and the target behavioral outcome (Huotari & Hamari, 2017). Consequently, aiming at such experiences must be the goal, otherwise there is no reason to gamify. However, despite of its importance, within gamification research there is a lack of instruments for measuring this experience. Therefore, with this research we aim to address the research problem of how to measure the gameful experience.
For this purpose, we have developed and validated GAMEFULQUEST, an instrument that can be used to measure the user’s gameful experience in systems and services. To do this, we used a mixed-methods approach. First, a model of the gameful experience was developed in a qualitative study using a questionnaire with open-ended questions targeting users of Zombies, Run!, Duolingo, and Nike+ Run Club. Second, the instrument was developed and validated using data from users of Zombies, Run!. In a third study, the instrument was further developed, validated and finally confirmed, using data from users of Duolingo.
Hamari, J., Hassan, L., & Dias, A. (2018). Gamification, quantified-self or social networking? Matching users’ goals with motivational technology. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction, 28(1), 35-74. doi:10.1007/s11257-018-9200-2
Hamari, J., Koivisto, J., & Sarsa, H. (2014, January 6-9). Does gamification work? - A literature review of empirical studies on gamification. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 47th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, HICSS 2014, Waikoloa, HI.
Huotari, K., & Hamari, J. (2017). A definition for gamification: Anchoring gamification in the service marketing literature. Electronic Markets, 27(1), 21-31. doi:10.1007/s12525-015-0212-z
LeBlanc, A. G., & Chaput, J. P. (2017). Pokémon Go: A game changer for the physical inactivity crisis? Preventive Medicine, 101, 235-237. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.11.012
Seaborn, K., & Fels, D. I. (2015). Gamification in theory and action: A survey. International Journal of Human Computer Studies, 74, 14-31. doi:10.1016/j.ijhcs.2014.09.006
Vesa, M., Hamari, J., Harviainen, J. T., & Warmelink, H. (2017). Computer games and organization studies. Organization Studies, 38(2), 273-284. doi:10.1177/0170840616663242