Conference Agenda

Overview and details of the sessions of this conference. Please select a date or location to show only sessions at that day or location. Please select a single session for detailed view (with abstracts and downloads if available).

 
 
Session Overview
Date: Monday, 26/July/2021
9:00am - 10:00amGatherTown Networking Session 1

Please note that all conference times on this page are in CEST

* indicates recognition as a distinguished paper based on peer review

 
10:00am - 11:00amOpening Plenary with Best Paper Presentation
Session Chair: James Thomas O'Donnell
Session Chair: Daniel Hall

Welcome and Logistics for EC 3 2021 (20 Minutes)

 

Best paper and questions (25 minutes)

 
 

AN ONTOLOGY INTEGRATING AS-BUILT INFORMATION FOR INFRASTRUCTURE ASSET MANAGEMENT USING BIM AND SEMANTIC WEB*

Liu Liu, Philipp Hagedorn, Markus König

Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany

The as-built information is rarely stored in a structured, machine-readable, and model-based way. Semantically enriched IFC models can help to achieve vendor-neutral storage and processing of information from the construction phase. This paper analyses exemplarily the documentation of concreting during construction and specifies the Building Concrete Monitoring (BCOM) ontology using ABox statements for concreting and laboratory testing. Utilizing the ICDD, a container is created to capture the information about concreting with semantic web technology and to link this information with the IFC-based building model. The feasibility of this approach is evaluated in a specific use-case with a web-based platform implementation.

 
11:00am - 12:00pmData Integration Methods 1
Session Chair: Pieter Pauwels

Subtopic: Knowledge Representation and Linked Data

 
 
11:00am - 11:20am

BIM-kit: An Extendible Toolkit for Reasoning about Building Information Models

Christoph Sydora, Eleni Stroulia

University of Alberta, Canada

Since 2010, research on cloud-based Building Information Modeling (BIM) has been receiving increased attention, motivated by the need to increase productivity through interoperability in the construction industry. To date, IFC is the de-facto standard for data exchange among tools in this domain. However, IFC is too large and not sufficiently specific to effectively support the management of a single building model by multiple tools. This paper proposes BIM-kit, a collaborative BIM platform based on a simple, modular data schema. In this research, we demonstrate how multiple task-specific tools can be used collectively and efficiently in a shared cloud-based BIM environment...



11:20am - 11:40am

Facilities management domain review: potential contributions towards digitalisation

Conor Shaw1, Flavia de Andrade Pereira1,3, Ciaran McNally2, James O'Donnell1

1School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering and UCD Energy Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland; 2School of Civil Engineering, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland; 3CARTIF Technology Centre, Energy Division, Valladolid, Spain

Digitisation within the facilities management (FM) sector has great potential to positively impact the environmental performance of the architecture, engineering, construction and operations (AECO) industry. Currently, the domain suffers from poor data integration with other disciplines and earlier life-cycle phases. Though solutions which address the interoperability issue are replete in the literature, there remains no comprehensive alignment. This domain review paper synthesises the key literature around digitisation within FM. In doing so, it outlines a broader working definition of FM, identifies key subtopics and gaps in knowledge and recommends a direction for future research contributions.



11:40am - 12:00pm

Enhancing BIM-Based QTO Using Visual Programing

Yasar Cepni, Asli Akcamete

Middle East Technical University, Turkey

Cost estimation relies on the correctness of the material QTO, but human inclusion and limitations of the 2D environment reduce the accuracy of QTO results. Hence, BIM-based QTO has been playing a prominent role in the construction industry. Nevertheless, the quality of BIM models affects the accuracy of quantities. Even the software features somehow hinder the quantification process. Therefore, this research proposes a framework for quantifying architectural cladding materials using visual programing for contractors. It is consequently verified that the accuracy of QTO results is significantly increased, and the benefits and limitations of the pro-posed strategy are discussed in detail.

 
11:00am - 12:00pmData Sensing & Acquisition 1
Session Chair: Blanca Tejedor Herrán
Session Chair: Alessandro Carbonari

Subtopic: Computer Vision

 
 
11:00am - 11:20am

Joint Detection And Activity Recognition Of Construction Workers Using Convolutional Neural Networks*

Ghazaleh Torabi, Amin Hammad, Nizar Bouguila

Concordia University, Canada

Manually gathering information about activities on construction sites for project management purposes is labor-intensive and time-consuming. As a result, several works leveraged the already installed surveillance cameras to automate this process. However, the recent learning-based methods discretize continuous activities by assigning a single label to multiple consecutive frames. They do not fully leverage the contextual cues in the scene, and are not optimized end-to-end. A variation of the YOWO network, called YOWO53, is proposed in this paper to address these limitations. YOWO53 shows better classification and detection results over YOWO and allows using smaller input frames with real-time speed.



11:20am - 11:40am

Efficient Vertical Object Detection in Large High-Quality Point Clouds of Construction Sites*

Miguel Vega1, Alexander Braun1, Heiko Bauer2, Florian Noichl1, André Borrmann1

1Chair of Computational Modeling and Simulation, Technical University of Munich, Germany; 2FARO EUROPE GmbH & Co.KG., Korntal-Münchingen, Germany

Even when adherence to the project schedule is a critical performance metric, still 53% of construction projects exhibit schedule delays. To contribute to efficient construction progress monitoring, a method is proposed to detect temporary objects in scans of construction sites. The proposed workflow includes: image processing, computer vision, and deep learning techniques. The method was tested on three real scans and with three object categories (cranes, scaffolds, and formwork). It achieved average rates above 88% for precision and recall and outstanding computational performance (1s to process 10^5points). These metrics demonstrate the method’s capability to segment point clouds of construction sites.



11:40am - 12:00pm

Towards real-time Scan-versus-BIM :methods applications and challenges

Marcus Wallbaum1,2, Ranjith K. Soman1

1Centre for Systems Engineering and Innovation, Imperial College London, United Kingdom; 2The Alan Turing Institute, United Kingdom

There has been much work on Scan-vs-BIM, and it has implications on construction productivity, quality, and safety. However, these methods need to be extended /altered to do real-time Scan-vs-BIM. This paper presents the extensions for existing methods such as registration, point matching, object detection, and pose estimation to cater to real-time Scan-vs-BIM. Further, we describe the applications for such methods in construction and de-scribes the challenges for their implementation. We con-clude by implication of this paper on researchers working on augmented reality and construction robotics.

 
11:00am - 12:00pmProduct and Process Modeling 1
Session Chair: Alex Braun
Session Chair: André Borrmann

Subtopic: Digital Twins

 
 
11:00am - 11:20am

VOID-GROWING: A NOVEL SCAN-TO-BIM METHOD FOR MANHATTAN WORLD BUILDINGS FROM POINT CLOUD

Yuandong Pan1, Alex Braun1, André Borrmann1, Ioannis Brilakis2

1Technical University of Munich, Germany; 2University of Cambridge, UK

The automated generation of 3D models of buildings from point clouds is under heavy research. Currently, this Scan-to-BIM process requires high manual effort, and the previous research in buildings under low occlusion level. We propose a novel “void-growing” approach that extracts walls, floors, and ceilings automatically. Different from the majority of current approaches starting with detecting surfaces of elements, our approach grows the void volume space inside a room first and it performs well in occluded environments. It can reconstruct simple cuboid rooms and complex rooms like L-shape and U-shape rooms. Different ceiling heights caused by suspended ceilings can also be represented.



11:20am - 11:40am

Generating Railway Geometric Digital Twins from Airborne LiDAR Data

M R Mahendrini Fernando Ariyachandra, Ioannis Brilakis

Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

The cost of the railway digital twinning process counteracts the expected benefits of the resulting model. State-of-the-art methods yielded promising results, yet they could not offer large-scale digital twinning required over kilometres without forfeiting precision and manual cost. The proposed framework exploits the potential of railway topology to perform better when detecting and modelling the geometry of railway elements in railway point clouds with varying geometric patterns. Experiments on 18 km railway datasets illustrate that the framework improves the current cost and benefit ratio by reducing the overall twinning time by 90% without using any prior information.



11:40am - 12:00pm

APPLICATION OF GPR-TECHNOLOGY FOR IDENTIFYING THE MATERIAL COMPOSITION OF BUILDING COMPONENTS

Meliha Honic1, Alois Hinterleitner2, Ingrid Schloegel2, Iva Kovacic1, Marijana Sreckovic1

1TU Wien, Institute for Interdisciplinary Building Process Management; 2Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics, Department for Geophysics, Vienna, Austria

Currently various technologies are used in order to determine the geometry of existing buildings, however there is no established technology to identify the material composition of buildings. The state-of-the-art material identification of existing buildings is conducted manually through destructive methods, which is not accurate enough and cannot be applied in the operation phase. Within this paper, ground penetrating radar (GPR) technology is applied on a real use case to determine the material composition of buildings. The state-of-the-art and high-tech GPR methods are compared regarding costs and time effort. Results show, that the GPR has great potential, but requires further optimizations.

 
12:00pm - 1:00pmLunch Break + GatherTown Networking Session 2
 
1:00pm - 2:00pmBlockchain & Distributed Ledger Technology 1
Session Chair: Eleni Papadonikolaki

Subtopic: Smart Contracts & Decentralized Autonomous Organizations 

 
 
1:00pm - 1:20pm

NO1S1 - A BLOCKCHAIN-BASED DAO PROTOTYPE FOR AUTONOMOUS SPACE*

Jens J Hunhevicz1, Hongyang Wang1, Lukas Hess2, Daniel M Hall1

1ETH Zurich, Switzerland; 2Dezentrum, Switzerland

We introduce our ongoing research on no1s1 (“no-ones-one”), a meditation pod that aims to be the first autonomous space. To frame our early thinking, we conceptualize what we call Decentralized Autonomous Space (DAS) as a Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO) linked to a physical location. DAOs leverage a combination of Decentralized Ledger Technology (DLT) and the Internet of Things (IoT) to create self-governing coordination mechanisms through smart contracts. Therefore, DAS can self-create and self-manage, and ultimately self-own. DAS is presented as a potentially disruptive paradigm of future housing and infrastructure with wide-ranging implications to the built environment.



1:20pm - 1:40pm

Blockchain use cases across entire lifecycle of a built asset: a review

Klaudia Jaskula, Eleni Papadonikolaki

University College London, United Kingdom

Blockchain is a key enabling technology towards the 4th industrial revolution of the construction industry. The aim of this paper is to map uses of blockchain technology across the various phases in the lifecycle of built assets. Of interest to this paper is a new classification of blockchain solutions in combination with other key enabling technologies, like Building Information Modelling and Internet of Things. The literature indicates that blockchain shows high potential for solving challenges across the entire lifecycle of a project and has an especially high potential to influence and possibly improve management in the Operation and Maintenance phase.



1:40pm - 2:00pm

Invoice Smart Contracts for Design SMEs

Lee Michael Youngson, Theodoros Dounas

Robert Gordon University, United Kingdom

In recent years, Blockchain technology has evolved from its original application in cryptocurrency and can now be used for applications such as Smart Contracts. Smart Contracts automatically Execute transactions without the need for a central authority however there are very few use cases of the technology, particularly amongst UK AEC Design SMEs. This paper uses a hybrid method approach which combines questionnaires with semi-structured interviews to create a framework which showcases how a Smart Contract invoicing process could work for Design SMEs. This could create an automated invoicing process which is more efficient and reduces the risk of late payment.

 
1:00pm - 2:00pmEnergy Modelling & Monitoring 1
Session Chair: Dimitrios Rovas
 
 
1:00pm - 1:20pm

CITYBIT: CityGML Building Interpolation Tool for Energy Performance Simulations*

Avichal Malhotra, Simon Raming, Jérôme Frisch, Christoph van Treeck

Institute of Energy Efficiency and Sustainable Building, RWTH Aachen University, Germany

This paper describes a CityGML Building Interpolation tool (CityBIT) for the creation of user-defined and interpolated building models for planned and/or existing buildings. A brief explanation of the tool’s functionalities and the methodologies adapted to develop the tool are explained in this paper. The CityBIT aims to help urban planners and simulation scientists to facilitate CityGML model developments for energy performance simulations.



1:20pm - 1:40pm

Exchange requirements to support demand side management using BIM and building automation system domains*

Flavia de Andrade Pereira1,2, Conor Shaw1, Susana Martín-Toral2, Roberto Sanz Jimeno2, Donal Finn1, James O'Donnell1

1University College Dublin, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Ireland; 2CARTIF Technology Centre, Energy Efficiency and Sustainability Energy Division, Spain

Demand Side Management (DSM) programmes promote energy flexibility, cost reduction and resilience in both grids and buildings, which can be supported by integrating Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Building Automation System (BAS). Despite recent advances in the field, research to date remains limited in defining data requirement structures and interoperable approaches to exploit the potential of this integration. This paper defines a set of exchange requirements (ERs) to support DSM using BIM and BAS domains. The definition of these ERs is the foundation to create a common data model that enables context-aware DSM optimisation strategies.



1:40pm - 2:00pm

A RECOMMENDATION SYSTEM FOR ENERGY SAVING AND USER ENGAGEMENT IN EXISTING BUILDINGS*

Hervé Pruvost1, Gloria Calleja-Rodríguez2, Olaf Enge-Rosenblatt1, Noemi Jimenez-Redondo2, Juan-Jacobo Peralta-Escalante2

1Fraunhofer IIS EAS, Germany; 2CEMOSA, Spain

This paper presents an IT system that provides building users with hands-on executable recommendations in order to reduce their energy consumption. For that purpose, it analyses building operation data in real-time in order to identify energy wastes as well as suitable energy conservation measures that shall help saving energy without compromising comfort and indoor environmental quality. One main goal is to provide a highly scalable solution that can be easily replicated and used in a wide range of buildings thus enabling resource saving at a large scale.

 
1:00pm - 2:00pmVirtual and Augmented Reality 1
Session Chair: Laura Maftei
 
 
1:00pm - 1:20pm

Visualizing real-time information through a construction production control room*

Karim Farghaly, Ranjith K. Soman, Jennifer Whyte

Centre for Systems Engineering and Innovation, Imperial College London, United Kingdom

Extending current work on visualisation in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) sector, this paper describes an industry-led collaborative research and innovation project to develop and use a control room on the construction site. The work is inspired by NASA mission operations, with its large-scale visual display. It addresses the challenges of visualizing real-time construction data. Working with a main contractor, technology companies and other researchers, we first give an overview of the progress of the overall project to date and discuss our contributions on requirements, real-time analytics and visualization. We conclude by discussing the contribution to work on visualizing construction.



1:20pm - 1:40pm

BIM-based Augmented Reality for Facility Maintenance Management

Hamidreza Alavi1, Nuria Forcada1, Su-Ling Fan2, Wei San2

1Department of Project and Construction Engineering, Group of Construction Research and Innovation (GRIC), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain; 2Department of Civil Engineering, Tamkang University, Taiwan

Although it is proved that Building Information Modeling (BIM) can improve building maintenance performance, there is a lack of efficient maintenance strategies and right decision-making approaches for improving Facility Maintenance Management (FMM) activities. BIM based on Augment Reality (AR) can enhance the activity of FMM by providing appropriate information as well as user-friendly visualization. In this study, a framework for end-users and facility managers to report and manage maintenance requests was developed. This will help FM team to optimize building maintenance strategies and decision-making and finally reduce the costs associated with the maintenance activities in the buildings.



1:40pm - 2:00pm

A USABILITY TEST PROTOCOL FOR EVALUATING MIXED REALITY ENVIRONMENTS

Neziha Yilmaz, Esin Ergen, Deniz Artan

İstanbul Technical University, İstanbul, Turkey

Immersive technologies are being used to enhance the effectiveness and usability of BIM in the construction industry and multiple studies that test the usability of the developed prototypes exist in this domain. However, a structured usability test protocol for the use of immersive technologies is lacking. This paper aims to present a usability test protocol that is developed to measure the performance of a prototype, which is developed for a mixed reality environment in a building. The main steps of this test protocol are 1) cognitive walkthrough, 2) pre-test surveys, 3) usability test video recording 4) post-test surveys.

 
2:00pm - 3:00pmAwards and EC3 Committees?
Session Chair: Symeon Christodoulou
 
3:00pm - 4:00pmGatherTown Academic and PhD Mentoring Sessions/ Open Networking 3
Session Chair: Symeon Christodoulou
Session Chair: Mohamad Kassem

PhD Mentoring Session (Gathertown)

Early Stage Academic/ Post Doc Mentoring Session (Gathertown)

 
4:00pm - 6:00pmHuman Data Interaction Committee
Session Chair: Mohamad Kassem

See inside for detailed session agenda

16:00-16:30: Introduction to the HDI COmmittee: mission and membership

16:30-17:20: Overview of the HDI White Paper on Emerging Human Data Interactions in Construction and the Built Environment

17:20 - 17:30: Upcoming Activities

17:30 -18:00: Open Discussion

 
4:00pm - 6:00pmModelling & Standards Committee
Session Chair: Marzia Bolpagni

See inside event for detailed session agenda

4:00 / 6:00 PM (CEST) 26th July 2021

 

2-hour EC3 Modelling and Standards Committee On Line Workshop

  

4.00 Welcome and Introduction (Marzia Bolpagni)

4. 15 Presentation of Current Projects ​(Marzia Bolpagni)

4.30 European Standards on BIM​

                - Introduction on the Methodology used (Raido Puust)​

                - Presentation of the first results (Aurélie de Boissieu and Frédéric Bosché​)

5.00 Call for Talent: presentation of open positions to expand the committee​ (Milena Medineckiene)

5.10 Discussion​ with the audience and Q&A session (Marzia Bolpagni)

5.50 Conclusions & Next steps (Marzia Bolpagni)

6.00 End of the workshop

 
Date: Tuesday, 27/July/2021
9:00am - 10:00amGatherTown Networking Session 4
 
10:00am - 11:00amOverview of EC3, Summer School Highlights and Keynote: 2nd Ranked Paper
Session Chair: James Thomas O'Donnell
Session Chair: Symeon Christodoulou
 
 

Assessing IFC classes with means of geometric deep learning on different graph encodings*

Fiona C. Collins1, Alexander Braun1, Martin Ringsquandl2, Daniel M. Hall3, André Borrmann1

1Technical University of Munich, Germany; 2Siemens AG, Corporate Technology, Munich, Germany; 3ETH Zürich, Switzerland

Machine-readable Building Information Models (BIM) are of great benefit for the building operation phase. Losses through data exchange or issues in software interoperability can significantly impede their availability. Incorrect and imprecise semantics in the exchange format IFC are frequent and complicate knowledge extraction. To support an automated IFC object correction, we use a Geometric Deep Learning (GDL) approach to perform classification based solely on the 3D shape. A Graph Convolutional Network (GCN) uses the native triangle-mesh and automatically creates meaningful local features for subsequent classification. The method reaches an accuracy of up to 85\% on our self-assembled, partially industry dataset.

 
11:00am - 12:00pmData Analysis, Simulation, & Resilience 1
Session Chair: Symeon Christodoulou
Session Chair: Alessandro Carbonari

Subtopic: Resilience; Simulation and Visualization

 
 
11:00am - 11:20am

Technology Framework for Real-Time Assessment of Spatial Conflicts in Building Retrofitting*

Leonardo Messi, Massimo Vaccarini, Alessandro Carbonari, Alessandra Corneli, Berardo Naticchia

Polytechnic University of Marche, DICEA Department, Ancona, Italy

In the field of construction works planning, workspaces must be considered as limited resources, in the same way as labour crews and equipment. Being the work-related spatial information both contextual and affected by construction site's dynamics, a real-time management approach based on lean principles must be adopted.

In this paper, a BIM-based serious game engine, framed within a high-level system architecture, is presented to enhance work progress management. The generation of a geometric model to perform look-ahead simulations for predicting spatial conflicts is showcased relatively to a retrofitted residential building.



11:20am - 11:40am

DIGITAL COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES TO SUPPORT END-USERS LEARNING FOR A SAFE RETURN TO SCHOOL DURING COVID-19*

Sara Comai1, Silvia Costa1, Silvia Mastrolembo Ventura1, Davide Simeone2, Elisa Bertuzzi1, Giulia Wally Scurati3, Lavinia Chiara Tagliabue1, Giorgio Vassena1, Francesco Ferrise3, Angelo Luigi Camillo Ciribini1

1Dept. Of Civil, Architectural, environmental Engineering and Mathematics, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy; 2Dept. of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome, 00184 Roma, Italy; 3Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milano, Italy

The paper provides a support in the definition of COVID-19 protocols in order to allow the safe re-opening of an educational building. It also derives a reusable approach extendable to other building typologies. The integrated adoption of multiple simulation oriented technologies is investigated. A case study is considered, where crowd simulation, agent-based simulation and communication tools have been integrated with a hybrid approach. By means of computer games, the adoption of which is within the scope of this paper, end-users can experience school use processes within a virtual environment (1) contributing to the realism of the simulation and (2) obtaining



11:40am - 12:00pm

Road Network Layout Planning based on Evaluation of Connectivity and Asset Criticality*

Georgios M. Hadjidemetriou, Manuel Herrera, Ajith K. Parlikad

University of Cambridge, United Kingdom

State of the art research in ensuring transport infrastructure resilience focuses on adopting a network perspective. However, there is no comprehensive, widespread method for evaluating connectivity and proposing alternative routes to improve it. Presented herein is a framework that: assesses road network connectivity, using a “closeness” measure and focusing on routes passing by the vulnerable asset of bridges; and proposes the development of optimal alternative routes, using a genetic algorithm. The results showed a significant improvement of network connectivity and the potential of the method to serve as the basis for updated transport infrastructure planning practices.

 
11:00am - 12:00pmEducation, Policy, and Standardisation 1
Session Chair: Angelo Ciribini
 
 
11:00am - 11:20am

An empirical study on the effects of COVID-like environmental perturbation on attitude towards innovation in construction*

Marzia Bolpagni1, Vishal Singh2, Vinayak Suthar3

1University College London, London, UK; 2Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India; 3Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India

This paper presents preliminary results from an empirical study on the effects of environmental perturbation, such as the pandemic-driven disruptions, on attitude towards innovation. The results based on a survey with 266 construction professionals demonstrate that such perturbations force a change in the attitude towards innovation, both among individuals and organizations. The study also validates the earlier claims that this change can be positive as well as negative. Cases of both increase and decrease in innovation-related activities are reported. Findings also suggest that the perturbation-induced excitation aligns the needs and priorities of the different actors in the ecosystem, fostering innovation activities.



11:20am - 11:40am

BIM IMPLEMENTATION FOR MIRCO, SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES

Hooman Sadeh Sadeh, Claudio Mirarchi, Alberto Pavan

Politecnico di Milano, Italy

Literature discussion on BIM benefits and barriers for micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises is lacking. Testing the independence of statistic for nominal variables as such requires application of statistical techniques including Fisher’s Exact Test, and Factor Analysis. The nominal variables were tested across 14 variables as operational definitions for benefits, and six variables were selected as operational definitions for concept of barriers. After factor analysis, four components related to benefits and two for barriers showed the highest significant association. The four benefits factors influencing digitalization are operation, marketability, productivity, and information-exchange. The two barriers are lack of professionalism and know-how.



11:40am - 12:00pm

Developing Competent Project Managers for Mega Infrastructure Construction: A Digital Construction Approach

Iliyasu Abba Abdullahi1, Georgios Kapogiannis1, Michal Lemanski2, Carlos Jimenez-Bescos3

1University of Nottingham, Ningbo; 2Nottingham University Business School, Ningbo, China, People's Republic of; 3University of Nottingham, United Kingdom Campus

Recent studies implied that exhibiting competence remains impracticable for project managers during infrastructure construction due to project strategies shortfall to augment their competence, handle complexity. The paper adopted an exploratory case study technique to report how integrating various digital tools to form a strategy augments managers' competence during construction. Findings depicted that adopting digital construction approach enabled managers to perform due to its pluralism to reinforce human sensation and evolve complex processes to maximize human capabilities. Practically, the study proposes to practicing managers a proactive medium towards competence development and provides companies insights into digital tools utilization to improve performance.

 
11:00am - 12:00pmProduct and Process Modeling 2
Session Chair: André Borrmann

Subtopic: Energy and Waste

 
 
11:00am - 11:20am

An Application of the PROV-O Vocabulary to Building Energy Performance Simulation

Cathal Hoare1, Sergio Pinheiro2, James O'Donnell3

1University College Cork, Ireland, University College Dublin, Ireland; 2BAM Ireland; 3School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering and UCD Energy Institute, University College Dublin, Ireland

Like many technological advances, Building Energy Performance Simulation (BEPS) tools face barriers to their adaptation. Stakeholders must be able to trust results - building owners want to know how the results will benefit them, while companies require a return in investment through the use of such tools. Furthermore, engineers using such systems should be able to examine their use over time to tune their accuracy. Provenance systems seek to capture information that can be used to fulfil these goals. An application of the W3C PROV-O vocabulary and an interface to facilitate recording of typical BEPS processes is described.



11:20am - 11:40am

A CLOUD IFC-BASED BIM PLATFORM FOR BUILDING ENERGY PERFORMANCE SIMULATION

Kyriakos Katsigarakis, Georgios Nektarios Lilis, Dimitrios Rovas

University College London, UK

The BIM Management Platform (BIM-MP) is a digital Building Information Model processing tool, responsible for handling BIM data that conform to the IFC standard. It provides an integrated data management solution for storing, versioning, enriching, updating and checking IFC data, which are created and modified by AEC practitioners.



11:40am - 12:00pm

ENABLING CIRCULAR CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION FLOWS USING DATA TEMPLATES – CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKS BASED ON WASTE AUDIT ACTION

Pedro Mêda1, Eilif Hjelseth2, Diego Calvetti1, Hipólito Sousa3

1CONSTRUCT/GEQUALTEC, Construction Institute, Faculty of Engineering, Porto University; 2Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, NTNU; 3CONSTRUCT/GEQUALTEC, Faculty of Engineering, Porto University

The Construction Industry faces challenges to achieve the key goals of Digital transformation, Sustainability, and Waste. The problem is that these have been strategically detailed mostly in separated documents. Despite common elements, the defined roadmaps use different headings, terminology and are over-focused. This leads to gaps at several levels. Connected information flows can foster alignment and bridge the gaps.

This research provides awareness and demonstrates how Circular Construction can be built on Digital Transformation, Sustainability, and Waste, using information flow conceptualizations. The approach is made from the “digital challenge” and through Data Templates as enablers for circular information in construction.

 
12:00pm - 1:00pmLunch Break + GatherTown Networking Session 5
 
1:00pm - 3:00pmData Sensing & Acquisition 2
Session Chair: Shabtai Isaac
Session Chair: Alessandro Carbonari

Subtopic: Data Acquisition, Analysis and Interpretation

 
 
1:00pm - 1:20pm

A PAVEMENT RATING SYSTEM BASED ON MACHINE LEARNING

Charalambos Kyriakou, Symeon E. Christodoulou

University of Cyprus

The evaluation of roadways utilizing complex contemporary datasets is currently conducted periodically because of the collection methods’ high cost. The study presents a data-driven framework on the use of a vehicle, a smartphone, an on-board diagnostic (OBD) device and machine learning for the rating of pavement surfaces. The proposed system architecture has been field-tested for the detection of pavement anomalies and the classification of five rating categories. Further, the proposed system may provide daily information on roadway pavement surface conditions, which can be used by engineers for automating the planning of pavement maintenance operations and improving public safety.



1:20pm - 1:40pm

MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION SUPPORT IN CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT: LIFE CYCLE-ORIENTED INVESTIGATION OF THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY

Lisa Lenz, Kai Christian Weist, Jan Winkels, Julian Graefenstein, Mike Gralla

Technische Universität Dortmund, Germany

The focus of this paper is an efficient data usage in order to investigate the economic efficiency of a building element. Decisions in construction management are related to the life cycle of a building in combination with numerous influencing factors there is a need for a decision support approach, which enables the user to ensure data is available and can be used efficiently to identify the best decision. To meet these challenges, this paper presents a data-based approach for combining different datasets to ensure a comprehensive base for multi-criteria decision support in construction management.



1:40pm - 2:00pm

UAS APPLICATION FOR URBAN PLANNING DEVELOPMENT IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: EMERGING COMMUNITIES AND COVID-19 SUPPORT

Hamlet David Reynoso Vanderhorst1, Subashini Suresh2, Suresh Renukappa3, David Heesom4

1University of Wolverhampton; 2University of Wolverhampton; 3University of Wolverhampton; 4University of Wolverhampton

The field of Unmanned Aerial Systems or Drones is still under development by the challenges of regulation and technology readiness for certain applications. The application of emerging technologies and robotics incites the growth of productivity on repetitive and exhaustive tasks for human and represent a rapid solution for data collection methods. The UAS presents opportunities to contribute and carry out urban planning tasks in a reduced time and risks, and appropriately supportive for COVID-19. Therefore, a case study is presented to illustrate the process of UAS data collection and conclusions drawn for delimitating urban communities.



2:00pm - 2:20pm

"BIM-to-Scan" for Scan-to-BIM: Generating Realistic Synthetic Ground Truth Point Clouds based on Industrial 3D Models

Florian Noichl, Alexander Braun, André Borrmann

Technical University of Munich, Germany

In the field of Scan-to-BIM, recent developments achieve promising results in accuracy and flexibility, leveraging tools from the field of deep learning for semantic segmentation of raw point cloud data. Those methods demand large-scale, domain-specific datasets for training. Promising ideas to fulfill this need use primitive synthetic point cloud data, which predominantly lack distinct point cloud properties, such as missing patches due to occlusions in the scene. To solve this issue, we use a specialized laser scan simulation tool from the domain of Geosciences in a toolchain that allows generating realistic ground truth data based on 3D models.



2:20pm - 2:40pm

Human Data Interaction in Sensored Sites, Challenges of the Craft Workforce Dimension

Diego Calvetti1, Pedro Mêda2, Hipólito Sousa1, Miguel Chichorro Gonçalves1

1CONSTRUCT/GEQUALTEC, Faculty of Engineering, Porto University, Portugal; 2CONSTRUCT/GEQUALTEC, Construction Institute, Faculty of Engineering, Porto University

Construction Industry (CI) is facing a new era in digitalisation. The 2020 pandemic pushed hard the sector to implement on-site sensing technologies. Craft workforce is still the primary vector of site labour performance accounting more than 50% of sector employment. A streamlined understanding of how the workforce behaves towards their data collection is more important than ever. A Human Data Interaction (HDI) vision leads to evaluate the implications of data collected in the CI glimpsing paradigms, ethics, and regulations. This work presents new use cases and frameworks to extend interactions into sensored sites focusing the craft workforce with GDPR compliance.

 
1:00pm - 3:00pmProduct and Process Modeling 3
Session Chair: Jimmy Abualdenien
Session Chair: André Borrmann

Subtopic: Building Information Modeling

 
 
1:00pm - 1:20pm

Mechanization of Construction Tasks: Level Assessment and Craft Workforce Awareness

Diego Calvetti1, Pedro Mêda2, Miguel Chichorro Gonçalves1, Hipólito Sousa1

1CONSTRUCT/GEQUALTEC, Faculty of Engineering, Porto University; 2CONSTRUCT/GEQUALTEC, Construction Institute, Faculty of Engineering, Porto University

Construction Industry (CI) tasks often consist of manual work and work-machine systems; still, the craft work-force is the primary site labour dimension. Construction tasks are still mainly artisanal and low productivity is one of the CI main concerns. There is a gap in craftwork modelling methods and a lack of research on construction tasks mechanization assessment. This work quantitatively assesses four on-site tasks' mechanization level through modelling the crew processes using work sampling and Monte Carlo methods. In addition, craft workers on duty dressed up wearable and through interviews delivered their impressions about electronic monitoring and task mechanization.



1:20pm - 1:40pm

A MULTI-DIMENSIONAL DIGITAL TWIN USE CASES CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK

Ramy Al-Sehrawy, Bimal Kumar, Richard Watson

Northumbria University, United Kingdom

The concept of a Digital Twin [DT] has been gaining increasing attention in the realm of urban planning and city infrastructure management. In support of this movement, DT advocates have been consistently casting light on the possible DT use cases to better manifest its potentail and the value it promises to unlock. However, these attempts are arguably limited by the lack of a standard and formal DT use cases classification framework. Hence, this paper puts forward a multi-dimensional DT use cases classification framework, based on published key DT case studies and a framework development methodology, to address this limitation.



1:40pm - 2:00pm

NEXT STEPS IN BIM EXECUTION PLANNING: A REVIEW OF GUIDES IN THE USA

Inez Ayerra1, Fadi Castronovo2, Silvia Mastrolembo Ventura3, Dragana Nikolic4

1California State University East Bay; 2University of Brighton; 3University of Brescia; 4University of Reading

Building information modeling implementation has brought forward the development of planning guides, or BIM Execution Plans (BEP), which support teams in identifying implementation steps and the stakeholders responsible for generating and managing information. However, numerous BEP templates that exist present a challenge when choosing the guide that can fit every need. With this study, the authors aimed at evaluating a small sample size of BEPs and suggest essential guidelines that must be followed when developing a BEP. With this early study, the authors hope to open a new avenue of research in identifying the next steps in BIM planning.



2:00pm - 2:20pm

QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN THE PHASE OF CONSTRUCTION EXECUTION - A REVIEW

Sebastian Seiß, Hans-Joachim Bargstädt

Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Germany

The construction industry is an important economic sector. But losses according to produced defects during the construction execution are enormous. The digitalisation in the construction industry is growing and has a great potential to improve the execution. In the construction execution, especially in the management of qualities are analogous or document-oriented systems state of the art. These systems usually focus on the management and correction of defects. The digital monitoring of construction quality is neglected. The following paper will overview past and current research activities in quality management in construction execution by a systematic literature review.



2:20pm - 2:40pm

OBJECT-ORIENTED COMPLIANCE CHECKING: AN AUTOMATED APPROACH AND A CASE STUDY

Omar Doukari, David Greenwood, Kay Rogage, Mohamad Kassem

Northumbria University, United Kingdom

This paper proposes a novel 'bottom-up' object-oriented approach for automated model checking and the corresponding plugin prototype.

The approach and the prototype enable four key processes: define and interpret the requirement rules, prepare the BIM object data, execute the requirement rules, and report the results that were made available to the user.

To demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of the approach, we use a case study from the foodservice equipment industry using an existing object library of foodservice equipment.

The results show savings of around 125' per object between the automated approach and traditional manual methods of working.



2:40pm - 3:00pm

BUILDING INFORMATION MODELING (BIM) AND CONSTRUCTION TECH INTEGRATION FOR CONSTRUCTION OPERATIONS: STATE OF THE ART

Saed Hasan, Rafael Sacks

National Building Research Institute, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel

Within the framework of Digital Twin Construction (DTC), lean construction (LC) and Building Information Modeling (BIM) support an integrated vision for short term plan-do-check-act cycles of planning and control in construction. However, operations control tasks, such as information delivery in the field, and data gathering from the field, are still largely manual. In this context, we review the current state-of-the-art in BIM and Construction-Tech integration for control of operations. The results show many successful but isolated Construction-Tech innovations and numerous successful localised BIM-based contributions in data gathering, monitoring and information transfer, but no industry attempts at data integration.

 
1:00pm - 3:00pmThesis in 3 (Session 1)
Session Chair: Daniel Hall

Competition Rules: https://ec-3.org/conference2021/conference/thesis-in-3/

Competition Judges

Esin Ergen, Istanbul Tech Univ.
Thomas Linner, TU Munich
Vishal Singh, Indian Institute of Science
Ranjith Soman, Imperial College London (2019 Ti3 Runner Up)

 
 
1:00pm - 1:10pm

Overview of Competition

Daniel Hall

Chair of IC, Switzerland

Overview of the rules for Thesis-in-3 and introduction to the judges



1:10pm - 1:20pm

BIM and building automation systems integration to support demand side management

Flavia de Andrade Pereira1,2

1School of Mechanical & Materials Engineering, University College Dublin, Ireland; 2CARTIF Technology Centre, Energy Division, Spain

This PhD research focuses on BIM enrichment for inclusion of Building Automation System (BAS) information to support Demand Side Management (DSM). The integration of BIM and BAS information models adds value to current DSM programmes by supporting optimal DSM decision-making for load management from the building perspective. Driven by DSM signals, data monitored by BAS and building environmental contexts provided by BIM, individual loads can be assessed in terms of their qualified flexibility to promote DSM control sequences. This research aims to semantically enrich a building information model, generating the so-called “DSM common data model”, by defining a set of BIM and BAS exchange requirements to support DSM functionalities and developing a cross-domain semantic reasoning based on standards-centric workflows and semantic data models. The generated DSM common data model will be the input to a context-aware DSM closed-loop control algorithm, e.g. Model Predictive Control (MPC), to enable services such as: i) energy production forecast, ii) energy demand forecast, and iii) load management optimization.



1:20pm - 1:30pm

Utilising the semantic web for data driven facilities management

Conor Shaw

University College Dublin, Ireland

There is a growing volume of data being produced by (IoT) and about (BIM) our buildings which may help us to better understand and manage them. However, it is notoriously difficult to align, as few sources follow a structured, common approach. My research is investigating the use of semantic web technologies to align this desperate data. I will pitch, in 3 minutes, what I have established so far in my phd journey about the domains of facilities management and the semantic web, and describe the direction in which my research is proceeding.



1:30pm - 1:40pm

Framework of Decentralized Autonomous Space

Hongyang Wang

ETH, Switzerland

This thesis proposes to design and implement the first Decentralized Autonomous Space (DAS) on the blockchain. This blockchain-powered DAS will run on its own without any central authority or management hierarchy. Instead, it will be governed by rules embedded using smart contracts. The DAS will be able to self-operate, self-govern and self-evolve, based on its own rules for governance and user community participation. Compared to other forms of decentralized autonomous organizations, DAS is unique because of its cyber and physical characteristics.

In this thesis, DAS system will be investigated from both the top-down and bottom-up perspectives. First, from top-down, we propose to evaluate existing governance systems for Decentralized Autonomous Organizations(DAOs) and select or create preliminary governance appropriate for DAS. Then we propose to investigate the technical feasibility by creating a minimum viable prototype, as a bottom-up approach. Autonomous cyber-physical system information feedback loops will be implemented and validated with the prototype. Then, the proposed governance system will be used to implement a modification protocol where the community of DAS users will execute a physical change to the prototype. Lastly, we will study the future implications of DAS – including future implications for society and the built environment.

The expected outcome of this thesis is to define DAS system and refine a holistic framework for future DAS implementation. This research can help clarify these potential implications and further refine our understanding of how a DAS might exist and operate in the future.



1:40pm - 1:50pm

Digitally-enabled product platform strategies: industrialized building firms, modularity and open innovation

Alexander Shanjing Zhou

Imperial College London, United Kingdom

This doctoral work aims to examine firm strategies leveraging digital product platforms for industrialized construction. Drawn on a data set from international case studies, this work contributes to the construction literature from broader work on modularization, open strategies, and platform-based innovation. This work shows when internal and external competencies are needed to build capabilities for modularization. This work suggests how the openness of platforms influences innovation strategies. Finally, this work articulates how platforms change the relationship between projects and firms.



1:50pm - 2:00pm

Electronic Productivity Performance Monitoring of Construction Workers

Diego Calvetti

Faculty of Engineering, Porto University, Portugal

The Construction Industry (CI) is failing to boost its productivity. Moreover, 56% of the industry employment is craft workforce. The research frames specifically the craft workforce performance as the problem to be solved in the CI productivity scenario. The thesis main aim is to develop a framework to measure craft workforce productivity. Being the objectives: Conceptualise an approach to assess and modelling craft workforce productivity; Provide in-depth knowledge to enable GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation) compliance; Conceptualise the Electronic Performance Monitoring (EPM) data flow, connecting system/methodologies; Testing the EPM application and validation of the proposed framework.

The research is undertaken on an exploratory basis; this work "mix and match" methods to better achieve the particularities of this construction management research. This work combines new approaches for the CI to achieve 4.0 era using a well-known methodology for motion study (that had little experimentation in this sector) and innovative processes for data collection (wearables sensing technology) and processing (machine-learning and multivariate statistical analysis to classification). Ten construction activities were simulated in laboratory facilities performed by six volunteers using wearables to collect the acceleration (two wrists and one leg) and applying machine-learning plus multivariate statistical analysis for post-processing. In addition, data were collected on-site (through work sampling) to measure and model two production processes typical of civil construction. Craft workers also carried out wearable electronic devices to collect their reactions to EPM through interviews. A survey containing twenty-five questions was proposed for collecting managers-level awareness about EPM at the workplace. Experts semi-structured interviews from three different countries were used to capture the conceptualisations and challenges regarding Worker 4.0 in the CI. The primary outcome is a framework to model work processes and measure productivity. Craft performance modelling can bring awareness about the on-site tasks mechanization processes fostering productivity improvements.

The results applying EPM in the laboratory circuit for three IMUs (both wrists and one at the dominant leg) achieve accuracy between 92-96% for Machine-learning processing and 47-76% for the Multivariate statistical analysis approach. And, for one IMU (only wrist-dominant data), 32-76% accuracy for Multivariate statistical analysis approach. On-site experiments collecting data from three activities were performed, resulting in the modelling of the processes and fulfilling the Worker 4.0 Flow to boost productivity, achieving: Water supply system (to consumers' taps) a Mechanization index of 42.20% considered High in the scale proposed; Masonry (residential building with expanded clay blocks) a Mechanization index of 15.69% considered Low in the scale proposed; Masonry (commercial building with expanded clay blocks and concrete blocks) a Mechanization index of 13.64% considered Low in the scale proposed.

The contribution to knowledge for theoretical implication includes the conceptualisation of a framework craft-workforce-centred focusing on the modelling of construction activities. The practical use of a quantitative Mechanization index can lead to a benchmarking of activities prone to delivering the highest levels of outcomes and increase CI productivity. The future direction of this work should focus on expanding on-site data collection. It should also seek to establish algorithms for automating data processing.



2:00pm - 2:10pm

-- 10 min break --

Daniel Hall

Ti3 host



2:10pm - 2:20pm

Entrepreneurship for Digital Fabrication and Construction Robotics

Alexander Nikolas Walzer

ETH Zurich, Switzerland

Research problem

This research investigates the opportunities and challenges for new and existing firms in the construction industry when utilizing innovative technologies, such as 3D-printing and robotics. The investigation involves studies on emerging and existing business models and product development strategies, and assesses current market trends for construction.

Research methods

The research will start with extensive literature review and further be conducted using multimethodology including ethnography, surveys and interviews. It is expected to also include experimental assessment of case studies on the open market and their respective data.

Expected results

It is expected to find correlation between market opportunities and technological innovation in the construction sector. Furthermore, it is expected to present strategies to mitigate risks for new and existing AEC firms when embracing a path of technological advancement.

Outlook

The findings of this research will help present relevant facts for stakeholders in AEC. Yet, both sample size of participants, their biases and other currently unknown limitations will be faced. Further research might include a more direct “hands-on” approach using a cohort of Start-Ups (such as in a foundry, an incubator or accelerator program) under close and direct guidance and thus also provide a more in-depth view and unbiased information.



2:20pm - 2:30pm

Blockchain enabled CBIM for lifecycle data provenance

Klaudia Jaskula

University College London, United Kingdom

The Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry is well known for its low productivity, and slow adoption of process and technology innovations. Advancements in Building Information Modelling (BIM) are the basis for digital transformation of AEC industry. Although BIM is a well-established methodology, supported widely by governments around the world, its adoption remains relatively slow due to existing data processing and mostly analogue exchange methods. BIM-based collaboration faces many problems, such as lack of privacy, transparency, accountability and trust between the stakeholders, concerns about proving ownership of files, general industry fragmentation and complexity of projects. Some of these problems might be solved by introducing blockchain technology into construction practice.

The aim of this research is to develop a framework for decentralised, immutable, secure, and transparent data streams across built assets’ lifecycle and increase operational effectiveness through the integration of cloud-based BIM (CBIM) with principles of blockchain technology. A prototype of a new blockchain-based tool (Common Data Environment - CDE) for collaboration and data exchange between stakeholders in construction projects will be developed and a methodology for ensuring data provenance throughout built assets’ lifecycle will be put forward. Decentralised blockchain enabled CDE could provide data security, quality, and integrity standards, which are vital for its function.

This research project aims to address the following questions: 1) To what extend is blockchain technology useful in each lifecycle phase of a built asset? 2) Which possible blockchain applications are compatible with Decentralised Common Data Environment (DCDE)? 3) What are the requirements for DCDE in construction projects, which functions it should have and how should it look like (environment, consensus mechanism, governance etc)? 4) How smart contracts can automate selected actions in DCDE? 5) What are the benefits of DCDE compared to a traditional centralised CDE?

As the project looks to develop an artefact (framework/ digital tool), a design science research methodology will be utilised. In order to better understand current problems surrounding collaboration and data exchange in construction projects and define the requirements for a new tool, data will be collected firstly through literature review and secondly through online surveys and direct interviews with professionals. Systematic literature review should identify what potential use cases of blockchain technology are possible in each lifecycle phase and list the requirements for blockchain enabled CDE platform. In the last stage of the project, the developed tool will be tested and evaluated through focus group. Participants will be invited to test the tool during online workshop and afterwards to give feedback about their experiences.



2:30pm - 2:40pm

Contributing to Knowledge

Nicholas Nisbet

UCL Bartlett

Academic research aims at contributing to knowledge, industrial research aims at creating operable knowledge. This presentation will explore operable knowledge and suggest how it can be detected in existing resources and deployed to create new opportunities. And yet we don’t have an operable theory of its nature. We don’t have a common representation for scientific, social or formal knowledge.

Previously we have looked to mathematics and in particular to the logic of Frege and Boole and Chrysippus. But this logic has a poor connection to language. Authors, especially regulators and academics struggle with the unnatural use of the three words and/or/not and commas. And they struggle with handling non binary choices. They struggle because Language does not embed traditional Boolean logic. Language beats to a different drum.

At much the same time as Chrysippus, Aristotle identified the ‘square of oppositions’: cross-relating four propositional types as the basis for inductive argument. In the 20th century Shannon and others identified and deployed four kinds of logic gates.

And these four kinds of logical role are hiding in plain sight in natural language. I have developed the RASE methodology. RASE stands for requirements, applicability, selection and exceptions.

3.

It is a four-colour mark-up of plain text and tables. It allows subject experts (not programmers, not data modellers) to identify the words (nouns and adjectives) as metrics and sections (paragraphs and sentences) as objectives playing one of the four logical roles.

RASE mark-up makes any written text into a single testable logic statement, that any mathematical rule engine can process to deliver creative, checking and comparison results.

Can RASE generate other knowledge representations or Does RASE have limitations? Can Domain expertise be complemented or replaced by NLP approaches? Do social constructs such as constitutions and contracts use other logical operators?



2:40pm - 2:50pm

A Rework Control Methodology based on Quality Management and Lean Construction Production to Digital Twin

Julia Acosta

Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile

Reworks on construction sites are a frequent cause of projects' time and cost overrun, despite the extensive research and industry efforts to reduce them. Some studies that define rework as redoing a job that did not turn out well the first time have reported waste of between 2% and 10% of the contract's value. Globally the construction industry spends about USD 10 trillion annually, accounting for 13% of the world's gross domestic product (GDP). If an average of 5% is wasted on rework, nearly 1% of it is lost. However, little research has been carried out of reworks in building projects to date. It is necessary to better understand how errors and quality failures during building construction lead to rework, the context in which they happen, to determine its root cause, and how much it contributes to the over cost of building projects.

This work proposes examining the types of reworks, their causal roots, and their costs impact on built buildings' construction phase. It will be a primary input to develop a methodology to contain and reduce reworks for building construction. This methodology will address the gap in the integration of Quality Management and Lean Production theories, and it will be designed to be applicable to Digital Twin. The final stage of this research will be the design of a model to predict reworks occurrence.

For this purpose, this research uses the methodology Design Science Research, a survey, classification, and ranking of the main types of reworks in building work in Chile will be made using statistical analysis, of which, to date, there are no studies that account for it. The rework control methodology will be designed based on quality and construction production restrictions, supported by the Last Planner® System (LPS). It will be monitored with the statistical control of processes associated with its product quality. The formerly mentioned methodology will be integrable to Digital Twin information systems. A model to predict the occurrence of rework will be designed based on failure trees.

This research aims to reduce building project costs associated with reworks during its construction stage, developing a methodology to contain and reduce them and a predictive model to anticipate their probabilities to happens. The results of this research are expected to be applicable to any building project.



2:50pm - 3:00pm

A Framework of Drone Adoption on the Planet Earth: Regulatory, Practical and Business implications in the Dominican Republic

Hamlet David Reynoso Vanderhorst

University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom

The common goal of nations is to provide health, happiness and wealth to their citizens. The International agenda of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals for 2030 convey guidance to achieve this goal. Sustainable cities, communities, industries of innovation, and infrastructure are prominent influences on the actual and future of the technologies in society. The ether, robotics, autonomous vehicles, and bioengineering technologies are towards one probable future of the spiritual singularity of the human species in which the technology allows humans to hold and co-create realities with superior levels of joy, excitement, and ecstasy in the society. For example, longevity, atmospheres free of COVID-19 and wise relationships are some of the desires that technologies would support humans in the future. However, this reality can only be held if sophistication occurs as is the evaluation of adopting Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) or Drones in the normal lives. The implications of UAS and the combination with other technologies such as Cloud Computing, Blockchain, Artificial Intelligence and Quantum & Neuromorphic Computing have been explored to visualise a future with a new silicon species on Earth. But, aspects of sustainable sources of energy, commercialisation, regulations, community engagement, understanding of them by the lack of knowledge, resistance to change and specific context in which only the technology may work, have been the significant challenges for the human adaption to this technology.

For these reasons, the case of aerial robots or UAS is investigated by exploring the cases of application, ethics; efficacy of specific human tasks that scepticism on the device exists; practical digital transformation, and training of multiple stakeholders to adopt the technology in the developing country of the Dominican Republic, where innovation is required for the construction industry and their ramifications. The research is looking for a grounded theoretical framework of UAS adoption that provides to regulators, academics, manufacturers, and contractors the same understanding of the implications of the technology. The study approaches an iterative strategy of interviewing 24 semi-structured experienced and key stakeholders professionals related to the sector of construction and UAS. Later, cases of studies were developed to illustrate and provide recommendations for policymakers to foresee the UAS development. Some relevant findings are related to challenges on skills, internal capabilities to use the UAS outcomes, and standardisation of cases. In the aspect of policy making recommendations on UAS land surveys and appropriate business models embedded in the UAS applications for entry-level practitioners are mentioned. Further works are recommended in artificial intelligence and UAS applications.

 
3:00pm - 4:00pmResearch Speed Dating & Gathertown Networking 6
Session Chair: Cathal Hoare

Share your research experiences and visions through an engaging and relaxed networking session (Gathertown)

 
4:00pm - 6:00pmData Sensing and Analysis Committee
Session Chair: Alessandro Carbonari
Session Chair: Miquel Casals

See inside for detailed session agenda

4 pm: WELCOME AND SHORT INTRODUCTION

4:00 pm: “Welcome and Overview of DSA objectives and activities”, Dr. Alessandro Carbonari, Università Politecnica delle Marche (Ancona, Italy), Chair of DSA Committee

4:05 pm: “Perspectives for enrollment of new members”, Dr. Miquel Casals, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (Barcelona, Spain), vice-Chair of DSA Committee

4:10 pm: “Dissemination activity: the first DSA White paper”, Dr. Isaac Shabtai, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (Ben-Gurion, Israel),  Secretary of DSA Committee

4:15 pm: PANEL DISCUSSION: “JUNIOR AND SENIOR RESEARCHERS on the FUTURE of DSA”

Keynote speech no. 1: Dr. Thomas Linner, Technische Universität München (Munich, Germany), “Future trends in embedded sensing for digital construction and robotics

Keynote speech no. 2: Dr. Lucio Soibelman, University of Southern California – USC Viterbi (LA, USA) “Monitoring and deep learning for automating knowledge generation in Civil Engineering

Keynote Speech no. 3: Dr. Blanca Tejedor Herran, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (Barcelona, Spain), “Monitoring and data analysis at urban scale: the efficient management of the built environment

Keynote Speech no. 4: Dr. Vito Getuli, University of Florence (Florence, Italy) “Digitizing construction to enhance construction management”

5:25 pm: Round table on “Future trends in construction and data sensing and analysis” (Moderators: DSA-EC3 officers)

5:50 pm:  Conclusions and enrolment of new members

6:00 pm: END of DSA Committee Meeting

 
4:00pm - 6:00pmEducation Committee
Session Chair: Angelo Ciribini

Click inside for detailed agenda

2-hour EC3 Education Committee  On Line Workshop 04:00 Opening Remarks

04:10 Introduction to the Workshop Objectives and Participants (Angelo Ciribini) The main goal to be achieved stays with accruing the amount of participants to the Committee as well as to highlight the activities performed till now.

04:30 The EC Education Committee's White Paper (Yiannis Xenidis) The presentation will highlight the main contents and challenges concerning the white paper to be prepared on the next months.

04:50 Issue 1: Education (Andrius Jurelionis & Vishal Singh) The presentation would debate the challenges pertaining to a tailored approach regarding the education and training-related issues. 05:10 Issue 2: Competence (Angelo Ciribini) The presentation would highlight the matters and prospectives dealing with the qualification of the competences at an European-wide level 05:30 The EC3 Summer School: Some Findings (Fadi Castronovo)

05:45   Discussion and Wrap-Up

 
Date: Wednesday, 28/July/2021
9:00am - 10:00amGatherTown Networking Session 7
 
10:00am - 11:00amEC3 Committee Updates
Session Chair: James Thomas O'Donnell
Session Chair: Daniel Hall
 
11:00am - 12:00pmBlockchain & Distributed Ledger Technology 2
Session Chair: Eleni Papadonikolaki

Subtopic: Process and Logistics

 
 
11:00am - 11:20am

BLogCHAIN: PROOF-OF-CONCEPT AND PILOT TESTING OF A BLOCKCHAIN APPLICATION PROTOTYPE FOR CONSTRUCTION LOGISTICS IN SWEDEN*

Dimosthenis Kifokeris, Christian Koch

Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden

Blockchain technology has a potential for construction logistics, also within Sweden. In this paper, a proposal of a blockchain system and its practical implementation is presented (the BLogCHAIN prototype). Its was preliminarily tested during the early construction of a school in Sweden, in November-December 2020. Methodologically, we reviewed studies on blockchain for construction logistics, interviewed the BLogCHAIN testers (suppliers and contractor’s operatives), and understood the test’s practical outcomes through sociomateriality. Our results include the confirmation of envisioned benefits when implementing BLogCHAIN (e.g. reducing accounting rework), but also a simplification from its initial conceptualization, mainly due to rigidly established work practices.



11:20am - 11:40am

COMBINING BLOCKCHAIN AND BPMN COREOGRAPHIES FOR CONSTRUCTION MANAGEMENT

Alessandra Corneli1, Berardo Naticchia1, Francesco Spegni1, Luca Spalazzi2

1DICEA, UNIVERSITA' POLITECNICA DELLE MARCHE, Italy; 2DII, UNIVERSITA' POLITECNICA DELLE MARCHE, Italy

Blockchain is considered a key technology of the current digital revolution and its application is spreading from cryptocurrencies to disparate processes requiring notarization. The well-known independence and contraposition of stakeholders in the AECO sector made DLT applications the hoped-for means to trust each other.

Construction site management due to its complexity and the pluralism of the actors involved can be modelled as a BPMN coreography of intra-organizational processes.

This aims of the work here presented is the exploitation of blockchains and smart contracts as tools to notarize the state of each intra-organizational process and to enforce compliance with the choreography

 
11:00am - 12:00pmData Integration Methods 2
Session Chair: Pieter Pauwels

Ontology Engineering

 
 
11:00am - 11:20am

A Proposed Material Passport Ontology to Enable Circularity for Industrialized Construction

Firehiwot Kedir, David F. Bucher, Daniel M. Hall

ETH Zürich, Switzerland

There is a need to collect, store, and share product data to enable circularity in industrialized construction supply chains. To do this, the concept of a Material Passport (MP) has been proposed, but exactly how MPs should be created and managed is less understood, especially in consideration of industrialized construction product platforms. This paper proposes a knowledge and process representation framework called the Material Passport Ontology (MPO). The MPO outlines key components of MPs and their interrelationships. Finally, the paper discusses several implementation challenges and possibilities.



11:20am - 11:40am

CON-TEND: AN ONTOLOGY FOR KNOWLEDGE REUSE IN CONSTRUCTION TENDERING

Davide Simeone

Webuild, Italy

In construction tendering, the ability to successfully manage and capitalize technical knowledge is a competitive advantage for a general contractor. In this context, we present Con-Tend, a flexible, high-level ontology conceived to formalize information and knowledge produced in projects and tenders and make it reusable during tendering processes. The Con-Tend ontology is under development from a general contractor perspective and shows how linked data approaches can ensure homogenous, computable knowledge bases for powerful, data-driven strategies by a general contractor.

 
11:00am - 12:00pmData Sensing & Acquisition 3
Session Chair: Borja Garcia de Soto
Session Chair: Alessandro Carbonari

Subtopic: Novel Sensing and Monitoring Systems

 
 
11:00am - 11:20am

AUTOMATING EQUIPMENT PRODUCTIVITY MEASUREMENT USING DEEP LEARNING

Elham Mahamedi, Kay Rogage, Omar Doukari, Mohamad Kassem

Northumbria University Newcastle, United Kingdom

Measuring the productivity of earth moving equipment help to identify their inefficiencies and improve their performance; however, measurement processes are time and resource intensive. Current literature has foccussed on automating equipment activity capture but still lack adequate approaches for measurement of equipment productivity rates. Our contribution is to present a methodology for automating equipment productivity measurement using kinematic and noise data collected through smartphone sensors from within equipment and deep learning algorithms for recognizing equipment states. The testing of the proposed method in a real world case study demonstrated very high accuracy of 99.78% in measuring productivity of an excavator.



11:20am - 11:40am

BIM, DIGITAL TWIN AND CYBER-PHYSICAL SYSTEMS: CROSSING AND BLURRING BOUNDARIES

Dean Douglas, Graham Kelly, Mohamad Kassem

Northumbria University Newcastle, United Kingdom

Digital twin's anticipated value proposition is deemed to be focussed on its capability of generating new understanding and insights into an asset at all stages of its lifecycle exploiting diverse data sets from a multitude of sources and professions, in real or near real-time. However, there is still significant debate about the delineation ( communalities and differences) between digital twin and other related concepts, particularly Building In-formation Modelling (BIM) and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS). To date, this debate has been confined to social media discussions, insights blogs and position papers. This paper addresses this challenge using a systematic review approach.



11:40am - 12:00pm

COMPARISON OF ACCURACY AND DENSITY OF STATIC AND MOBILE LASER SCANNERS

Maciej Piotr Trzeciak, Ioannis Brilakis

University of Cambridge

We test the accuracy and density of mobile lidar-based scanners and compare them with the performance of a static scanner. This is achieved by systematically scanning a rectangular target at a growing distance, collating the statistics of the scans and comparing them. This study shows that the accuracy of the scans outputted by the static scanner is about 20 times better at 5 meters than those produced by the mobile devices and this gap further increases along with the distance. The density drops along with the distance for all the tested devices, with mobile scanners outperforming their static counterparts.

 
12:00pm - 1:00pmLunch Break + GatherTown Networking Session 8
 
1:00pm - 2:30pmData Analysis, Simulation, & Resilience 2
Session Chair: Alessandro Carbonari

Subtopic: Machine Learning

 
 
1:00pm - 1:20pm

DETERMINING CONSTRUCTION METHOD PATTERNS TO AUTOMATE AND OPTIMISE SCHEDULING – A GRAPH-BASED APPROACH

Ying Hong1, Vahan Hovhannisyan2, Haiyan Xie3, Ioannis Brilakis1

1University of Cambridge, United Kingdom; 2nPlan, United Kingdom; 3Illinois State University, Illinois, United States

Creating quality construction schedules to mitigate delays often relies on experience. The lack of dissemination of historic decision reasoning makes it harder. This study proposes a graph-based method to find the time- and risk-efficient construction method patterns from historic projects to help schedulers improve productivity and accuracy. The method leverages schedule data obtained from a Tier-1 contractor and validates for excavation activities. The results indicate that the most time-efficient excavation activities can be done in 0.6% of total project time. The proposed method can help industry professionals standardise scheduling guidelines and automate the generation of construction schedules for critical subtasks.



1:20pm - 1:40pm

Using Artificial Neural Networks to Model Bricklaying Productivity

Orsolya Bokor1, Laura Florez-Perez2, Giovanni Pesce1, Nima Gerami Seresht1

1Northumbria University, United Kingdom; 2University College London, United Kingdom

The pre-planning phase prior to construction is crucial for ensuring an effective and efficient project delivery. Realistic productivity rates forecasted during pre-planning are essential for accurate schedules, cost calculation, and resource allocation. To obtain such productivity rates, the relationships between various factors and productivity need to be understood. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are suitable for modelling these complex interactions typical of construction activities, and can be used to assist project managers to produce suitable solutions for estimating productivity. This paper presents the steps of determining the network configurations of an ANN model for bricklaying productivity.

 
1:00pm - 2:30pmProduct and Process Modeling 4
Session Chair: Daniel Hall
Session Chair: André Borrmann

Subtopic: IT-Supported Architectural and Engineering Design

 
 
1:00pm - 1:20pm

MODULAR PROCESS PATTERNS IN THE DESIGN PHASE*

Goran Sibenik, Marijana Sreckovic, Anca Radu

Institute of Interdisciplinary Construction Process Management, TU Wien, Austria

Numerous stakeholders contribute to building pro-jects, which mainly deal with digital assets during the design phase. Design workflows are project specific and not standardized, therefore digital tools supporting and improving these are not widely present. However, the activities within the workflows are similar and constitute patterns that allow for workflow standardi-zation. We analyze an existing document exchange platform in order to identify those activities and pat-terns in a way which unveils their automation poten-tial. The proposed modular patterns can serve as a base for workflow automation, facilitating the use of tech-nologies such as blockchain and smart contracts.



1:20pm - 1:40pm

MODULE LIBRARY DEVELOPMENT VIA GRAPH MINING

Jianpeng Cao, Daniel Hall

ETH Zurich, Switzerland

The use of prefabricated modules can benefit the construction industry with the economy of scales and production efficiency. However, the existing approach to develop module libraries is project-based, lacking the potential to reuse and manage in future projects. By taking the repeatability and manufacturability into account, this paper proposes a graph-based framework to identify possible modules automatically from multiple projects by frequent pattern mining. The results show that the repeated patterns share a degree of standardization and can be considered as module candidates. Finally, the framework is implemented as add-ons in the BIM environment to support module lifecycle management.



1:40pm - 2:00pm

GluLamb: A toolkit for early-stage modelling of free-form glue-laminated timber structures

Tom Svilans

Royal Danish Academy, Denmark

This paper focuses on the integration of material and fabrication parameters into the early-stage design of free-form glue-laminated (glulam) timber structures. This integration constitutes an embedding of a glulam materiality into digital design modelling tools. This paper presents GluLamb, a software modelling toolkit that implements a constrained glulam blank model for the design of glulam elements. The general functionality of this toolkit is described and three case studies are presented which show the application of GluLamb in different contexts: design simulation in research, design exploration and rationalization in an architectural practice setting, and as the basis for a design-to-fabrication workflow.



2:00pm - 2:20pm

PARAMETRIC STRUCTURAL OPTIMISATION TOOL FOR FLEXIBLE INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS: EVALUATION THROUGH EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

Julia Reisinger, Iva Kovacic

Institute of Interdisciplinary Construction Process Management, Department of Integrated Planning and Industrial Building, TU Wien, Austria

Industrial building design is an interdisciplinary task, where data and software needed by production planning differ from the ones in building design. Constantly changing manufacturing systems demand highly flexible building structures. To achieve integration and improve structural performance a novel parametric multi-objective optimisation and decision support (POD) tool for flexible industrial buildings was developed. Through an experimental study within an interdisciplinary design class we have introduced and tested the tool, thereby evaluating students satisfaction on people, process and technology aspects. Results reveal strengths (quick variant studies, performance feedback), limitations (ease of use, interoperability) and future developments of the POD tool.

 
2:30pm - 3:00pmClosing + EC3 2022 Announcement
Session Chair: James Thomas O'Donnell
Session Chair: Daniel Hall
 
3:00pm - 3:30pmGatherTown Networking Session 9
 
3:30pm - 6:00pmEC3 Annual Meeting: General Assembly (Open to the public)
Session Chair: Symeon Christodoulou
Session Chair: Esin Ergen

Agenda is available from:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1_frQwGCxeeao7IDGcjnFvY9iB-qKiBEU/view?usp=sharing

Agenda is available from:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1_frQwGCxeeao7IDGcjnFvY9iB-qKiBEU/view?usp=sharing

 

 
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