Multiplication of Borders in National School Systems in Times of (Forced) Migration and Global Educational Governance: Comparative Perspectives
The increased forced migration to European and Non-European countries, especially in the wake of the war in Syria, has brought flight and migration into focus in different national education systems. Numerous programs, projects, and actors are involved in ambivalent discourses and political processes in which material and symbolic (national) borders are being strengthened and weakened at the same time. From a comparative perspective, the symposium aims to analyze Ent/grenz/ungen in the political and institutional responses to (forced) migration in the German, Turkish and Greek school systems in the context of the multilayered transformational processes of the nation-state. By taking a look at three national education systems that are involved in the European Border and transnational education regimes in different ways, the symposium focuses on linkages between the emerging Global Education Industry and processes of inclusion and exclusion in the context of (forced) migration.
Beiträge des Panels
Governance and Refugees’ Access to Education under the Pandemic of Covid-19 in Greece: between Excluding Practices and Inclusive Strategies
In 2015 Greece received about a million dislocated people, a record number in the history of the country. Given that a holistic approach to migration and integration is not so well developed, reception of refugees became a challenge on many fronts, such as housing, education, access to asylum rights and health services (Leivaditi et al. 2020). Refugees as a category of ‘outcasted’ people (Bauman 2004) are in urgent need of formal and non-formal education and the COVID-19 pandemic discloses important gaps in refugees’ education. This lack was urgently pointed out, because the “pile on effects” of the Coronavirus includes heightened mental and physical health problems, reduced connectivity and increasing inequality (UNHCR 2020). Volunteer teachers and their commitment play a pivotal role in refugee education in general. During the pandemic they helped with remote teaching in formal and non-formal education. The questions posed in the paper are “How were the challenges of including refugees into education tackled by the official education policy?” and “What are the challenges teachers working in formal and in NGO’s non-formal educational settings face in reaching out to refugees?” The research for this paper includes a variety of sources: policy documents, reports, and interviews with teachers and key experts. The theoretical framework makes use of concepts and approaches based on sociology and participatory pedagogy.
Between Inclusion Claims and Competitive Orientation: Educational Practices and Perceptions of NGOs in the Context of the EU-Turkey Agreement
This paper analyzes the educational programs, projects, and actor constellations that emerged in the context of the so-called EU-Turkey deal as elements of an International Education Regime. Through a discourse-theory-informed analysis of the programs, projects, and (self-)perceptions of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) active in the field of (forced) migration and education in Istanbul/Turkey I show that the NGOs are entangled in the logic of a New Educational Governance in many ways. This takes place either on a practical level through various collaborations of the NGOs with the private sector, their alignment with neoliberal principles such as the principle of competition, or on a conceptual level by justifying their educational projects primarily in terms of quantitative data respectively indicators, and statistics. Drawing on texts from qualitative interviews with the NGOs and websites of these actors as well as of the European Commission, I show that current dynamics in the International Education Regime impact the actors' understandings of cooperation, civic engagement, and inclusion in a rather one-sided way. The education programs implemented under the EU-Turkey agreement are characterized by a technical understanding of educational justice; they often pursue a one-dimensional focus on the category of ‘Syrian refugee children’, while aspects of intersectionality are being widely overlooked when addressing forced migration in the Turkish education system.
New Educational Governance and discourses on schooling, social justice and (forced) migration in Germany
The paper examines, how political claims of inclusion, social justice and democracy have been incorporated, (re)conceptualized, distorted or excluded within the New Educational Governance as a new type of school reform in Germany as a (post-)migration society and how this affects the work of teachers and schools as well as participation opportunities of students and parents. By means of a discourse analysis of key policy documents at the federal political level, academic texts that belong to the genre of school effectiveness research and interviews with professionals in the field of governance and migration the institutionalised knowledge concerning educational requirements of (forced) migration will be elicited. The study reveals a far-reaching depoliticisation of discourse and normative revaluations. In the interplay of the epistemology, methodology and categories of school effectiveness research with managerialist steering instruments, spaces for democratic school development and educational processes, in which aspects of plurality, difference and discrimination can be thematized and addressed, appear to be systematically narrowed or closed. Linking theories of transnational educational governance, regime and gouvernementality (e.g. Amos 2016) with considerations on plurality, educational inequality, discrimination and democratic justice a critical understanding of the school effectiveness approach as “epistemological politics” (Ricken 2011) will be developed.
School Effectiveness and Institutional Habitus: How Turkish Public Schools fail Kurdish Students
Reproduction theories reveal schools' critical role in inequalities and instill a sense of pessimism regarding schools’ potential to create a fair society. School effectiveness research (SER) has responded to this pessimism by studying associations between school factors and educational performance to show that schools can make a difference. Despite its optimistic approach, SER fails to analyze the effects of broader social structures on educational processes. In my presentation, I will use the institutional habitus concept to understand how the Turkish state’s assimilative educational agenda and Kurdish communities' past experiences inform educational interactions in a public middle school in Istanbul’s inner-city area. Based on this empirical data, the presentation will point out theoretically that institutional habitus as a conceptual tool provides a more robust framework than SER in explaining schools’ role in academic achievement within the broader sociopolitical context.