Conference Program

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Date: Tuesday, 17/May/2022
11:00am - 12:30pm1.1.1: Conference Welcome
Session Chair: Georgina Alonso
Session Chair: Deborah Simpson

Join the conference committee to open CASID 2022!

12:30pm - 1:00pmBreak 1 Day 1
1:00pm - 2:30pm1.2.1 “If everything is development studies, then nothing is”: What futures for Development Studies?
Session Chair: Joshua Ramisch
 

Chair(s): Joshua Ramisch (University of Ottawa, Canada), Craig Johnson (University of Guelph,)

At first glance, development studies’ interdisciplinarity should be its strength at a moment where Canada and the world are struggling to address multiple crises rooted in interconnected and systemic injustices. However, development studies programs in Canada face challenges of their own, many of which predate the pandemic.

This panel proposes to detail and debate these challenges, using examples drawn from a diversity of university contexts. The competing pressures to professionalize and to critique ‘development’ meet with additional, institutional pressures to offer viable undergraduate or graduate experiences. This is a discipline, after all, that is not always recognized (institutionally or otherwise) as a ‘discipline’, and whose very term ‘development’ is contested from within and by others. Students eager to work for social transformation now have many other options available to them, including criminology, social work, or feminist and gender studies. Pandemic-related travel restrictions and uncertainties have forced many to adapt international research or study plans to alternative, Canadian contexts, or to virtual forms of partnership.

 

Presentations of the Symposium

 

Teaching ‘development’ through social innovation: the practice, pedagogy and implications of centring ‘development’ courses around social innovation assignments

Christine Gibb1, Jean-Francois Rousseau2
1Univ. of Ottawa, 2Univ. d'Ottawa

‘How should we teach ‘development?’ and ‘What are the implications of such teaching for student learners, teachers, and development actors outside academia?’ are perennial questions asked by fledging and experienced ‘development’ instructors alike. This paper revisits these questions in the context of pandemic teaching and learning. It studies how instructors have re-designed undergraduate ‘development’ courses around a social innovation assignment. Social innovation, ‘a response to social challenges that entails changing relations based on alternative ways of knowing, doing, framing, and organising, which contribute to a sustainable society,’ is increasingly being embraced as the ‘third mission’ of universities (Göransson et al. 2021, 121186). This paper studies how such an approach shapes students' understandings of ‘development’ and their engagement with ‘development’ partners, and how instructors, students and partners critically engage with the concept of social innovation through the processes of creating, teaching, grading and debriefing the assignments. We consider what social innovation might look like in a post-pandemic ‘development’ studies classroom. Our collective reflections are situated in ongoing conversations about ‘development’ pedagogies and international development education programmes (cf. Cameron et al. 2013, Martel et al. 2021, Sims 2018, Tiessen and Smillie 2016, Tiessen et al. 2020, Toukan 2020).

 

"Creative destruction of the very thing that brought me here”: Reflections on graduate outcomes as a guide to possible development studies futures

Joshua Ramisch
University of Ottawa, Canada

At first glance, development studies’ interdisciplinarity should be its strength at a moment where Canada and the world are struggling to address multiple crises rooted in interconnected and systemic injustices. But ‘development’ studies in the contemporary university context is also struggling, both internally and against external pressures. Internally, the study of ‘development’ is constantly challenging and reinventing itself through critical self-reflection, in conversation with or in opposition to other fields or disciplines. Externally, university programs face institutional pressures to offer viable undergraduate or graduate programs. While it is easy to rail against the innovation imperative of the neoliberal university (Newfield 2020), or its emphasis on metrics and managerial authority, post-graduation student outcomes do give fruitful insights into a program’s contributions and impacts. This paper draws on preliminary data from post-graduate trajectories of students from the past ten years of the undergraduate, masters, and doctoral programs at the University of Ottawa’s School of International Development and Global Studies. The findings demonstrate multiple, favourable contributions, but also many opportunities for more ambitious critique even in the professionalization of ‘development’ or in non-academic, activist engagement.

 
1:00pm - 2:30pm1.2.2: Development and COVID-19: Seeking Pathways to Move from Neoliberalism toward Inclusive Development
Session Chair: Adrian Murray
 

Child Rights Under Attack: The Development Challenges and Responses to COVID-19

Niloufar Pourzand

York U, Canada

I will be presenting some of the key consequences of the pandemic on safeguarding the rights of children as outlined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. This will include the impact of COVID-19 on children's right to education, health care, protection and participation and the setbacks/additional risks which have ensued. I will bring examples from various regions and different organizations including UNICEF with regards to assessing/analyzing the situation as well as some of the key actions taken to provide holistic, multi-sectoral and coordinated responses. Some of the best practices/lessons learned and ways forward will be summarized as well as some of the new modalities of engagement emanating from more remote work, localization and digitalization. I will provide a perspective as to the longer-term impact of this experience at the international, regional, national and sub-national level and what this entails for donors, IDS Departments, Governments, the UN, CSOs and other stakeholders. I will be referring to my own in-depth experiences with child rights work in many different countries as well as my experience as a Professor of IDS at York University and the University of Toronto over the past five years.



Covid-19 pandemic in “Least Developed Countries”: Culmination of the five decades of neoliberal developmentalism

Kapil Dev Regmi

University of Melbourne, Australia

Least Developed Countries, a group of 46 economically poor countries, were identified by the UN in 1971 to consolidate international support measures (ISMs) to address development challenges related to poverty, health, and education. However, even after half a century of their identification they remain poor.

This paper aims to investigate the support measures taken by international organizations mainly the UN for solving developmental challenges faced by these countries. It uses neoliberal developmentalism – that combines the scholarship on the critique of neoliberal orientation in development with the theory of modernism – as a theoretical framework. It uses key policy documents produced by the UN and its sister organisations (Committee for Development Policy, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, General Assembly, United Nations Development Program, and United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisations) from 1971 to 2021 as the main sources of data.

The paper uses document analysis as an analytical approach for analysing the data. Following Bowen (2009), I skimmed through all the policy documents, highlighted excerpts, and made notes for developing categories. After having a good understanding of existing policies, I read them carefully multiple times ‘to elicit meaning, gain understanding, and develop empirical knowledge’ (p. 27) about what support measures were taken, what implications those measures have on the sustainable development of LDCs, and what strategies are taken for really implementing them.

A major finding of the paper is that while some attempts were made for integrating LDCs into global trade and economy, international community could not translate their policy rhetoric into reality hence LDCs were left out in several developmental sectors such as economy, education, and health. As the Covid-19 pandemic ravaged the world the historical problems and challenges faced by these countries worsened. The findings are significant for devising more effective post-pandemic social policies for LDCs.



Impact de la pandémie de COVID-19 sur l’efficacité de l’aide : le cas du Vanuatu

Morgane Rosier

University of Ottawa, Canada

Ce papier a pour but d’explorer l’impact de la pandémie de COVID-19 sur la mise en œuvre d’engagements internationaux en matière d’aide. En particulier, la Déclaration de Paris sur l’efficacité de l’aide au développement de 2005 vise le respect de trois principes fondamentaux interreliés : appropriation (les pays récipiendaires définissent eux-mêmes leurs politiques de développement), alignement (les bailleurs de fonds soutiennent ces stratégies) et harmonisation (les bailleurs coordonnent leurs actions entre eux). Quinze ans plus tard, la mise en œuvre de ces principes s’avère décevante malgré leur potentiel pour créer un cadre global basé sur des relations plus égalitaires entre les pays. Cependant, le contexte « favorable » créé par la pandémie de COVID-19, notamment la restriction des déplacements internationaux et l’élan de solidarité affichée par la communauté internationale, peut soit renverser la tendance soit favoriser le statu quo. Je pose alors les questions suivantes : Comment la pandémie de COVID-19 a-t-elle freiné ou accéléré l’application des principes ? Que cela révèle-t-il sur leur pertinence et quels cadres concevoir pour le futur ? Pour y répondre, j’étudie le cas du Vanuatu, un État insulaire du Pacifique Sud récipiendaire d’aide au développement. En me basant sur une analyse de sources primaires et secondaires, ainsi que sur des entrevues avec des acteurs clefs au Vanuatu, je trouve que la pandémie a créé des incitatifs puissants au respect des principes, contrairement à une déclaration non-contraignante. Cela a renforcé des tendances déjà en cours comme la localisation, mais aussi des dérives autoritaires. Cependant et malgré les contraintes, les principes d’appropriation, d’alignement et d’harmonisation ne sont toujours qu’imparfaitement et partiellement mis en œuvre. Cela pose les questions de la pertinence de cadres comme la Déclaration de Paris et l’agenda de localisation ainsi que des approches alternatives plus pertinentes dans le futur.



Inclusive Development During and After the COVID-19 Pandemic: Lessons from the Second-Generation Tamil Diaspora in Canada

Akalya Kandiah

University of Ottawa, Canada

The COVID-19 pandemic brought with it numerous restrictions which impacted development initiatives, such as border closures. Localization helps to mitigate some of the challenges that have been exacerbated due to the pandemic, such as limited and/or slower access to communities, and at the same time is a decolonial process that contributes to more inclusive development.

Using in-depth interviews with second-generation members of the Tamil diaspora in Canada, this study finds that the diaspora uses their cultural and social capital to regularly engage in localization. Specifically, the diaspora's various forms of capital help it to implement localization practices such as direct lines of communication for communities to determine their own needs, the identification of and collaboration with grassroots and community organizations, and direct funding of those organizations. These findings highlight the ways in which the diaspora challenge colonial narratives to approach localization and overcome some of the barriers to localization, as well as some of the benefits of making international development an inclusive space for diverse groups such as diasporas and local actors to make contributions.

 
1:00pm - 2:30pm1.2.3: Education, Health & COVID-19: Where We might Go From Here

Chair(s): Amy Cooper, acooper@equitas.org

 

Transforming Ourselves and Transforming Our Community: A Case Study of Learning Theory and Practice within Society of the Universal Learner in Bihar, India

Elisa Samara Cooper

University of Guelph, Canada

This paper shares findings from a study that examined the dynamics of learning within Society of the Universal Learner (SOUL), a community-based organization operating in Bihar, India. SOUL supports rural communities to strengthen local education systems. Using a participatory action research methodology organized around interviews and focus group discussions, the study found that SOUL was already using a wide range of tools, strategies, and approaches to learn about complex questions related to rural education. SOUL’s learning practice was informed by an understanding of learning as a process of individual and collective transformation that advances through consultation, action, and reflection. The participants, who were staff of SOUL, demonstrated a strong understanding of system dynamics in relation to village-level education even though they did not explicitly use language and concepts from systems theory. SOUL’s strong understanding of rural education systems and its approach to learning have enabled the organization to adapt to gradual and sudden systemic changes, including the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper integrates concepts from systems thinking with SOUL’s practical experience in a framework that can be used to design and assess learning processes in complex systems.



Post-crisis impacts for Chinese Stakeholders in Canadian University International Education Programs – with a case study for campus-based survey evidence

Yun Liu

University of Regina

Addressing impacts by the recent crisis of bilateral relations upon Chinese non-state actors engaging Canada-China university partnership programs, this paper has a critical review on the scholarship on Education Diplomacy relevant for the debates on Public Diplomacy and soft power. It further conducts a campus-based questionnaire to collect anonymous responses from Chinese students and scholars as stakeholders to analyze post-crisis opportunities and challenges in restoring Canada-China learning mobility activities. Our survey samples have shown positive signs confirming comparative advantage by Canadian university international programs; they also express higher concerns for domestic recognition and personal safety as expected for their study/visiting plans. Their voices project some levels of relief to the recent de-escalation of bilateral tension while calling for more practical measures to be adapted for sustainable cooperation.



Navigating fear and care: The lived experiences of community-based health actors in the Philippines during the COVID-19 pandemic

Warren Dodd1, Laura Jane Brubacher1, Sara Wyngaarden1, Amy Kipp1, Victoria Haldane2, Hannah Ferrolino3, Kendall Wilson3, Danilo Servano Jr.3, Lincoln L. Lau3, Xiaolin Wei2

1School of Public Health Sciences, University of Waterloo; 2Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto; 3International Care Ministries

The activities of community-based health actors are widely recognized as critical to pandemic response and health systems resilience; yet, there exists a lack of clarity as to how actors contribute to resilience in practice, who is included in this ecosystem of actors, and how they experience the complexity of delivering community-level care. This research aimed to (1) characterize the lived experiences of community-based health actors in the COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines; and (2) identify opportunities for further supporting these critical actors in the health workforce. Virtual interviews were conducted (Jan-Feb 2021) with 28 workers employed by a Philippines-based NGO to explore their lived experiences in COVID-19. Data were analyzed thematically using a hybrid inductive-deductive coding process, informed by Tronto’s conceptualization of an ethic of care. NGO workers’ lived experiences were shaped by discourses of fear and care, and the interaction between these two affects. They experienced fear of contracting and transmitting COVID-19 to others; perceived fear among community members where they worked; and fear of COVID-19 testing, recognizing the personal and social implications (e.g. stigma) of a positive test. In the context of fear, care was a powerful motivator to continue their work. An organizational culture of care helped elide their fears, as their NGO promoted self-care strategies, implemented safety protocols, and provided material supports to those in quarantine. Fear and care, inextricably connected, motivated adherence to COVID-19 protocols, which assuaged fears and were seen as mechanisms of caring for others. These findings contribute to understanding the ecosystem of actors involved in community engagement efforts and the challenges they encounter in their work, particularly in a pandemic context. We highlight implications for civil society organizations charged with protecting the mental and physical well-being of their workers and, more broadly, for ensuring the ongoing resilience of local health systems.



Covid-19 and Healthcare Waste Management in Urban Africa. Implications for Development

Jeffrey Squire

York University, Canada

Recent outbreaks of epidemics such as the Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) and the ongoing global Coronavirus (Covid-19) pandemic with its multiple mutations and ultra contagious variants has brought a renewed focus on healthcare waste management in urban Africa. Such wastes are known to contain infectious and toxic substances that can potentially cause serious diseases in human populations as well as significant damages to the environment. Mitigating such risks requires a well-coordinated management approach involving multiple stakeholders as well as the availability of technical, financial and human resources. Additionally, feasible regulatory instruments replete with effective means of implementation, enforcement and monitoring are deemed essential for the sound management of healthcare wastes. These are areas where most cities in Africa face tremendous challenges, a situation compounded by a surge in demand for healthcare services since the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic. To date, close to 10.7 million Coronavirus infections and 236,000 fatalities have been reported in Africa (Reuters, 2022). In addition to providing care for patients, officials have rolled out massive testing and vaccination campaigns aimed at curbing the spread of the virus. However, not much is currently known or understood about the management of healthcare wastes since the pandemic. Drawing from post-positivist methodological approaches this presentation assesses the development implications of healthcare waste management practices in urban Africa since the outbreak of the Coronavirus pandemic.

 
1:00pm - 2:30pm1.2.4: Transformations: Hope, Participation, and Interrogating Influence
Session Chair: Georgina Alonso
 

Changing Behaviour: The Econometrics of Hope

Nargiza Chorieva, Brent Swallow, Sandeep Mohapatra

University of Alberta, Canada

In recent years, development economists are considering the potential for hope to alleviate poverty and enhance economic development. However, the ideas of hope and aspirations are not directly observable (latent) and do not easily lend themselves to rigorous empirical analysis. Although various studies have studied how they may fit into economic theories, empirical studies have been ad hoc without validating the measures of hope. Also, measuring hope can be challenging because of measurement invariance. Understanding individual and group differences may be critical given their apparent influence on the poor's economic behaviour and outcomes. Our first objective is to see whether the questions in our survey measure hope and not something else. The second objective is to determine if it is perceived in the same way by all.

Our study team and local collaborators carried out a hope survey with more than 5,200 individuals living in 98 villages in Kigoma and Iringa, Tanzania. Respondents are asked to rate the extent of agreement with 12 items (8 positive and 4 negative) adapted from the Scioli Hope Scale and translated into Swahili. We applied quantitative measurement methods -- the Graded Response Model (GRM) of Item Response Theory and Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analysis.

Our preliminary results suggest that the measurement of hope we used performs relatively well in Tanzania. We find that positive items distinguish individuals more accurately than negative ones. The performance of the measurement tool could improve if a few more items distinguishing people with higher levels of hope are added. We see almost no DIF for the treatment and control groups. However, there is DIF based on demographic characteristics and their access to public services. These findings lead to a greater understanding of the psychological differences that underpin subgroup responses and allow us to consider them while making further causal analyses.



Influencer or Influenced? An examination of the role influencers play within traditional models of tourism advertising

Brandon Pryce, Hannah Ascough

Queen's University, Canada

Within tourism studies, the concept of the Tourism Destination Image (TDI) has been widely employed within academia and in use by industry to describe the way in which destinations are marketed to consumers. TDI is the nebulous process through which industries, governments, and stakeholders combine forces to “sell” a destination as a product. The rise of social media platforms such as TikTok and Instagram has led to the proliferation of influencers who now contribute to the TDI process in ways previously not understood using traditional TDI modelling.

In this paper, we explore how influencers utilize, modify, alter, and ultimately complicate the traditional forms of TDI created in two popular Canadian tourist destinations: Moraine Lake (Banff, Alberta) and the Bay of Fundy (New Brunswick/Nova Scotia). Drawing insights from these two case studies, we ask how the individual tourist – through their process of self-promotion on social media – places themselves within the tourist space, and how that depiction interacts with traditional TDI. We pay particular attention to gendered dimensions of self-promotional tourism and the way it collides with the external environments of Moraine Lake and the Bay of Fundy; for instance, how do performances of femininity intersect with nature in these new influencer TDI?

The COVID-19 pandemic marks a transition period for Canada’s tourist industry, as it looks to recover losses from international visitors by promoting domestic travel. The broader purpose of this paper is to contribute to these ongoing conversations within tourism studies and the ever-evolving nature of TDI.



The Use of Participatory Research Methods to explore gender norm change amongst adolescents in Ghana, Rwanda, and Mozambique

Geetanjali Gill1, Aamina Adham2, Claude Cheta2

1University of the Fraser Valley, Canada; 2Right to Play (INGO)

Achieving gender equality through girls’ education is the focus of Sustainable Development Goals # 4 and 5, and the G7 2018 Charlevoix Declaration. Responding to this global priority, international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) have been implementing education projects in the global South that attempt to transform socio-cultural norms for greater gender equality in communities. There has also been a growing recognition by development actors of the need for research methods and tools to better understand how shifts in socio-cultural norms can impact gender relations at a community level. This paper will discuss the innovative, participatory research methods and tools that were designed and pre-tested by the INGO Right to Play, and the University of the Fraser Valley, for use by practitioners with adolescents in Rwanda, Ghana, and Mozambique. Since 2018, Right to Play has championed the use of gender-responsive play-based methodologies with adolescents, teachers, and families in the ‘Gender-Responsive Education and Transformation’ (GREAT) program in Rwanda, Mozambique, and Ghana, funded by Global Affairs Canada. Qualitative field research tools developed by the Overseas Development Institute (2015) and the UK’s Department for International Development SPRING and Gender and Adolescence Global Evidence programs (2019; 2018) were adapted and pre-tested by Right to Play staff from December 2021 until March 2022 in the three countries. Participatory life history interviews were carried out with girls and boys categorized as ‘outliers’ in their adherence to social norms, as well as with their parents, and grandparents, resulting in detailed inter-generational case studies of gender norm change. Participatory exercises were also carried out in focus groups with additional girls, boys, and teachers to understand community-level factors that influence gender norms. Preliminary findings indicate that the use of these methods can enable a deep understanding of socio-cultural norm change for greater gender equality amongst adolescents, and their families and communities.



Looking at crisis differently : participatory visual methods and adolescents’ agency in Mali

Kattie Lussier, Claudia Mitchell

Université McGill, Canada

Crisis are by definition times of great complexity and multiple difficulties. Yet, some countries have become so used to navigate from one crisis to the next that local people, adolescents in particular, are now so resilient that their struggles are overlooked. Such is the case in the conflict affected regions of Mali where the school calendar is so disturbed by teachers’ strikes, terrorist attacks and social conflicts that the COVID-19 pandemic becomes just another layer of ordeal. In such context, it becomes extremely difficult to distinguish the effect of a particular disturbance on the life of the people experiencing them. Agency, that is “the ability to define one’s goals and act upon them” (Kabeer, 1999; Gammage et al., 2016; and Donald et al., 2020) is particularly important in times of crisis because it can increase youths’ capacities to manage shocks and stresses – thus addressing some of the root causes of violence (El-Bushra and Smith, 2016).

The proposed paper draws on the experience of the participatory research on education and agency in Mali (PREAM) to discuss how the use of participatory visual methods such as drawings and cellphilms (Moletsane & Mitchell, 2018) can help to shed a different light on youths’ agency in situation of crisis. Using examples from six workshops conducted in Segou and Mopti regions with youths from 13 to 18 years old, the authors will discuss how art-based methods can present a unique perspective on young people’s experiences while giving a voice to a segment of the population often ignored thus enabling us to look at agency and crisis differently.

 
2:30pm - 3:30pmLunch Day 1
3:30pm - 5:00pm1.3.1 Adolescent Flourishing through a Gender Transformative Lens
 

Chair(s): Rebecca Tiessen (University of Ottawa, Canada)

This panel is comprised of four papers that examine gender equality and youth well-being through the lenses of social protection, adolescent and human flourishing and gender transformative development. The papers consider the significance of focusing on youth, health, nutrition and wellbeing through these lenses.

 

Presentations of the Symposium

 

Towards Gender(+) Transformational Adolescent Flourishing

Rebecca Tiessen
uOttawa

Youth around the world face increasing inequalities that affect their health, wellbeing and ability to flourish. These challenges are compounded by global crises including the COVID-19 pandemic, conflict and climate change. Despite the disproportionate impacts of these chronic adversities on youth, they remain largely excluded from socio-political and institutional decision-making and from research and data collection processes. Youth are also drivers of change in their communities and are the key to identifying innovative and sustainable solutions to the most pressing global challenges. As youth transition into adulthood, we need to understand what it truly takes for them to flourish across multiple dimensions of their lives, and from diverse cultural perspectives. Building on the human flourishing analytical framework, I consider how a gender(+) transformative adolescent flourishing framework can facilitate a useful analytical framework for uncovering the coping and change strategies employed by youth as they navigate their current environment.

 

Toward A Comprehensive Analytical Lens For Considering Adolescent Flourishing, Nutrition And Food Systems

Khursheed Sadat
uOttawa

This paper builds on a number of conceptual and analytical frameworks to provide a comprehensive lens through which to examine the theoretical, analytical and methodological considerations for adolescent well-being and flourishing in relation to food systems and nutrition. This paper reflects on the strengths and weakness of 5 analytical frameworks: Positive Indicator Framework (PIF), capabilities approach, the Gender and Adolescence Global Evidence (GAGE) framework, the Gender Transformative Framework for Nutrition (GTFN), and the Oxfam Framework for Resilience Development, and constructs a multi-dimensional comprehensive conceptual framework for adolescent flourishing that puts the unique needs and voices of adolescents’ at the center of analysis and action. Intersectional in orientation, this comprehensive lens provides community development stakeholders (researchers, practitioners, and community members) the framework to consider the intersecting nature of physical, mental, social, political economic and spiritual factors which characterizes the challenges and opportunities for adolescent well-being in relation to food systems and nutrition.

 

Transforming nutrition and gender equality outcomes among women and girls using gender-transformative social protection programs

Nnenna Okoli
uOttawa

Nutrition and gender are invariably interrelated. Women and girls’ secondary status in patriarchal societies threatens their access to adequate nutrition and thus, their ability to meet their nutritional needs at various stages of their life cycle. Not only does their inordinate experience of malnutrition compared to men put their health and nutrition at risk, but it also further entrenches gender inequality and disempowerment. Social protection programs have demonstrated remarkable potential in addressing nutritional challenges among poor and vulnerable households. However, these programs tend to lack the transformational attributes necessary for challenging the systems and structures that cause poor nutrition and gender injustices in the first place. This paper argues that social protection programs need to be gender-transformative and suggests the application of the Gender Transformative Framework for Nutrition (GTFN) in the design and implementation of social protection programs to improve nutrition and gender equality outcomes.

 

Putting Girls' Voices at the Centre for More Responsive Community and Government Systems

Melani O'Leary
World Vision

Adolescent girls face multiple challenges related to their gender, age, limited economic independence, unequal power dynamics, and discriminatory normative behaviours, which disadvantage them and put them at a higher risk for poor health outcomes. This paper explores the potential to advance community development by applying Human Flourishing to nutrition and health programming, starting by placing girls’ voices at the centre, enabling them to recognize and act on their own power, and take the lead as transformational change agents. This entails girls, in partnership with male allies and other power holders, actively engaging in identifying and addressing barriers in their socio-cultural, economic and political environments that limit adolescent flourishing. A Flourishing framework also offers a holistic perspective to enhance community support structures and improve collaboration and sharing of assets across government systems to improve quality of/access to a wide range of adolescent girl specific services, necessary for optimal health and wellbeing.

 
3:30pm - 5:00pm1.3.2: Critical Reflections on Design and Development
Session Chair: Brian Sinclair
 

Critically Reflecting on Architectural Practice: Exploring Innovative Initiatives for International Development

Farhad Mortezaee, Brian Sinclair

University of Calgary, Canada

Our paper wants to address: What alternatives can/should we advocate in pursuit of global solidarities, decolonization, equity and indeed ‘development’?

Modern society is complex, confronting wicked problems that evade simple solutions. The present paper explores tensions arising from the collisions between colonial posturing, development, equity, + justice. As post-colonial nationalists sought to establish their sovereignty, they understood ‘Modernity’ as timeless, ahistorical and pure from euro-centric cultures, hence their adoption of contemporary architecture and planning as symbolically vital to their paths to progress. Privilege allowed ‘foreign’ modernist architects and urban planners to implement their designs, or have their prototypes copied at serious scales that were not possible in their own home countries.

Our paper investigates how architects’ home locations in the West proffered certain ‘privileges’, leading to the assertion of ‘narrow’ design agendas in the ‘developing world’. In other words, coming from afar awarded status and power that influenced design and planning directions.

The lead author reflects on two spaceframe tent school structures that he designed for marginalized populations in Middle East. Due to pandemic restrictions, travel to the site was impossible -- precipitating reliance on friends and colleagues to build projects with minimal communication with the local population. A short video showcases the tent structures in situ and offers critique. While development should utilize local materials, engage & empower local stakeholders, and deploy local talent, these structures demonstrate how modernity driven by high technology is still the preferred goal to many. These scenarios highlight challenges that surface when there are limited resources available locally, and when small scale development initiatives do not have the means to mobilize local stakeholders. While the paper illustrates unique cases, the authors argue that lessons learned have resonance and applicability more generally.



Rights, Sagacity + The Devil’s Crop: Provocations in an Ethos of Design, Dissolution + Disarray

Brian R. Sinclair1,2

1University of Calgary, Canada; 2sinclairstudio inc., Canada

Madness is pervasive, with few facets of existence untouched and many aspects upended. Peace, order and stability seem far removed from memory as we confront climate, health, economic and social emergencies that uproot values and upheave harmony. Nations grapple with serious troubles, from sustainability and supremacy to pandemics and politics, discovering conventional responses are neither effective nor appropriate. Into the mix arrives polarizations that disrupt, divide and destabilize countries and communities. Grasping said problems, and effectively reading landscapes of unrest, proves daunting and depressing. However, history illustrates that during unfathomable crises viable paths forward warrant innovation, resolve and resilience. Design presents one vehicle to deploy, to positive ends, to navigate beyond present predicaments. The current research operates from a design perspective, arguing creativity and innovation in problem solving proves viable vehicles for reimagining systems/societies. Reassessing values is predicated on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, a document that delineates vital conditions due to all people living on our small planet. To negotiate the turbulent waters of global breakdown and social upheaval, research methods include critical analysis of literature, logical argumentation and case studies, including an annual graduate Architecture Human Rights Studio. An ability to shape one’s character, to be capable of grasping context, and to be equipped to act on wicked challenges, are precursors to rethinking/rebuilding systems gone amuck. Discerning right from wrong seems germane to equations of rights. Arendt (1974) noted “If everybody always lies to you, the consequence is not that you believe the lies, but rather that nobody believes anything any longer.” The paper examines human rights via higher education, using Architecture as an illustrative case, and proposes a framework for action -- highlighting values, self and world views as timely and essential ingredients for re-designing systems and societies in more suitable, sympathetic and sustainable ways.



Indigeneity, Imagination, Equity + Design: Ethical Space and Complementary Ways of Knowing

Brian R. Sinclair1,2

1University of Calgary, Canada; 2sinclairstudio inc. Canada

Understanding an evermore complicated world, and tackling horrendous problems, proves formidable, thorny and tangled. While design is well-positioned to tackle complexity, recent awareness of alternative ways of seeing raises concerns about narrow perspectives, limited voices and urgency to embrace plurality. In North America, over many centuries, the assumed primacy of ‘newcomers’ aggressively suppressed indigenous knowing. Turtle Island’s First Peoples survived on the land over countless generations, holding reverence for nature and humility around their place in the system. With European arrival synergy was overturned in dramatic and destructive ways. Colonizers’ views concerning man’s dominion over nature, land as commodity, written word as definitive, and science as supreme, countered indigenous traditions. Collision of values, as history painfully illustrates, was irreconcilable and ripe for conflict. Today the planet and its people, regardless of place/predilection, are caught in quagmires of crises. Climate, health, social, and other emergencies underscore unsustainable trajectories of modern civilization. Recent events, including social unrest and a global pandemic, highlight the need to reconsider our interface with the environment and each other. Calls for inclusivity, empathy and open-mindedness underscore urgencies of reconsidering systems and overhauling structures. Understanding, acknowledging and applying indigenous knowledge affords opportunities to broaden toolsets and surmount calamities. The research acutely evaluates prevailing mindsets. Using critical analysis of literature, ethnographic tactics, and case studies, including Architecture studios and community-based projects addressing Aboriginal culture, the paper presents a model for Western Science and Indigenous Knowing to act in unison to problem-seek and problem-solve. Divergent peoples, different cultures and parallel systems need to reside together in Ethical Space. Ethical Space is a vital precursor to progressing conversations and reconciling disparity in seeing, thinking and acting. To realize greater justice, fairness, concordance, and amity, we must urgently design/deploy viable and efficacious strategies for turning around many elements of modern life.



Considering Health + Wellness Beyond Convention: Spirituality, Space and the Critical Case of Sufism

Nooshin Esmaeili1, Brian R. Sinclair2

1School of Architecture, Planning + Landscape (SAPL), University of Calgary, Canada; 2School of Architecture, Planning + Landscape (SAPL), University of Calgary + sinclairstudio inc., Canada

Over recent years the profession of Architecture has faced increasing pressure to attend to matters ahead of bricks and mortar, glass, and steel. While the materials are crucial to success in the design of our spaces and places, they alone are of course insufficient. Architecture is foremost about inhabitation and people -- we craft our buildings to facilitate activities, provide inspiration, instill security, and, most critically, foster wellbeing. Considering pressing global crises, including epidemics and pandemics, architects are now accountable to society in our quest for improved quality of life. To such ends, designers are considering research and evidence that can inform decisions, including across the spectrum of determinants of health. The present paper reviews such elements, and moves beyond the physical, the psychological, and the sociological to critically examine the potential for spiritual space to further health and wellness. Incorporating a literature review that crosses disciplinary boundaries, the research then deploys case study methods to analyze major Sufi Architecture projects, building arguments for linking place-making to holistic health. The case studies examine a range of factors that contribute to transcendence in space, including light, proportion, water, materials, and choreography, illustrating spaces that stir our minds and touch our souls offer positive dimensions to dwelling, healing, and being. Sufism, as a unique form of spiritual practice, considers the interplay of the outer world (including Architecture), and the inner world (body-mind-spirit). Analysis of the extraordinary case studies are shaped into a framework for health + design, providing guidance to architects and environmental designers as they strive to create buildings and landscapes that rise above the pragmatic. In our complex world, where stress and disease are ever-present, the current research serves to illuminate new ways of seeing, thinking, and acting that bring the spiritual more meaningfully into our design strategies and solutions.

 
3:30pm - 5:00pm1.3.3: Autonomy and Prosperity of the Vulnerable: Women, Children, Sex Workers

Chair(s): Justine Pascual, jpasc055@uottawa.ca

 

‘Leaving no one behind’: roadmap for action – the perspectives of vulnerable women on SDGs priorities for the decade of action

Eunice Annan-Aggrey

University of Western Ontario, Canada

In several local settings, the voices of marginalized groups, especially women, are muted/sidelined in decision making processes. An understanding of what marginalized individuals need and prioritize is however necessary in order to realize the ambition of reaching the most vulnerable. This is because vulnerable individuals experience diverse and dynamic challenges, therefore, strategies that empower them to conduct their own analysis of their reality are critical. This research used qualitative photovoice methodology to provide an opportunity for vulnerable women experiencing intersecting vulnerabilities to reflect on their realities and articulate their most important needs. It examines the perspectives of individuals at risk of being left behind, on what is required to enable them experience greater progress. It answers the principal question: What programs and policies should be prioritized at the local level and beyond for the remaining SDGs timeline? The research aligns with scholarship which suggests that to enact change, “development interventions need to empower the poor to analyze and express their realities and then put that reality first”. This paper therefore highlights the points of convergence of the views of research participants and draws on these themes to propose a roadmap of priority goals for the remaining timeline of the SDGs.



Bodily Autonomy, Inter-relationality and Global Health: Addressing Tensions During and Beyond the COVID-19 Pandemic

Jacqueline Potvin

University of Guelph, Canada

In April 2021, The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) released its annual report on the State of the World Population, organized around the theme of Bodily Autonomy. The report outlines the importance of bodily autonomy to women’s empowerment and gender equality, and measures progress towards ensuring bodily autonomy, including in relation to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

UNFPA’s adoption of bodily autonomy as a policy concept speaks to the success of feminist advocates working to ensure women’s ability to make decisions about their bodies, sexuality and reproduction are centered in global development and health interventions. Yet the report was also released during a global pandemic that highlights the limitations of bodily autonomy given the inherent inter-relationality of health. Although health has always been inter-relational, the pandemic exemplifies how our capacity to make choices about our bodies are affected not only by policy or social norms, but by the individual and seemingly autonomous choices of those we are in community with, locally and globally. Furthermore, the appropriation of feminist discourses of bodily autonomy, including the slogan of ‘my body, my choice’, by anti-mask and anti-vaccination movements illustrates the dangers of using the concept without unpacking the ways in which our autonomous choices about our bodies affect the bodies of others. This tension, which has always been central to public and global health, becomes all the more urgent in the face of the ongoing pandemic, as well as worsening environmental crises, including climate change.

In this paper, I outline existing critiques of bodily autonomy as an individualizing concept and suggest how we can account for its limitations while maintaining its continued importance. I argue that such nuance is necessary in order to move beyond individualized understandings of health, particularly when addressing global reproductive and sexual health.



Sex Work as Real Work: Strategies for Global Economic Recovery that Includes Sex Workers

Andrea Burke, Deeplina Banerjee

Western University, Canada

Criminalization and lack of income documentation have exacerbated economic vulnerability for racialized, migrant, and queer sex workers. Sex workers are disproportionately bearing the social and economic costs of the COVID-19 pandemic. Bringing sex work within a critical framework of decent work, we review existing global mutual aid solutions that advocacy groups are mobilizing and discuss mutual aid's limitations to address financial insecurity. We argue for destigmatizing sex work in policy to enable workers to access resources to facilitate global economic recovery. We propose strategies to ensure policymakers account for women in informal and criminalized economies in the global recovery plan.



The Shadow of the Pandemic with no boarder on the wellbeing of children and women in marginalized social caste groups and communities across six countries in Africa, Central America and Asia

Feleke Tadele Kelkil

Children Believe, Canada

This paper assesses the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the well-being of children and women in socially marginalized and vulnerable communities. It analyzes the implications of the shadow pandemic and identifies development policy and practices issues that are critical to address future social development and educational challenges in pursuit of leaving no one behind.

The study was informed by qualitative and quantitative data analysis gathered through survey, key informant interviews and focus groups discussions that engaged over 500 respondents (51% women) across thirty disadvantaged and vulnerable districts in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, India, Nicaragua and Paraguay. In addition, reviews of secondary data sources were used to enrich the information and analysis.

The study revealed that only 17% of the respondents had accesses to some sort of virtual learning and electronic platforms during the lock down as they did not have access to mobile phones, tablets, internet infrastructure or electric power. The majority (60%) of the respondents have reported to have continued their learning through television, radios and Creative Learning Centres (CLC) established by NGOs. About 10% have not continued learning during lockdown at all and majorities of the girls were subjected to forced labor or marriage.

About 50% of the respondents indicated that they or their associates have encountered increased cases of child abuses manifested through sexual abuse, exploitative child labor, child marriage or gender based domestic violence. The study further indicated that the pandemic has affected their livelihoods and led to income losses. In the absence of effective safety nets, some families were forced to borrow cash at exacerbated interest rates, putting themselves in debt traps, which thereby led to risk migration experiences. The revamping of social protection mechanisms, more investment in marginalized communities and state affirmative actions to tribal regions are key policy measures to be taken.

 
3:30pm - 5:00pm1.3.4 Inclusive virtual public engagement for a just Covid-19 recovery process - Workshop
 

Lee-Anne Lavell1, Judyannet Muchiri2

1Atlantic Council for International Cooperation, Canada; 2Inter Council Network, Canada

What does inclusivity look like in virtual spaces? The use of digital technologies during the Covid-19 pandemic has changed the form of public engagement activities, creating space for groups who typically would not have access to particular forms of participation. The challenge for CSOs has been to make this participation meaningful and transformative for marginalized groups. The uneven availability of technological infrastructure determines who gets to participate and how they participate. Increasingly, organizations are proactively interrogating their practices; a positive step towards decolonizing the sector. However, this reflexivity exercise needs to be done in a way that does not propagate harmful practices.

The Inter Council Network is in the second phase of a research project which explores feminist, anti-racist and decolonial approaches to public engagement. Following the principles in Canada’s Feminist International Assistance Policy and the UN’s Agenda 2030, this research explores CSO best practices for feminist, anti-racist, and decolonial public engagement in a pandemic and post-pandemic context.

We will highlight good practices identified in this research project by using practical applications found with 3 public engagement initiatives of the ICN host council, the ,Atlantic Council for International Cooperation (ACIC). We invite practitioners, academics, and individuals to participate in a World Café to discuss the future of development work in the context of the pandemic.

We will explore how public engagement can support the role of development in breaking away from the interconnected global crises of Covid-19 and social oppression caused by patriarchal, neo-colonial and racist structures. Our three case studies will show examples of: 1) anti-racist and feminist approaches in development; 2) decolonization efforts in the Atlantic Canadian development context; and 3) youth engagement as a tool for social change. Drawing on ACIC’s work in these areas, participants will engage in small group discussions and larger group facilitated conversation.

 
5:00pm - 5:30pmBreak 2 Day 1
5:30pm - 7:00pm1.4.1: CASID Strategic Planning Townhall

You are invited to participate in the first of two CASID strategic planning sessions: a Town Hall Discussion on our Strategic Plan.

Date: Wednesday, 18/May/2022
11:00am - 12:30pm2.1.1: Bordering as Disaster: COVID-19, Borders and Conditional Cooperation - Headline Panel

The declaration of COVID-19 as a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020 elicited many initial proclamations of “we are all in this together”, which called for collective solidarity and international cooperation. Many governments, however, coalesced local support by instituting protectionist and isolationary measures to prioritize their own constituents, for example, by hardening borders and competing with other nations for supplies. These nationalist responses have also stoked racist, xenophobic, and ableist fears and actions. Further, hoarding of vaccines by high-income countries and maintaining private pharmaceutical patents have prevented the majority of the world’s population from timely and adequate vaccination. This competitive and exclusionary approach presents a number of contradictions in resolving a global crisis. In addressing the Congress 2022 theme of ‘Transitions’, we seek to unpack the role of borders in hindering a move towards global justice and safety for all in times of crisis and beyond.

Panelists:

Gabriel Allahdua, Justicia for Migrant Workers
Tammam Aloudat, Global Health Centre
Yafa Jarrar, PSAC and Labour4Palestine
Veldon Coburn, University of Ottawa

12:30pm - 1:00pmBreak 1 Day 2
1:00pm - 2:30pm2.2.1 Au-delà des pelures : l’agentivité des jeunes et les multiples couches de la crise éducative au Mali
 

Chair(s): Kattie Lussier (Université McGill, Canada)

Bien avant l’avènement de la COVID 19, le système éducatif malien était déjà aux prises avec de nombreux défis dont un conflit armé, des grèves enseignantes, un manque de personnel qualifié, des effectifs pléthoriques, un taux de pauvreté élevé ainsi que des conditions de vie et de travail rendues difficiles par la crise climatique. Bien que le taux de complétion des études primaires ait considérablement augmenté au cours des vingt dernières années, de nombreuses inquiétudes subsistent quant à la qualité de l’apprentissage, particulièrement dans les régions affectées par le conflit. En effet, en 2017, le taux de succès pour l’examen du diplôme d’étude fondamentale était de 44,56% à Mopti et 42% à Ségou (Mali CNECE, 2017). C’est donc une crise avec de multiples couches qui affecte les jeunes maliens. Les fermetures d’écoles sont fréquentes et on peut par conséquent se demander si les jeunes qui complètent leur scolarité seront en mesure de se fixer des buts dans la vie et de poser les actes nécessaires pour les atteindre. En d’autres termes, comment l’agentivité des jeunes sera-t-elle affectée?

Cette table ronde s’appuie sur les résultats préliminaires du projet de recherche participative sur l’éducation et l’agentivité au Mali (PREAM), plus particulièrement les données obtenues lors d’ateliers participatifs réalisés en décembre 2021 dans six communes des régions de Mopti et de Ségou. Au cours de ces ateliers, 120 jeunes de 13 à 18 ans ont partagé leurs expériences et leur point de vue sur l’agentivité et l’éducation, notamment à travers la production de dessins et de cellphilms. Cette table ronde a pour objectif de discuter les multiples couches de la crise ainsi que leurs implications sur l’agentivité des jeunes. Au cours de leurs interventions, les présentateurs utiliseront certaines œuvres produites par les jeunes pour illustrer la vision de l’agentivité des jeunes maliens.

 

Presentations of the Symposium

 

La recherche en temps de crise éducative au Mali

Moriké Dembele
Université des lettres et sciences humaines de Bamako

La première contribution présentera l’état de la situation éducative au Mali et les différentes dimensions de la crise. Elle discutera des facteurs qui complexifient la recherche dans les régions de Ségou et de Mopti et des choix méthodologiques effectués pour étudier l’agentivité et l’éducation en situation de crises

 

Conflit, éducation et agentivité des jeunes

Seydou Loua
Université des lettres et sciences humaines de Bamako

La seconde contribution discutera des conséquences du conflit armé et des tensions sociales sur le système éducatif malien et des implications de ces dernières sur l’agentivité des jeunes. Elle présentera également le point de vue des jeunes sur la situation tel qu’exprimé à travers les dessins et cellphilms des participants.

 

Genre et agentivité en temps de crise

Fatoumata Keita
Université des lettres et sciences humaines de Bamako

La troisième contribution s’intéressera particulièrement à la dimension de genre et à l’agentivité des filles en temps de crise. Elle discutera des similarités et des contrastes dans les œuvres produites par les filles et les garçons et mettra en lumière certains facteurs d’agentivité particulièrement importants pour les jeunes filles.

 

Au-delà de la crise : l’agentivité comme vecteur de paix?

Mamadou Dia
Université des lettres et sciences humaines de Bamako

La contribution finale portera un regard vers l’avenir et s’interrogera sur ce que les jeunes nous apprennent de ce qui est possible au-delà des crises. Elle proposera une réflexion sur l’agentivité comme vecteur de paix et ce que les acteurs du développement pourraient faire pour que cela soit possible.

 
1:00pm - 2:30pm2.2.2: Extracting 'development': Mining, oil and gas, tourism, and NGOs

Chair(s): Larry Swatuk, lswatuk@uwaterloo.ca

 

Rethinking the Southern Tour on China’s Road to Reform – Using the Immanent Causality Morphogenetic Approach

Brandon Sommer, Karim Knio

Erasmus University, Netherlands, The

In this paper we rethink the historical place of Deng Xiaoping’s famous Southern Tour in understanding the key coalition that forms the basis of the Chinese Communist Party’s (CCP) Power. We examine the role of the Coastal Provinces in building the basis for Deng’s support but underscore that in fact seeing the Southern Tour without the first part in which Deng secures the support of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) inaccurately situates the logic of reform. This research utilizes the Immanent Causality Morphogenetic Approach (ICMA), an innovative theoretical and methodological approach in political economy and development theory more generally. The ICMA uncovers the key role of the Southern Tour but goes further by making a causal and materialist argument about the way in which the CCP, conceived of in coalition with coastal leaders, technocrats and the PLA cements their position in the modern era which by extension forces us to examine many existing premises of how we understand the political economy of China.



Filling the Development Vacuum: The Impact of Islamic NGOs in Bangladesh Under Neoliberalism

Mehran Shamit

McMaster University, Canada

Major financial institutions, including the World Bank and IMF, imposed a secular brand of development in the Global South with the spread of neoliberalism. Both Western donors and academics neglected the role of religion and faith-based organizations in development as they considered religion as going against rationality and development. In the Muslim world, Muslim leaders and Islamic organizations have largely been neglected and left out of mainstream development discourses. The rise of Islamic NGOs is associated with the revival of alternatives to secular development in the context of the spread of neoliberalism in the Global South. In Bangladesh, Islamic NGOs emerged after the failure of the Bangladeshi state as well as secular NGOs in delivering effective social services. In this context, I address the following questions: What is the relationship between religion and development? Why are faith-based organizations important in development? What is the role of NGOs in Bangladesh? Why did Islamic NGOs emerge in Bangladesh? And are they effective in carrying out development work in Bangladesh? Analyzing the role of Islamic NGOs in development in the context of neoliberalism, I argue that development efforts in Bangladesh can be made more effective through the incorporation of cultural and religious values and beliefs, which Islamic NGOs have been consciously engaging in through their development work in Bangladesh, filling the current development vacuum and positioning themselves as the new alternatives to secular NGOs. Islamic NGOs work within neoliberalism, but reconcile economic rationality with Islamic values. They create pious neoliberal subjects who willingly engage in economic practices without compromising religious beliefs. Through an analysis of Islamic microfinance as well as the Parshi Islamic model of development, I show that Islamic NGOs are much more capable and effective in delivering development in rural Bangladesh due to their incorporation of Islamic values and principles.



Analyzing Haiti as the Republic of NGOs

Ray Vander Zaag

Canadian Mennonite University, Canada

Both the state and the international development system have failed in Haiti, according to observers. This paper examines the role of development NGOs in Haiti, specifically, the critique that names Haiti as the “Republic of NGOs”. This oft-repeated discourse specifically links development failure to the number of NGOs in Haiti and how they have contributed to a weak state. The first part of the paper will examine the evidence for often-cited claims that there are 10,000 NGOs operating in Haiti, or that Haiti has more NGOs per capita than other developing countries. It will suggest that little empirical evidence exists to support these quantitative claims, specifically for intermediary NGOs (a definition that is consistent with the reasoning that international aid donor funding of NGOs is bypassing and thus weakening the Haitian state.) The analytical question of how to determine whether NGO proliferation are cause or effect of state weakness will also be examined. The second part of the paper will examine why, even if it is not grounded in good empirical evidence, the “Republic of NGO” discourse nonetheless has become such a widespread and useful narrative in explaining Haiti. It will analyze a range of theoretical analyses – from realist to post-developmentalism - of the failure of development in Haiti, and suggest how this discourse is useful for each of these explanations.



Artisanal and Small-scale Mining, Covid-19 pandemic and Imposition of ban in Ghana: Implications on ‘illegal’ miners’ livelihood

Mohammed Adam

University of Northern British Columbia, Canada

Globally, the significance of the artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector for employment creation, income generation and socioeconomic rural development is widely upheld. Yet, in April 2017, the government of Ghana placed a ban that cuts across the formal and informal operations of the sector. While the ban was being enforced, the Covid-19 pandemic also became a global health concern in March 2020 in many countries including Ghana. This paper therefore examines the impact of the government’s ban on ASM and COVID-19 on the livelihood of illegal miners in Ghana. The paper seeks to answer the following questions: (1) What is the nature and scope of the artisanal and small-scale mining sector in Ghana? (2) How has the Covid-19 pandemic influenced and shaped the government’s ban of the artisanal and small-scale mining in Ghana? (3) What are the implications of the Covid-19 and the government’s ban of artisanal and small-scale mining on the livelihood of illegal miners? Drawing on a qualitative research methodology and using primary and secondary data gathered between September and October 2020 and August and November 2021 respectively, the paper argues that although it is widely acknowledged that ASM is a poverty-driven activity, the Ghana government’s imposition of ban on the sector together with the Covid-19 pandemic have further deteriorated the socioeconomic and livelihood conditions of illegal miners thereby shuttering their dreams of a ‘decent life’. Consequently, illegal miners have no option but to stay at home, expend from their meagre savings and respond to social networks of friends, families and partners in order to survive. The paper concludes with some theoretical and policy implications of the findings for the artisanal and small-scale mining sectors in sub-Saharan Africa.



Beyond Political Settlements: The Global Political Economy of Nigeria’s Oil and Gas Reforms

Terhemba Ambe-Uva

University of Ottawa, Canada

What happens if we look at the recent reforms in the Nigerian Petroleum Industry not just as political settlements but also as responses to global political-economic trends? This shift is productive, for it opens new ways of integrating global ecosystems analysis in policy responses towards the Covid-19 pandemic. After close to a 20-year effort to reform Nigeria's oil and gas sector, create a conducive environment for growth and address the grievances of oil-producing communities, the Petroleum Industry Act (PIA) 2021 was enacted into law. Even while the euphoria was yet to settle, the federal government submitted to parliament amendments to the newly signed bill to extend a debatable subsidy regime for imported petrol for eighteen months. Drawing on debates about how political settlements shape oil governance, this paper examines the flux in Nigeria's oil and gas sector reforms, focusing on the nature of elite bargains occasioned by changes in the global political economy of oil. It argues that while these bargains shaped the government of President Muhammadu Buhari’s reforms, the Covid-19 pandemic and the uncertainties over global oil and gas, interacting with the election cycle, underpinned the most recent tinkering with the oil and gas sector reforms. The implication is that we need to understand political settlements beyond the national-state level by looking at trends in the broader global political economy. The findings have a significant impact on natural resource governance and post-Covid-19 reforms.

 
1:00pm - 2:30pm2.2.3 The classroom as political? Teaching ‘Development’ for Decolonial Imaginations, Radical Futurities, and Global Justice
 

Chair(s): Tka Pinnock (York University, Canada)

In the wake of the global COVID-19 pandemic, global mobilization against anti-Black racism and calls for decolonization, there must be renewed attention to the ways in which we are teaching development students about the complexities of the contemporary world, and their historical underpinnings. For educators and students located in the Global North, there is an immediate saliency to the need to address and engage with colonial heritage of ‘development’ in the classroom given the global inequities in knowledge production and development practice.

The classroom must take centre stage in our thinking about the future of development studies and practice, particularly in a post-pandemic world, for as bell hooks has argued, “It remains the most radical space of possibility in the academy” (12, 1994). Positioning “the classroom as a place of promise and possibility” (hooks, 1994) invites us as educators to be self-reflective about “the what and the how of teaching development” (Schwittay, 2020). We must reflect on how we support our students in critically engaging with the world around them and of which they are a part; how we teach them about contemporary social, political-economic and cultural crises, and historical and present colonialism; how we help them to understand global solidarities and justice and, how we enable them to imagine a future otherwise.

This roundtable poses the following questions: How do we understand, practice and teach ‘development’ in our classrooms? How do we ensure that our pedagogy and teaching practices support radical futurity, decolonization, and global and local equity? How can academics develop critically informed pedagogies? As instructors based in the global North, how do we engage in a praxis that brings power imbalances in knowledge production and international and social relations to bear? How do we locate the ‘self’ in the classroom?

 

Presentations of the Symposium

 

Teaching development at a small Canadian university

Giselle F. Thompson
Acadia University

Giselle Thompson's presentation will explore her experiences of teaching development at a small rural Canadian university, where "developing societies" can seem so far removed geographically and intellectually from students' lived experiences. Her experiences are insightful for other junior faculty members who are thinking about their pedagogy.

 

Accounting for Race and Racism in Teaching Development Thought and Practice

Zubairu Wai
University of Toronto Scarborough

Drawing on his experiences of teaching at two universities, along with his research agenda, Zuba Wai, will take up epistemological questions regarding the nature, conditions and limits of disciplinary knowledge and practices and their implications for teaching development studies. Of note, his presentation will center on experiences of and notes on teaching the role colonialism, race, racism and racialization in relation to International Development and Development Studies.

 

Teaching 'Development' at all stages: Is it the same?

Miguel Gonzalez Perez
York University

Miguel Gonzalez's presentation will explore how to prepare both undergraduate and graduate students to engage with International Development Studies in theory and in practice.

 

How do we teach

Rebecca Hall
Queen's University

Rebecca Hall will explore the challenges and possibilities of talking about and critiquing 'development' through her work on resource extraction and social reproduction in Canada's Northwest Territories.

 
1:00pm - 2:30pm2.2.4: Beyond the Academy: Career opportunities in international development - Workshop

Considering a career in development outside the academy? CASID 2022 will host a roundtable discussion and workshop with a group of development graduates and professionals working in a diverse array of roles in within and beyond the field. The panelists will share their own experiences of making the decision to pursue alternative career paths, offering advice to students and recent graduates about how to chart a path forward beyond the academy. This will be followed by more in depth, workshop style discussions around key themes and sectors in plenary and breakout groups to more deeply explore these paths and processes.

2:30pm - 3:30pmLunch Day 2
3:30pm - 5:00pm2.3.1: Food Justice: Ancestral Wisdom, Imperialisms, and Liberating Sisyphus

Chair(s): Jean-François Rousseau, jf.rousseau@uottawa.ca

 

Transformation or the Next Meal? Global-Local Tensions in Food Justice Work

Astrid Vanessa Perez Pinan1, Elizabeth Vibert1, Matthew Murphy1, Bikrum Gill2, Claudia Puerta Silva3

1University of Victoria, Canada; 2Virginia Tech; 3Universidad de Antioquia

This article presents conversations across difference that took place among community partners and researchers at a week-long workshop in T’Sou-ke First Nation territory in 2019. The workshop launched the Four Stories About Food Sovereignty research network and project, which brings together food producers, activists, and researchers representing T’Sou-ke Nation in British Columbia, Wayuu Indigenous communities in Colombia, refugee communities in Jordan, and small-scale farmers in South Africa. We focus here on conversations that highlight global-local tensions in food justice work, the pressures of extractive economy, and pressures arising from climate crisis – challenges that some participants framed at the level of global extractivism and colonial-capitalism, others at the level of the soil. As the conversations reveal, there was more common ground than conflict in shared histories of dispossession, shared predicaments of extractive capital and its government allies, and shared concern to renew and reinvigorate ancestral practices of care for territory.



Set up to fail: Sisyphean Mandate of the World Food Programme

Gloria Novovic

University of Guelph, Canada

How much funding does the World Food Programme require to eradicate hunger? This question was asked in November 2021, when the world’s wealthiest person attempted to discredit the largest humanitarian organization while defending his aversion to state taxation. Albeit cynical, the question reflects the legitimacy crisis of multilateralism more broadly and global development more specifically. Employing Dimitrov’s (2019) concept of “empty institutions,” this article argues that the World Food Programme’s mandate of “Zero Hunger” is incompatible with the organization’s bureaucratic apparatus.

Findings are based on 89 interviews with staff of United Nations and government donor agencies, including 35 interviews with the World Food Programme staff conducted since 2019. Interpretive policy analysis of the World Food Programme’s official documents from its foundation to its latest Strategic Plan suggests that the evolution of the organizational mandate has not been followed by necessary organizational and system-wide reforms. Donor-imposed institutional structures undermine organizational effectiveness and obfuscate political dimensions of food insecurity. The World Food Programme is grappling with an existential question of a mandate that cannot be achieved within existing mechanisms of organizational and global governance. The two potential responses include: (i) sliding back to an organizational mandate of hunger alleviation in humanitarian contexts alone or (ii) active engagement in political mobilization for fundamental reform of existing multilateralism.



Plantation Economies and the Corporate Food Regime

Lucy Hinton

University of Waterloo, Canada

As public attention to racial injustice has surged in recent years, so-called objective histories are being reinterpreted to reveal their underlying structural and systemic biases. While scholarship has long focused attention to the inequality between North and South in the global food system (Clapp, 2006; Mintz, 1986), structured analyses of underdevelopment have fallen from favour. This paper re-examines the Caribbean scholarship on plantation economies to re-evaluate the region’s contemporary food system: one that is subject to a rapidly changing climate and environmental degradation, growing malnutrition, and reliance on imported food (FAO, 2020). I argue that Caribbean scholars of this period recognized the vacuum created by pre-independence policies that would eventually lead to the contemporary and neocolonial corporate food regime. This paper sheds new light on the critical work of the 1960s and 1970s Caribbean thinkers by acknowledging the continued validity of their ideas in the contemporary food system.

 
3:30pm - 5:00pm2.3.2: Contesting Development: Decolonization and Resistance

Chair(s): Valérie Charest, uOttawa; Emmanuel Tamufor, Guelph

 

Decolonial Co-Resistance as Indigenous Methodology: Deepening Resistance & Decolonizing the “Co-“

Jess Notwell

University of Guelph, Canada

Palestinian women “frontliners” (Shalhoub-Kevorkian, 2009) deploy diverse strategies to protect their communities from settler colonial violence, build decolonial futures, and create a “liveable life” (Tabar & Desai, 2017; Hammami, 2016). The methodology developed through place-based co-resistance aimed at “creating doorways out of settler colonialism” (Simpson, 2016: 27) during visits to families of prisoners and martyrs, the Freedom and Dignity Hunger Strike, defending Al-Aqsa Mosque in July 2017, and land defense protests. Decolonial Co-Resistance developed iteratively as I did research with Palestinian women and learned from their praxis of decolonial love (Simpson, 2013; Sandoval, 2000), hope, connection and co-liberation. While my methodology is grounded in ancestral knowledge and Cree and Anishinaabe teachings, my research is with women Indigenous to Palestine. This paper explores Decolonial Co-Resistance through critical questions that have pushed me to reflect on the “co-“ in co-resistance. What are the implications of applying Indigenous Methodologies outside of our communities and cultures? How has being a white-passing Indigenous person with a Canadian passport impacted and limited the “co-“? What are the contours of this “constellation” of co-resistance? What are the tensions between Decolonial Co-Resistance as a research methodology and as miyo-pimatisiwin for liberation? This paper concludes by explaining Decolonial Co-Resistance as an ongoing praxis of decolonial love from Turtle Island to Palestine.



Extractivism and Pandemic Conflict in the Amazon: Indigenous Activism and Territorial Defense

Ana Watson, Conny Davidsen

Environmental Policy and Governance Group, Department of Geography, University of Calgary

Amazonia was among the most dramatically affected by COVID-19 in Peru. In 2020, the crisis exposed the state’s rationalities over the Amazon Forest and failure to protect the people steward the resources for generations. Typically described as a remote extractive frontier to support extractive developmentalist projects, indigenous communities in the Peruvian Amazon lack of access to health services. Despite one of the strictest lockdowns in the world, Peru quickly approved its Amazon resource extraction to continue, clearly prioritizing national revenues over increased risks for already vulnerable communities.

Drawing on theoretical perspectives of governmentality and indigenous self-determination, this paper examines territorial counteraction as an indigenous response to the national state. The analysis focus on the case of Camisea, Peru’s emblematic and important gas extraction project in the Amazon. Local communities have a long history of negotiation with hydrocarbon companies, international finance institutions and the national state demanding better environmental standards and access to the benefits. They had successfully fought for its own formal subnational administrative jurisdiction in 2016, named Megantoni district. This paper examines the pandemic as a catalyst moment that led to territorial counteraction as an indigenous defense against the national state. The study advances in the understanding of the diversity of indigenous activism in times of crisis vis-a-vis hierarchical relationships of the state and related subjectivities.



Contesting Neoliberal Development: Special Economic Zone, Land Dispossession, and Adivasi Resistance

M. Omar Faruque

Queen's University, Canada

This paper analyzes a recent case of Adivasi resistance against land dispossession in northwest Bangladesh. Since 2014, several Adivasi communities have been demanding the return of their farmland, which was acquired in 1954 by the then East Pakistani government (now Bangladesh) to build a sugar mill. The land transfer agreement between the government and the mill authority guaranteed that the land would be returned to its owners if no longer necessary for the sugar mill. Although the Bangladeshi government closed the mill in 2004, the landowners’ demands remained unfulfilled. Instead, the government identified the land as ‘unused and abandoned’ and decided to establish a special economic zone on that land. Although the Adivasis occupied a part of the land and built temporary huts to realize the demands of their movement, they were violently removed from the area. Scholarship on land wars in South Asia and elsewhere emphasizes various socio-economic, political, and cultural factors contributing to the grievances of affected communities. Building on these insights, this paper will focus on the marginalization of Adivasi communities and the role of the postcolonial state in sustaining a socio-political context, which perpetuates social injustice and discrimination. Based on empirical evidence derived from secondary sources and in-depth interviews with Adivasi activists and their supporters among urban-based civil society actors, this paper suggests that the anti-dispossession movement contesting capitalist industrial development is a reaction to the state’s disinclination to eliminate marginalization and social injustice, which characterize the everyday lived experience of Adivasi communities in Bangladesh.



Development and Human Insecurity: The Case of Jamaica’s Tourism Sector

Tka Pinnock

York University, Canada

At the height of the COVID-19 pandemic in mid-2020, Jamaica’s Minister of Tourism stated that opening the borders was a matter of “economic life or death” (Silvera, 2020). Almost a year earlier, when the country declared a State of Emergency (SoE) that would last almost 12-months ending just before the start of COVID-19, the Minister publicly framed the SoE as a means of “securing the integrity of the destination” (Jamaica Information Service, 2019) in pursuit of his Ministry’s growth strategy. Working from a feminist political economy tradition, I draw on the theoretical concepts of disciplinary neoliberalism (Bakker and Gill, 2003) and necropolitics (Mbembe, 2019; 2003) to grapple with the ways in which the Jamaican state, in pursuit of its economic survival, renders certain subjectivities and spaces disposable. Through a textual analysis of a variety of secondary sources including government press releases, newspaper articles, and other public documents, this paper makes the case that state interests – while working to secure economic development that ostensibly benefits the general population – generates and is rooted in distinct insecurities for marginalized communities. Tying the paper into the broader literature on human insecurity, the paper concludes with thoughts on the ways in which contemporary economic development processes creates a matrix of human in/security that is enabled by the instrumentalization of human bodies and subjectivities.

 
3:30pm - 5:00pm2.3.3: We Are Not All in This Together: Climate Justice and Sustainable Equitable Development as Pathways to Global Justice
Session Chair: Joshua Ramisch
 

Climate Justice: Lessons from Recent Disasters and Covid-19 Pandemic

George Kodimattam Joseph, Farhat Naz

Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur, India

Taking lessons from significantly increasing occurrence of catastrophes for the past two decades and the prevailing Covid-19 pandemic context, the present paper justifies our obligation to pay greater attention to the idea of climate justice which involves legitimate rights of all inhabitants and putative rights of the nature. The discussion pays special attention to the south Asian context, specifically to the recent glacier break in the Himalayas and changes in water quality parameters of the river Ganga. While the glacier break leaves a rectificatory note to the present paradigms of development, the significant improvement, owing to the restrictions imposed by the pandemics, in the quality of water in Ganga signifies promising outcomes of responsible restraints. Furthermore, a closer analysis would identify the correlation between the occurrence of disasters and development models that are adopted. Most south Asian countries follow a market oriented development framework infused with neoliberal capitalist account of progress. This unidimensional focus on economic gains leads to the folly of discounting environmental concerns by giving them a back seat. Additionally, the discussion unveils the causal connection among multiple disasters and the conundrum of mounting problems. The duty to ensure climate justice is further substantiated by the moral map which accommodates the idea of constrained maximization proposed by Gauthier and the concept of collective action suggested by Ostrom. The paper examines three types of constraints, namely, 1) constraints that have no additional cost, 2) constraints that require reasonable cost, and 3) constraints that are costly but unavoidable. Likewise, the paper analyses three major areas, such as 1) development planning, 2) livelihood practices, and 3) technology development, where the disposition of restraint should prevail. Among other things, the paper vindicates the necessity to denounce extreme anthropocentrism and the urgency to promote environmental wisdom.



Mapping how climate-related internal migration impacts health outcomes in low- & middle-income countries: A scoping review

Satveer Kaur Dhillon, Emily Kocsis, Warren Dodd

University of Waterloo, Canada

Climate change will contribute to internal migration by increasing the severity of extreme weather events, which will impact agricultural yields, in addition to food and water security. Furthermore, the climate crisis will be a threat amplifier to economic, political, and social factors that may force people to migrate internally. Previous research has shown that as many as 216 million people could be internal climate migrants by 2050. The scale of internal climate migration is projected to be largest in the poorest and most climate-vulnerable regions. Most people displaced by climate change will likely stay within the borders of their own country as migrating domestically (in contrast to international migration) is more accessible to lower-income households. To understand the impact of climate-related internal migration on health outcomes in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), we conducted a scoping review to assess published work. We searched peer-reviewed databases including PubMed, Scopus, PsychInfo and Embase. From 3364 peer-reviewed articles, 117 were accepted for full-text review. Our findings highlighted that climate-related internal migration negatively impacts health outcomes related to social health. Adverse mental health impacts are also an important health risk associated with climate-related internal migration because of safety and security concerns, in addition to a sense of loss due to the changing socio-cultural and environmental conditions. Furthermore, there is increased exposure to waterborne and vector-borne diseases following internal migration. Overall, this review provides an understanding of the health impacts of climate-related internal migration in LMICs, underscoring the importance of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, investing in climate-resilient and green development, and including consideration of internal migration in local, national, and global development planning.



The socio-cultural dimension of territory as the foundation for participatory decentralization in Uruguay and Chile

Claudia Virginia Kuzma Zabaleta

University of Ottawa, Canada

The aim of this research project is to study the ways in which territory influences the participatory decentralization initiatives of the state from a comparative and interdisciplinary perspective. To achieve this objective, Uruguayan cases were compared with the Chilean ones based on Mill’s method of difference, also known as “most-similar design” (George & Bennett, 2005). However, I used Mill’s method in two distinct ways, comparing similar municipalities between the two countries, which allowed me to vary the national-level political project while holding municipal characteristics relatively constant; and comparing municipal cases within each of the two countries, which allowed me to vary the socio-cultural dimension of territory within a single participatory decentralization model. Comparing the effect of the political project on PD outcomes to the effect of the socio-cultural dimension of territory allowed me to assess which factor proves more important to local outcomes.

Although there are significant differences between both countries, rural and poor municipalities with a high percentage of minority ethnic communities, still face structural obstacles to implementing participatory decentralization, differences which are explained by the effect of the ethno-cultural dimension of territory and by the effect of geographical residence. This approach highlights the structural obstacles to successful participatory decentralization, such as clientelism, caudillism, centralism and racism. It also implies that deepening participatory decentralization requires a strategy to improve civic engagement and horizontal governance of the local civil society. In also has the potential to foster accountability and to redistribute political power at the municipal level in both countries.

 
3:30pm - 5:00pm2.3.4: The Challenges of Finding a Tenure-Track Job - Workshop

Finding a tenure track job is difficult even in the best of times. In today’s job market, and in the midst of a global pandemic, it may appear even more daunting. But don’t panic! CASID 2022 will feature a roundtable discussion and workshop with both seasoned professors who have sat on dozens of hiring committees and junior scholars who have recently found positions in this highly competitive job market. This workshop will be conducted mainly in English.

5:00pm - 5:30pmBreak 2 Day 2
5:30pm - 7:00pm2.4.1: CASID AGM
Session Chair: Deborah Simpson
Session Chair: Kate Grantham

Join the CASID board and members for the association's Annual General Meeting.

Only CASID members in good standing can participate in this session!

Date: Thursday, 19/May/2022
11:00am - 12:30pm3.1.1: Keynote - Global Critique and Transformative Alternatives: Re-imagining Futures Within and Beyond the Global Pandemic – A Dialogue with Jayati Ghosh
Session Chair: Maïka Sondarjee

CASID is pleased to announce that the keynote speaker for our 2022 Conference will be the renowned development economist Professor Jayati Ghosh, University of Massachusetts Amherst. From public health, unemployment and care work to vaccine apartheid, international aid and cash transfers, Professor Ghosh has offered consistent critical engagement with the myriad impacts of COVID-19 and responses to it around the world. Re-focusing our attention on crucial aspects of the global political economy which have mediated these impacts and responses— including inequality, debt, climate change, labour and uneven capitalist development and crisis—Ghosh has been an indispensable critical voice holding politicians, capital and the scientific community to account throughout this unprecedented period. Ghosh will focus her remarks on the innumerable, enduring and widening inequalities which have characterized the global pandemic and the theoretical and practical possibilities for transforming the ongoing response to it and what may come in its wake. Dr. Ghosh will be in conversation with Maïka Sondarjee, Univesity of Ottawa.

This event will be in English with simultaneous interpretation in French and will be closed captioned.

12:30pm - 1:00pmBreak 1 Day 3
1:00pm - 2:30pm3.2.1 Reflections on Translocal Learning During COVID-19 times
 

Chair(s): Jonathan Langdon (St. Francis Xavier University)

The accumulated crises of our contemporary world are manifold; at the same time, the local movements that have arisen to address them are even more numerous. These movements and groups act to try and save our collective future by mitigating or arresting the impacts of globalization, rampant capitalism and climate change on our present. These efforts are made in the face of global governing leadership that remains stalled in its inability to transform this global expression of hope into a framework for action – a fact yet again revealed at the recently completed Convention of Parties (COP) 26 in Glasgow. At the same time, transnational social movements often appropriate local efforts at change, or try to direct actions in ways inappropriate to context (c.f. Langdon, 2010). On top of this, in being focused on grounded struggles, local movements can become isolated and disconnected from the issues that confront the broader world. Through the work of the Translocal Learning Network, a partnership developed through long-term SSHRC-funded research and interpersonal relationships as well as the work of the CRC in Sustainability and Social Change Leadership, that spans different struggle contexts in South Africa and Ghana, groups attempt to build and maintain connections beyond local struggle in order to learn from, share with, and draw strength from movements in other locations, and to do so in non-hierarchical ways. The panel will offer responses to questions posed in the calls for proposals, including the impact of the pandemic on each context, how to reimagine justice, how to advocate for translocal solidarities, and what and who are obscured by COVID-19. The response to these questions will be framed by the experiences and struggles of different members of this network, and how participating in the Translocal Learning Network has contributed to learning during this pandemic.

 

Presentations of the Symposium

 

Local to local, non-hierarchical learning as antidote to isolation

Jonathan Langdon1, Sheena Cameron2
1St. Francis Xavier University, 2OISE - University of Toronto

The overall goal of this research partnership is to catalyze and animate local to local (translocal) learning as means to build capacity among localized movements in their struggles for a climate just and anti-capitalist future, and in so doing trace the contours of a theory of translocal learning – learning based on local to local learning as opposed to top down learning that mimics the very problematic of global dominance these movements contest. Key to this process is an insistence that movements and groups rooted in local social change efforts are crucial authors and actors of a climate just and anti-capitalist future. Working and learning together since 2016 both by distance and with in-person visits, the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic both exacerbated the pre-existing inequities and injustices within each context and presented new challenges with increased state repression, unequal access to supports and healthcare, and increased risks for precarious labour and landless peoples. In response to the isolation caused by the pandemic, and in an attempt to build solidarity and share learnings through these struggles, we created COVID Conversations as Translocal Learning Engagements (TLE), meeting quarterly by Zoom and responding to requests of support through acts of solidarity that have brought group members closer despite the distance. This panel paper will frame the work and overall learnings from this.

 

The Struggle for Press Freedom, Right to Communicate and Inform Under the Fresh Ada Songor Monopoly Leaseg

Noah Dameh, Amanor Dzeagu, Julius Odoi, Serwaa Waree
Radio Ada

Radio Ada is a rural, non-partisan, non-sectarian, development-oriented community radio station based at Big Ada in the Greater Accra Region. Since its inception, in 1998, the station, has been the mother of community radios in Ghana. It strives to provide human resource development in its operations, working with trained volunteers, and is supported by its development partners, to engage in participatory programming. Its coverage includes fishing, farming and salt winning communities and its programming is rooted in the culture of the people. Its priority is to give voice to the least heard but those well informed about their situation and to bring their Indigenous knowledge to light. It has confronted development challenges like climate change, natural resource governance, community participation in governance, health promotion and conflict transformation, etc. One of the main areas of its work over the last several years concerns Ada’s Songor Lagoon – West Africa’s largest salt yielding lagoon, and a major source of livelihood for the Adas. Most recently, the station has documented the Ghana Government, supported by some traditional leaders, decision to give the whole lagoon as a monopoly concession to one company. Through the Translocal Learning Engagements, Radio Ada has been sharing these developments, reflecting on this new challenge, with the added obstacle of organizing during COVID-19, and receiving support from partners in the network. These learnings, and connection to the new struggle, will be the focus of this presentation.

 

Coalition organizing against large-scale mining in Ghana's Upper East

Coleman Agyeyomah
Venceremos Development Consult

The Upper East Coalition of Social Movements in Mining (CSMM) brings together several groups and organizations in the Upper East and Northern Regions of Ghana, such as the Savannah Research and Advocacy Network and Venceremos Development Consult. This coalition has been working for several years to challenge large-scale gold mining in Ghana’s Upper East Region amidst negative impacts on health, land, climate, socio-economic conditions, governmental corruption, and community and media repression. The worrying growth of this large-scale sector has also undermined local livelihoods, both of farmers and of small scale miners. Members have connected and shared this experience with others in the Translocal Learning Network over the past two years, especially around legal avenues that can be pursued for challenging government ignoring the plight of those impacted by large-scale mining. This presentation will share these learnings and reflections, including what we learned from each other during the COVID-19 pandemic.

 

Fighting State Repression and Inequity for South African Shackdwellers during COVID-19

Mqapheli Bonono
Abahlali baseMjondolo

Abahlali baseMjondolo, or ‘Shackdweller’s movement” is the biggest grassroots social movement to have emerged in post-apartheid South Africa, and works to advance the interests and dignity of the poor and landless in the areas of distribution of urban land, decent housing and forced evictions, and law reforms. This research partnership has been a key way for their 100,000 member strong South African movement to reflect on its own ongoing learning, to identify allies and build solidarity, and to deepen connections to and learn from other movements and organizations engaged in anti-capitalist and climate just struggles in general, and in the African context in particular. Since the pandemic started there has been increased state repression targeting the poor and landless. Also, the effects of the pandemic on communities without safe and adequate housing in shanty towns, the lack of ability to isolate and the increased spread of COVID-19 as well as inequities accessing healthcare and vaccinations have been devastating. This panel presentation will focus on these inequities as well as the ways this movement has been able to overcome some of them.

 
1:00pm - 2:30pm3.2.2 Gender (in)equality, silence, and marginalization
Session Chair: Rebecca Tiessen
 

Chair(s): Laura Parisi (University of Victoria, Canada)

This panel examines the different ways that silence, omissions, exclusions and voice are central to how we understand gender (in)equality, masculinities and marginalization in the day-to-day, in (post)conflict, in occupation, in the media and the SDGs.

 

Presentations of the Symposium

 

Unspeakable: Relational methodologies, militarized masculinities and paternal love

Erin Baines
University of British Columbia

This article reflects on three years of research with men who became fathers through the institutionalization of forced marriage in the non-state armed group the Lord’s Resistance Army, and how becoming a father shaped their experiences as soldiers, their decisions to demobilize, and their return home to communities in northern Uganda against whom they committed atrocities. It foregrounds and analyses a key methodological choice from this research: i.e., to take a relational approach to the research encounters in order ease the discomfort of participants who suspected possible retaliation, but also, who expected not to be believed. The article considers the men’s fears and the author’s own discomfort in the overall project through the concept of unspeakability, what Judith Herman refers to as those ‘traumatic events that take place outside socially validated reality’ (1997, 8). How does one come to know beyond what one can imagine, or that which is socially unrecognizable, such as the love of a father who is the perpetrator of great atrocities? What are the methodological and ethical implications of research with participants implicated in war crimes that requires one to suspend the social claim that their experiences are not to be trusted, listened to, or of any consequential concern to peace? Beyond frictions between international and local gender norms, the author interrogates the realm of the unspeakable in which militarized masculinities and paternal love may co-exist, and the possibilities relational feminist methodologies hold in such a project.

 

Exploring Silence, Voice and the In-between in a Turbulent World: The Zimbabwe Case

Jane Parpart
University of Massachusetts, Boston

In 2019, Swati Parashar and I published Rethinking Silence, Voice and Agency in Contested Terrains, intent on highlighting the importance of silence and contesting assumption that silence has often led to violence and oppression. A new book, entitled Silence, Voice and the In-Between, edited by myself, Aliya Khalid and Georgina Holmes, is exploring the connectivity, interactions and spaces between silence and voice. We argue that in-between spaces can provide sites for rethinking, regrouping and rearticulating the relations/distances between silence and voice. I will explore this topic through Alexander Kanengoni’s Echoing Silences (1997). The book reveals the violence during the Shona-dominated post-independence struggle against the Ndebele people. The novel highlights the importance of silence, voice and in-between moments during efforts to resolve the horrors of war.

 

Occupied by Nonviolence: Exploring male Palestinian peacebuilders’ public and hidden transcripts related to nonviolent resistance in the West Bank

Emma Swan
University of Ottawa

Liberal peacebuilding (LP) has been the subject of its fair share of critiques. Along with highlighting its neoliberal and Western-centric foundations, scholars have also drawn attention to its disregard for indigenous peace frameworks. Peacebuilding in Palestine is no exception. Based on ethnographic research in the West Bank, this paper examines Orientalist narratives of Palestinian men embedded within the LP framework and highlights the way that men engaged in unarmed resistance have navigated this terrain through the adoption of certain public transcripts which (re)narrate the Palestinian story/experience. I argue that this adoption can be interpreted as an act of critical agency where the silencing of their own beliefs is turned on its head to empower and further their agenda and goals. In this way, representation, knowledge, and silence can be understood as not only tools of colonial control, but also tools for indigenous resistance to Western discourses, narratives, and representations.

 

Investing in media development: A feminist analysis of the role of funders in facilitating a gender equal media

Sheila Rao
Carleton University

Gender equality in media development necessitates analysis in two areas: first, the capacity to publicly engage with priority development areas through a feminist lens, and second, the advancement of women and gender-diverse people in leadership roles, and as independent media providers. Despite the wide recognition that the degree and nature of engagement of women and gender-diverse people in media is a key indicator of a just and secure cultural life, development policies centred on gender equality rarely consider effective investments into the media landscape.

This paper argues for the inclusion of gender-equal media in feminist policy, and analyzes how development assistance investors could advance efforts towards a transformational change of media ecosystems. The author suggests a realignment of priorities beyond simply increasing women and gender diverse people involved in media, towards a restructuring of the media ecosystem that guarantees content creation, collaboration and context-specific strategies aimed at supporting a just and secure society for everyone.

 

Silences and Omissions in SDG #5: Knowledge Sharing through Policy Rhetoric

Laura Parisi
University of Victoria

The SDGs are premised on the idea of “leaving no one behind.” While the consultation process for the development of SDG#5 (Gender Equality and the Empowerment of all Women) was more inclusive and incorporated diverse forms of knowledge from civil society, scholars, international organizations, and intergovernmental agencies, I suggest that SDG #5 does leave people behind through the ways that gender, sexuality, family, labour, and disability are framed and/or omitted. This has implications for how knowledge is shared and produced through indicator frameworks and the implementation of SDG#5.

 
1:00pm - 2:30pm3.2.3 Learning from COVID-19: Understanding the Adaptive Strategies of Canadian Small and Medium Organisations (SMOs) - Workshop
 

Andrea Paras1, John-Michael Davis2, Asa Coleman2, Isabelle Hachette3, Kelly James4

1University of Guelph; 2Worcester Polytechnic Institute; 3World Accord; 4Centre for Affordable Water and Sanitation Technology (CAWST)

This Action for Change Workshop aims to provide an opportunity for development scholars and practitioners to share their experiences and lessons learned during the COVID-19 pandemic. Since the beginning of the pandemic, Small and Medium Organisations (SMOs) have faced numerous challenges in relation to financial loss, their relationships with local partners, and their ability to implement programs. At the same time, SMOs have exhibited flexibility, innovation, and resilience as they have adapted to the changing context. The pandemic has offered an opportunity to transform the practices of Canadian SMOs and their partners overseas. It may have accelerated the localization and decolonisation process by transforming the way Canadian organizations collaborate and their relationships with their partners. As a result of economic challenges, SMOs have developed new financial models. The workshop will provide an opportunity for learning and engagement between scholars and practitioners as they explore the benefits, limitations, and obstacles to various adaptive strategies.

This workshop builds on findings from an ongoing SSHRC-funded research partnership that is investigating the impact of the pandemic on SMOs in Canada’s foreign aid sector. The research team includes a community-engaged collaboration between scholars and development practitioners, with the participation of the National Program Director of the Spur Change Program as a member of the research team.

During the workshop, members of the research team will present their findings from a recent national survey and semi-structured interviews of Canadian SMO representatives. SMO representatives who participated in the research will share some of their experiences during the pandemic, including challenges and adaptive strategies. There will be an opportunity for audience members to participate in small-group discussions with the research team members and SMO representatives. Interactive activities will provide audience members an opportunity to respond to the research findings and share their organisations' own experiences during the pandemic.

 
1:00pm - 2:30pm3.2.4: Publishing your article: a guide for emerging scholars - Workshop

Publishing your research can be a daunting experience for doctoral students and graduates. This workshop will work its way through the process of publication in scholarly journals, with particular reference to the Canadian Journal of Development Studies. It will include advice on submitting your article, receiving a response, responding to that response, tracking copy-editing, and publicizing your published article.

Facilitated by Stephen Brown, uOttawa and Helen Yanacopulos, UNBC Okanagan

2:30pm - 3:30pmLunch Day 3: Zo Reken - Documentary Film Discussion

CASID 2022 will also include screening of the award winning 2021 film Zo Reken and a discussion with the producer and director Emanuel Licha and Haitian scholar and feminist Sabine Lamour. More details to follow.

Chair(s): Gloria Novovic, University of Ottawa

Watch the trailer here!

3:30pm - 5:00pm3.3.1: CASID Member Engagement Session

This is the second CASID strategic planning session, following the Town Hall, and is another opportunity to engage around key strategic priorities, as guided by the 2021 CASID membership survey.


 
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