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Session
1.2.4: Transformations: Hope, Participation, and Interrogating Influence
Time:
Tuesday, 17/May/2022:
1:00pm - 2:30pm

Session Chair: Georgina Alonso

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Presentations

Changing Behaviour: The Econometrics of Hope

Nargiza Chorieva, Brent Swallow, Sandeep Mohapatra

University of Alberta, Canada

In recent years, development economists are considering the potential for hope to alleviate poverty and enhance economic development. However, the ideas of hope and aspirations are not directly observable (latent) and do not easily lend themselves to rigorous empirical analysis. Although various studies have studied how they may fit into economic theories, empirical studies have been ad hoc without validating the measures of hope. Also, measuring hope can be challenging because of measurement invariance. Understanding individual and group differences may be critical given their apparent influence on the poor's economic behaviour and outcomes. Our first objective is to see whether the questions in our survey measure hope and not something else. The second objective is to determine if it is perceived in the same way by all.

Our study team and local collaborators carried out a hope survey with more than 5,200 individuals living in 98 villages in Kigoma and Iringa, Tanzania. Respondents are asked to rate the extent of agreement with 12 items (8 positive and 4 negative) adapted from the Scioli Hope Scale and translated into Swahili. We applied quantitative measurement methods -- the Graded Response Model (GRM) of Item Response Theory and Differential Item Functioning (DIF) analysis.

Our preliminary results suggest that the measurement of hope we used performs relatively well in Tanzania. We find that positive items distinguish individuals more accurately than negative ones. The performance of the measurement tool could improve if a few more items distinguishing people with higher levels of hope are added. We see almost no DIF for the treatment and control groups. However, there is DIF based on demographic characteristics and their access to public services. These findings lead to a greater understanding of the psychological differences that underpin subgroup responses and allow us to consider them while making further causal analyses.



Influencer or Influenced? An examination of the role influencers play within traditional models of tourism advertising

Brandon Pryce, Hannah Ascough

Queen's University, Canada

Within tourism studies, the concept of the Tourism Destination Image (TDI) has been widely employed within academia and in use by industry to describe the way in which destinations are marketed to consumers. TDI is the nebulous process through which industries, governments, and stakeholders combine forces to “sell” a destination as a product. The rise of social media platforms such as TikTok and Instagram has led to the proliferation of influencers who now contribute to the TDI process in ways previously not understood using traditional TDI modelling.

In this paper, we explore how influencers utilize, modify, alter, and ultimately complicate the traditional forms of TDI created in two popular Canadian tourist destinations: Moraine Lake (Banff, Alberta) and the Bay of Fundy (New Brunswick/Nova Scotia). Drawing insights from these two case studies, we ask how the individual tourist – through their process of self-promotion on social media – places themselves within the tourist space, and how that depiction interacts with traditional TDI. We pay particular attention to gendered dimensions of self-promotional tourism and the way it collides with the external environments of Moraine Lake and the Bay of Fundy; for instance, how do performances of femininity intersect with nature in these new influencer TDI?

The COVID-19 pandemic marks a transition period for Canada’s tourist industry, as it looks to recover losses from international visitors by promoting domestic travel. The broader purpose of this paper is to contribute to these ongoing conversations within tourism studies and the ever-evolving nature of TDI.



The Use of Participatory Research Methods to explore gender norm change amongst adolescents in Ghana, Rwanda, and Mozambique

Geetanjali Gill1, Aamina Adham2, Claude Cheta2

1University of the Fraser Valley, Canada; 2Right to Play (INGO)

Achieving gender equality through girls’ education is the focus of Sustainable Development Goals # 4 and 5, and the G7 2018 Charlevoix Declaration. Responding to this global priority, international non-governmental organizations (INGOs) have been implementing education projects in the global South that attempt to transform socio-cultural norms for greater gender equality in communities. There has also been a growing recognition by development actors of the need for research methods and tools to better understand how shifts in socio-cultural norms can impact gender relations at a community level. This paper will discuss the innovative, participatory research methods and tools that were designed and pre-tested by the INGO Right to Play, and the University of the Fraser Valley, for use by practitioners with adolescents in Rwanda, Ghana, and Mozambique. Since 2018, Right to Play has championed the use of gender-responsive play-based methodologies with adolescents, teachers, and families in the ‘Gender-Responsive Education and Transformation’ (GREAT) program in Rwanda, Mozambique, and Ghana, funded by Global Affairs Canada. Qualitative field research tools developed by the Overseas Development Institute (2015) and the UK’s Department for International Development SPRING and Gender and Adolescence Global Evidence programs (2019; 2018) were adapted and pre-tested by Right to Play staff from December 2021 until March 2022 in the three countries. Participatory life history interviews were carried out with girls and boys categorized as ‘outliers’ in their adherence to social norms, as well as with their parents, and grandparents, resulting in detailed inter-generational case studies of gender norm change. Participatory exercises were also carried out in focus groups with additional girls, boys, and teachers to understand community-level factors that influence gender norms. Preliminary findings indicate that the use of these methods can enable a deep understanding of socio-cultural norm change for greater gender equality amongst adolescents, and their families and communities.



Looking at crisis differently : participatory visual methods and adolescents’ agency in Mali

Kattie Lussier, Claudia Mitchell

Université McGill, Canada

Crisis are by definition times of great complexity and multiple difficulties. Yet, some countries have become so used to navigate from one crisis to the next that local people, adolescents in particular, are now so resilient that their struggles are overlooked. Such is the case in the conflict affected regions of Mali where the school calendar is so disturbed by teachers’ strikes, terrorist attacks and social conflicts that the COVID-19 pandemic becomes just another layer of ordeal. In such context, it becomes extremely difficult to distinguish the effect of a particular disturbance on the life of the people experiencing them. Agency, that is “the ability to define one’s goals and act upon them” (Kabeer, 1999; Gammage et al., 2016; and Donald et al., 2020) is particularly important in times of crisis because it can increase youths’ capacities to manage shocks and stresses – thus addressing some of the root causes of violence (El-Bushra and Smith, 2016).

The proposed paper draws on the experience of the participatory research on education and agency in Mali (PREAM) to discuss how the use of participatory visual methods such as drawings and cellphilms (Moletsane & Mitchell, 2018) can help to shed a different light on youths’ agency in situation of crisis. Using examples from six workshops conducted in Segou and Mopti regions with youths from 13 to 18 years old, the authors will discuss how art-based methods can present a unique perspective on young people’s experiences while giving a voice to a segment of the population often ignored thus enabling us to look at agency and crisis differently.



 
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