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2.3.3: We Are Not All in This Together: Climate Justice and Sustainable Equitable Development as Pathways to Global Justice
Wednesday, 18/May/2022:
3:30pm - 5:00pm

Session Chair: Joshua Ramisch

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Climate Justice: Lessons from Recent Disasters and Covid-19 Pandemic

George Kodimattam Joseph, Farhat Naz

Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur, India

Taking lessons from significantly increasing occurrence of catastrophes for the past two decades and the prevailing Covid-19 pandemic context, the present paper justifies our obligation to pay greater attention to the idea of climate justice which involves legitimate rights of all inhabitants and putative rights of the nature. The discussion pays special attention to the south Asian context, specifically to the recent glacier break in the Himalayas and changes in water quality parameters of the river Ganga. While the glacier break leaves a rectificatory note to the present paradigms of development, the significant improvement, owing to the restrictions imposed by the pandemics, in the quality of water in Ganga signifies promising outcomes of responsible restraints. Furthermore, a closer analysis would identify the correlation between the occurrence of disasters and development models that are adopted. Most south Asian countries follow a market oriented development framework infused with neoliberal capitalist account of progress. This unidimensional focus on economic gains leads to the folly of discounting environmental concerns by giving them a back seat. Additionally, the discussion unveils the causal connection among multiple disasters and the conundrum of mounting problems. The duty to ensure climate justice is further substantiated by the moral map which accommodates the idea of constrained maximization proposed by Gauthier and the concept of collective action suggested by Ostrom. The paper examines three types of constraints, namely, 1) constraints that have no additional cost, 2) constraints that require reasonable cost, and 3) constraints that are costly but unavoidable. Likewise, the paper analyses three major areas, such as 1) development planning, 2) livelihood practices, and 3) technology development, where the disposition of restraint should prevail. Among other things, the paper vindicates the necessity to denounce extreme anthropocentrism and the urgency to promote environmental wisdom.

Mapping how climate-related internal migration impacts health outcomes in low- & middle-income countries: A scoping review

Satveer Kaur Dhillon, Emily Kocsis, Warren Dodd

University of Waterloo, Canada

Climate change will contribute to internal migration by increasing the severity of extreme weather events, which will impact agricultural yields, in addition to food and water security. Furthermore, the climate crisis will be a threat amplifier to economic, political, and social factors that may force people to migrate internally. Previous research has shown that as many as 216 million people could be internal climate migrants by 2050. The scale of internal climate migration is projected to be largest in the poorest and most climate-vulnerable regions. Most people displaced by climate change will likely stay within the borders of their own country as migrating domestically (in contrast to international migration) is more accessible to lower-income households. To understand the impact of climate-related internal migration on health outcomes in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), we conducted a scoping review to assess published work. We searched peer-reviewed databases including PubMed, Scopus, PsychInfo and Embase. From 3364 peer-reviewed articles, 117 were accepted for full-text review. Our findings highlighted that climate-related internal migration negatively impacts health outcomes related to social health. Adverse mental health impacts are also an important health risk associated with climate-related internal migration because of safety and security concerns, in addition to a sense of loss due to the changing socio-cultural and environmental conditions. Furthermore, there is increased exposure to waterborne and vector-borne diseases following internal migration. Overall, this review provides an understanding of the health impacts of climate-related internal migration in LMICs, underscoring the importance of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, investing in climate-resilient and green development, and including consideration of internal migration in local, national, and global development planning.

The socio-cultural dimension of territory as the foundation for participatory decentralization in Uruguay and Chile

Claudia Virginia Kuzma Zabaleta

University of Ottawa, Canada

The aim of this research project is to study the ways in which territory influences the participatory decentralization initiatives of the state from a comparative and interdisciplinary perspective. To achieve this objective, Uruguayan cases were compared with the Chilean ones based on Mill’s method of difference, also known as “most-similar design” (George & Bennett, 2005). However, I used Mill’s method in two distinct ways, comparing similar municipalities between the two countries, which allowed me to vary the national-level political project while holding municipal characteristics relatively constant; and comparing municipal cases within each of the two countries, which allowed me to vary the socio-cultural dimension of territory within a single participatory decentralization model. Comparing the effect of the political project on PD outcomes to the effect of the socio-cultural dimension of territory allowed me to assess which factor proves more important to local outcomes.

Although there are significant differences between both countries, rural and poor municipalities with a high percentage of minority ethnic communities, still face structural obstacles to implementing participatory decentralization, differences which are explained by the effect of the ethno-cultural dimension of territory and by the effect of geographical residence. This approach highlights the structural obstacles to successful participatory decentralization, such as clientelism, caudillism, centralism and racism. It also implies that deepening participatory decentralization requires a strategy to improve civic engagement and horizontal governance of the local civil society. In also has the potential to foster accountability and to redistribute political power at the municipal level in both countries.

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