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Session Overview
Paper Session 05: Health and Vulnerable Populations [SDG 3]
Sunday, 25/Oct/2020:
4:00pm - 5:30pm

Session Chair: Ina Fourie, University of Pretoria, South Africa

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4:00pm - 4:15pm
ID: 197 / PS-05: 1
Long Papers
Topics: Human Computer Interaction (HCI)
Keywords: blind users, visual question answering, visual assistance, medication packaging

Quality of Images Showing Medication Packaging from Individuals with Vision Impairments: Implications for the Design of Visual Question Answering Applications

Nathan W. Davis, Bo Xie, Danna Gurari

University of Texas at Austin, USA

Mobile phone technology empowers individuals with vision impairment to submit images with questions in order to promptly receive descriptions or answers from remote humans through visual question answering applications. This study aimed to (1) identify challenges for visually impaired users of VizWiz, a visual question answering application, to obtain information about medication packaging and (2) recommend design guidelines for better supporting this population to receive visual assistance. We analyzed 265 images (131 with questions; 134 without) of medication packages from a VizWiz dataset. We developed a 4-category coding scheme to analyze image quality, with two independent coders achieving excellent intercoder reliability (85%-95%). We found that 46% of the images were legible, 40% contained clear indicators for what information was sought, 40% had minimum background clutter (no more than a few items in image), and only a small amount (5% of total, 10% of images with questions) contained sufficient information to definitively answer the user questions. We also conducted an inductive thematic analysis to identify major challenges for humans (and potentially machine learning) to answer users’ questions. These findings suggest there is great potential for user-centered design research to enhance visual assistance tools like VizWiz for visually impaired users.

4:15pm - 4:30pm
ID: 217 / PS-05: 2
Long Papers
Topics: Domain-Specific Informatics
Keywords: Mobile health, Health Informatics, User Empowerment, Value Co-creation

Patient Empowerment Through Mobile Health: Case Study with a Brazilian Application for Pregnancy Support

Gustavo Varela Delgado1, Rodrigo Baroni Carvalho1, Chun Wei Choo2, Ramon Silva Leite1, José Márcio Castro1

1Catholic University of Minas Gerais, Brazil; 2University of Toronto, Canada

This paper analyzes how mobile health applications contribute to the empowerment of health service users. The theoretical foundation includes m-health, user empowerment, and value co-creation. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to investigate the Kangaroo application (Canguru, in Portuguese), which targets Brazilian pregnant women and seeks to make women empowered for a healthy pregnancy. The free app is a healthcare social network designed by a health-tech startup and a reference Brazilian hospital. It has already supported 350,000 pregnant women, and more than 200 health professionals. The data collection effort comprised application log analysis of six months of records of 99,709 users, mobile-based survey with 429 women and 16 interviews. The results showed that the functionalities of the personal and social dimensions mapped in the application explain 85.5% of the user empowerment. The app social features impacted 2.4 more than the personal functionalities. The quantitative analysis concluded that there was no moderating effect of styles of value co-creation practices on the relationship between empowerment and its dimensions. The theoretical contribution is associated with the discussion of the influence of personal and social dimensions of m-health to the user empowerment.

4:30pm - 4:45pm
ID: 219 / PS-05: 3
Long Papers
Topics: Library and Information Science
Keywords: family networks, informational support, social support, chronic illness

All in the Family: A Descriptive Analysis of Family Network Change in Families Managing Chronic Illness

Lindsay K. Brown1, Tiffany C. Veinot1,2

1University of Michigan, School of Information, USA; 2University of Michigan, School of Public Health, USA

Background: Social networks can be a source of support, including informational support, in chronic illness management, but can change over time in response to health crises. However, little is known about how families leverage their support networks to manage chronic illness over time — and how these networks may change.

Methods: For 28 families managing either diabetes or HIV, we gathered survey-based social network data, including network size, exchanges of support, and tie strength, up to 5 times over two years. We then used descriptive analysis to examine changes in network size, structure and function (e.g., informational support).

Findings: Although family networks remained stable in terms of network size and transitivity, these networks experienced regular fluctuations in both tie-level variables (i.e., tie strength) and density of informational support exchanges.

Discussion: Observed changes in these measures indicate that even family support networks are susceptible to change over time, particularly at the tie-level, indicating a need to expand the way we think of network change beyond whole network measures when looking at small, family networks, especially examining how information exchanges fluctuate over time. Future research should explore tie-level measures and support exchange networks to understand why networks change over time.

4:45pm - 5:00pm
ID: 268 / PS-05: 4
Long Papers
Topics: Human Computer Interaction (HCI)
Keywords: Heath, Family, Health Information, Intergenerational, Healthy Living, Family Collaboration, Distance

Towards Family-Centered Health Technologies that Support Distributed Families on Sustainable Healthy Practices Together

Jomara Sandbulte1, Eun Kyoung Choe2, John M. Carroll1

1Pennsylvania State University, USA; 2University of Maryland, College Park, USA

Family relationships can be resources to foster individuals’ healthy behaviors. However, in many families, different factors can prevent members in supporting one another around positive health outcomes. A systematic understanding of these factors is crucial for developing appropriate solutions to reduce barriers on family collaboration in health promotion. In this paper, we focus on one factor that affects family support in healthy living: geographic distance. We present a formative study composed by two research explorations which aimed to examine distributed family members’ needs and challenges to engage in healthy living together. First, an interview study helped us understand families’ practices in engaging in health conversations. Then, findings from a scenario-based focus group discussion provided necessary knowledge to explore the use of technology to support conversations around health topics by distributed families. We draw on our findings to present practical recommendations for researchers working towards supporting intergenerational families on healthy practices collectively when living apart.

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