Conference Agenda

Overview and details of the sessions of this conference. Please select a date or location to show only sessions at that day or location. Please select a single session for detailed view (with abstracts and downloads if available).

Please note that all times are shown in the time zone of the conference. The current conference time is: 6th Dec 2023, 04:21:12am EAT

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Session Overview
TS 23-H: Technical Session H: 23 Nov.
Thursday, 23/Nov/2023:
5:15pm - 6:30pm

Session Chair: Prof. Uchendu Eugene Chigbu, Namibia University of Science and Technology, Namibia;
Location: Nelson Mandela Conference Hall
Zoom Link to Nelson Mandela Conference Hall

Main Plenary and Room for parallel session
Session Topics:
01-Inclusive land governance for enhanced intra- Africa trade, food security and sustainable food systems

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Scaling-up Community Participatory Mapping and Land Use Planning to reinforce customary land governance for multi-stakeholder engagement on sustainable investments and trade on land in Southwest Cameroon.

Harrison Nnoko, Dr. Ndjounguep Juscar, Solomon Brown


With the decentralization processes underway in most countries of the Congo Basin, community involvement in decision-making is becoming an imperative, particularly with regard to land and resource management (Beatty, M.T. et al. (1978). To ensure that this involvement results in a clear and sustained expression of community needs, it is important to think of an integrated, free and committed approach to communities in order to promote a dialogue between land management actors (Joe Watts, 1994).

Thus, through participatory mapping of community customary land use and tenure, a facilitating accompaniment to local land-use planning is made on the basis of an assessment of socio-spatial data. It is a cross-sectional analysis of land use data, agricultural-climatic-ecological factors and future needs that allows the establishment of scenarios based on development objectives through the use of participatory diagnostic tools (problem tree, venn diagram).

The result shows that participatory planning is an approach dedicated to the sustainable management of resources by local communities. With the diversification of land uses due to the presence of large projects, traditional modes or visions of sustainable land management need to be maintained. The land tenure of the Upper Balong clan in the commune of Nguti is occupied by 65% of land allocations that conflict with the activities of local people. These land allocations do not integrate the local vision of land use with the changes in land use, the needs of the people for local development and those of future populations. There is a risk of land shortages for the conservation of cultural values and communities risk losing their potential biodiversity (NTFPs). The uses proposed in the scenarios for reorienting the allocation of resources beneficial to communities take into account regional and sectoral strategies for harmonization with national development needs.

Nnoko-Scaling-up Community Participatory Mapping and Land Use Planning-2437_a.docx
Nnoko-Scaling-up Community Participatory Mapping and Land Use Planning-2437_b.pptx

Post independence land policies in southern Africa: Improving agricultural productivity and value chains for export

Dr. Charles Chavunduka, Marcyline Chivenge

University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe;

Land is one of the key enablers in the implementation of the African Continental Free Trade Area and produces a significant percentage of agricultural commodities that get traded. Despite the attainment of independence and implementation of land reform programmes; poverty, inequality and unemployment have endured in the former settler colonies of southern Africa. The study focuses on Zimbabwe, Namibia and South Africa because of their similar colonial background and also being the last countries to gain independence in the region. The objective of the study is to analyse the role of land policies in enabling increased agricultural production, productivity and value addition for export. It examines the land policy challenges which are being experienced in the sub-region. The research methodology is based on desk review and document analysis. The results show that despite the implementation of land reform programmes; poverty, inequality and unemployment persist in the countries. On agricultural land incentives are not aligned to ensure both economic efficiency and productivity. There has been emerging land policy coherence in South Africa and Namibia, but much less in Zimbabwe; giving the countries enough scope to learn from each other’s experiences. Improved agricultural productivity will require land policies to address the key objective of land use efficiency through the instrument of land tenure security and investment in land.

Chavunduka-Post independence land policies in southern Africa-2444_a.docx
Chavunduka-Post independence land policies in southern Africa-2444_b.pptx

A National Land Policy in Crisis: The Case of Ghana

Eunice Naa Odarley Lamptey, Prof. John Tiah Bugri

Department of Land Economy, KNUST, Ghana;

Land policy formulation is a crucial issue in the development of developing countries, and national governments are placing this as a priority in their development agenda. The process of developing land policies entails making decisions about what should be accomplished, how it should be accomplished, who should accomplish it, how it should be accomplished efficiently and inexpensively. For social and economic progress to occur, land policy development is necessary. For a land policy to become an engine of national development, it must be inclusive, involving the full and informed participation of all stakeholders, including women who are the majority of land users. It must also ensure broad ownership in the land policy formulation process to enable easy and seamless implementation of the land policy document, particularly at the grassroots; and acknowledge the roles of local and community-based land administration structures as well as the state for best collaboration (UN-Habitat, 2007). According to the AU Framework and Guidelines for Land Policy in Africa, African governments have the goal of formulating land policies that are inclusive of all land users and responsive to their needs, promote gender equity, foster the reduction of conflict, improve the sustainable management of natural resources, ensure orderly urban development, and lead all stakeholders to higher economic growth and a better standard of living (AUC-ECA-AfDB Consortium, 2010).

The current land sector of Ghana was formulated in 1999 and has since not had any revision. Given land governance is dynamic, what it means is that in over 20 years, the land tenure, administration, and management in the country have experienced several significant changes and vital areas of concern that require attention. Amidst all the policy interventions made to solve or manage the identified problems through the implementation programs, new phenomena in land administration have emerged, while existing land challenges have experienced a new wave of challenges. This includes, rather sadly, the passing of a new Land Act, 2020 (Act 1036) without the revision of the 1999 National Land Policy document. In the 1999 National Land Policy, a revision clause was however stated as a way of achieving participatory democracy, to allow for a periodic review and adjustment of the policy objectives and legislation documented to reflect emerging realities in land administration and challenges in the country.

This study sought to examine the content adequacy of the existing land policy, by an analysis of its internal formulation process, examining it against other African Countries and National Land Policies, and the AU Framework and Guidelines best practices on land policy development processes. Also, the study sought to assess the contemporary implementation challenges of the National Land Policy, focusing on Large-Scale Land Acquisition, an emerging global and strategic issue, land guards (armed people hired to provide security of tenure to land that people consider as being in their ownership) activities that impact on security of tenure and the drivers and implications and de-vesting of vested lands for improved land governance in the country.

A semi-structured interview was employed to purposely sample key informants from the Ministry of Lands and Natural Resources, Law Reform Commission, Lands Commission and landowners/users. Data sources used were both primary and secondary.

For secondary data, information from policy documents such as AU Framework and Guidelines, Land Policy in Africa: Eastern and Western Regional Assessment, legal publications from the Law Reform Commission, and other official documents aided the data analysis. The study used Miles and Huberman's (1994) characterization to analyse the data collected for data reduction, data display and drawing and verifying conclusions. Data display in this study was largely in the form of words and hence the display of data was a textual issue and attended to as such.

The study revealed that a comprehensive look into restructuring existing relevant institutions such as customary/local institutions, local governments, community-based institutions, etc. should be considered as a way for effective land administration.

Furthermore, it was found that lack of coordination by the various land sector agencies was an impediment to smooth policy implementation. This was due to a lack of coordination between land policy and other sectoral policies such as those on agriculture, the environment, climate change, water, forests, human settlements, minerals, and wildlife. Consequently, these sectors frequently designed their policies without making extensive use of national land policies to provide guidance, synergy and direction. This was unquestionably viewed as a flaw in land policy goals realization.

It was also revealed that financial, human, and logistical resources and implementation strategies are insufficient when formulating and implementing land policies. The Ghana Land Policy suffered from these inadequacies and so too have other African countries like Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Kenya, etc.

Legislative support for the youth and women to assert claims to land are limited under the customary tenure. Most African land policies like that of Kenya, addressed unemployed youth and their rights to land. Ghana’s land policy has not given much legislative or policy support to affirm the land rights of these categories of people. The study concluded that youth and gender-sensitive policy targets have not been well addressed within the 1999 land policy of Ghana.

There is therefore a clarion call for a review of the National Land Policy of 1999 with a distinct focus on developing implementation strategies for the New Land Act, 2020 (Act 1036) which does not consist of consolidated legislation only but is an update that signals new pathways for sustainable land management and administration. More of local-based solutions or strategies should be encouraged. Any form of modern land management practice must be built on the traditional structures and local context relevance factored into the processes. A fit-for purpose land policy is highly recommended.

Lamptey-A National Land Policy in Crisis-1235_a.docx
Lamptey-A National Land Policy in Crisis-1235_b.pptx

A review of the Enabling Environment for Transformative Land Investment in Ethiopia, Ghana and Mozambique

Dr. Ermias Aynekulu Betemariam1, Dr. Endalkachew Wolde-Meskel1, Dr. Emily Jeanne Gallagher1, Dr. Tamiru Amanu3, Dr. Delia Catacutan1, Dr. George Christoffel Schoneveld1, Eunice Matey Offei2, Divine Appiah2, Nana Ama Yirrah2, Dr. Osvaldo Matessane2, Dr. Anne Larson1

1Center for International Forestry Research and World Agroforestry (CIFOR-ICRAF), Kenya; 2SNV; 3Wagenigen University Research;

Context and background

Development strategies in most sub-Saharan African countries include the proper use of agricultural land as well as forestry resources, while leveraging the engagement of foreign and domestic investors on large-scale commercial farms, plantations, and floricultures, among others. In this regard, policy frameworks have been developed particularly to attract foreign and domestic investors in these arenas.

While it is generally believed that land-based investments contribute to economic development by connecting capital, technology, knowledge, and market access, there is growing concern over how such initiatives impact the well-being of marginalized groups, such as smallholder farmers, rural women, and youth, as well as the environment. In some cases, issues of land tenure security increase grievances from smallholder farmers against large-scale commercial farm expansions. On the other hand, the presence or absence of favorable conditions for investments in the agri-food sector impact the sustainability of agri-food systems. At the same time, fostering the transparency of the process of land acquisition means involving local communities at all stages of the decision-making process.

Goal and Objectives

This study reviews the legal and policy frameworks to identify the enabling environment for sustainable and inclusive land-based investment in Ethiopia, Ghana, and Mozambique


This work began with initial literature reviews in each country, whereby existing legal documents, policies, strategies, programs and regulations were assessed to identify statutory frameworks (legal provisions, compliances, customary laws) and incentive mechanisms to stipulate inclusive and green investment. The second literature review was focused on peer-reviewed studies or reports that were specifically conducted with the aim of understanding the practices of land based agricultural investments and how such initiatives impacted tenure and food security, environment and social wellbeing.

The documents were dummy coded against the TLI principles indicating the presence or absence of the principles in the respective documents. We also conducted content analysis for the comparison of legal provisions in the existing policy frameworks with practical observations as identified from the peer-reviewed literature, were used to provide key insights for MSPs (lessons/implications). Finally, the results were presented at national Multi-Stakeholders Platform (MSP) workshops for further validation, with a dynamic and diverse set of participants for in-depth analysis and review of the findings.


There are various legal and policy frameworks with regards to land, resources, and property tenure systems as well as incentive mechanisms to attract foreign and domestic investors. The results, however, indicate lack of full-fledged legal rights with regards to land resources, as the Constitution states that land is a common property in Africa, and it shall not be subjected to sale or other means of exchange which might also discourage investment. Customary laws play positive roles in land and resource ownership and management in Africa. However, they appear to limit women land rights with slightly different applications across regions or localities. The results also indicate lack of consistency in the implementation of investment incentives. Even though land is often indicated as an incentive mechanism, the land acquisition process is inefficient and lacks transparency. The findings point to relevant policy recommendations for multi-stakeholder platform processes and communities of practice to build toward transformations in land-based investments.


Some of the enabling conditions for a transformative land investment include: (i) Legally legitimate land tenure systems can increase the confidence and self-motivation of landowners to invest on their land and contribute to economic development; (ii) Socially legitimate tenure systems may appear to be advantageous as well as disadvantageous; (iii) there is a need for proper land use plan and monitoring mechanism information system that readily makes available opportunities for agroecology-based investment for domestic as well as foreign investors, and other local farmers, and pastoral communities; (iv) promoting women, youth and local indigenous communities and improving their capacities to participate in local land administration and land use committees is crucial to realize gender-responsiveness and social inclusion in land investments; (v) improved coordination problems among different government agencies for efficient land acquisition process is crucial for the development of a country as it encourages investors; (vi) enhancing the awareness of investors or farmers, civil society and development organizations on the potential consequences of environmental degradation and strengthen the capacity of institutions to monitor and follow up strictly the compliance with Environmental and Social Impact Assessment requirements; and (vii) provide enabling Green and Inclusive Investment through fiscal and financial incentives.

Betemariam-A review of the Enabling Environment for Transformative Land Investment-1290_b.pptx

Mise en évidence de l’efficacité de la production agricole en zone CEMAC


University of Yaoundé 2 Soa, Cameroon;

Sanchez et al (2004) constatent avec regret que le continent africain est la seule partie du monde en voie de développement à être passée à côté de la révolution verte des années 1970 et 1980. Ouédraogo(2005) constate que depuis les années 70, la production alimentaire par tête du continent connaît une baisse énorme de plus de 20%. Plusieurs pays africains ont ratifié la déclaration sur l’agriculture et la sécurité alimentaire en Afrique à Maputo au Mozambique en juillet 2003. Cette déclaration oblige chaque pays à consacrer au moins 10% de son budget au développement du secteur agricole.

Globalement, la valeur ajoutée agricole dans les pays de la CEMAC est faible à cause du bas niveau d’efficacité technique des producteurs agricoles. Un pays de la sous-région CEMAC sera dit efficace si, à partir du panier d’intrants qu’il détient, il produit le maximum d’extrants possibles ou si, pour produire une quantité donnée d’extrant, il utilise les plus petites quantités possibles d’intrants (Atkinson et al, 1994). La mesure du degré d’efficacité d’un pays permet donc de cerner si ce dernier peut accroître sa production sans pour autant consommer plus de ressources, ou diminuer l’utilisation d’au moins un intrant tout en conservant le même niveau de production.

Pour atteindre l’objectif durable pour le développement (ODD) visant à réduire de moitié la pauvreté, il faut trouver les moyens d’augmenter la valeur ajoutée agricole des populations de la zone CEMAC. Les premiers travaux sur le concept d’efficacité sont attribués respectivement à Koopmans (1951) qui fut le premier à proposer une mesure du concept d’efficacité, et Debreu(1951) pour la mesure sur le plan empirique. Debreu proposa ainsi le coefficient d’utilisation des ressources qui portait sur des mesures de ratio extrant-intrant. Cependant, Farrell (1957) introduisit le concept d’efficacité économique tout en distinguant les notions d’efficacité technique et d’efficacité allocative. Cet indice est basé sur la programmation linéaire et est calculé empiriquement en termes de fonction distance et compare le produit obtenu en période t avec les ressources de cette période au produit obtenu en t avec les ressources de la période t+1. La décomposition de cet indice permet aux pays de suivre le rythme des leaders en matière d’innovation et d’amélioration de l’efficacité technique de la production dans le temps.

L’objectif de cet article est d’évaluer le niveau d’efficacité de la production agricole des pays de la zone CEMAC. Nous avons utilisé un modèle non paramétrique à travers la méthode de l’indice de productivité de Malmquist sur les données recueillies auprès des pays de la sous-région sur la période 1992-2013. Le calcul de l’indice de Malmquist exige l’évaluation antérieure de la frontière correspondante par ce qu’il emploie la notion de fonction de distance. L’indice de productivité globale des facteurs de Malmquist et ses deux composantes, le progrès technique et l’efficacité technique, ont été calculés pour l’ensemble des pays de la sous-région. Nous disposons de 7 variables définies dont un output et 6 inputs.

L’output est mesuré par la production agricole végétale exprimée en tonnes. L’input terre représente la superficie agricole exprimée en hectares. L’input tracteur en nombre est utilisé comme un proxy pour les machines. L’input travail est approximé par la population économiquement active dans le secteur agricole. L’input engrais est la quantité totale d’azote, de potassium et de phosphates consommés en tonnes. L’input capital humain représente la proportion de la population économiquement active ayant pour niveau d’éducation, le primaire, le secondaire ou le supérieur dans le secteur agricole. L’input irrigation est le pourcentage total de terres agricoles irriguées. Cinq indices sont calculés par pays et par année, par rapport à l’année précédente.

Les performances réalisées par les six pays en termes de productivité globale des facteurs sont dues au progrès technique qu’à des gains d’efficacité technique. En outre, les productions agricoles des pays de la CEMAC opèrent au-dessus de la frontière technologique. Les gains globaux d’efficacité réalisés au cours de la période 1993-2013 se traduisent par un déplacement de la frontière de production elle-même plutôt qu’un déplacement vers la frontière elle-même ; ce phénomène est qualifié de rattrapage technologique (Boussemart et Blancard 2006). Selon ces auteurs, ce rattrapage peut se définir comme la tendance structurelle des exploitations agricoles les moins performantes à rattraper les plus efficaces. Dans cet article, nous pouvons l’assimiler à la tendance structurelle des pays les moins performants à rattraper les plus performants, ce qui est le cas du Tchad dans la sous-région CEMAC.

Les résultats montrent que la disponibilité de la terre, du travail, des tracteurs, des engrais et du capital humain conduit à une inefficacité technique et à une efficacité technologique de la production agricole. Ceci représente respectivement une perte de 3% et un gain de 2,5% sur la période d’étude. Cependant, dans l’ensemble de la sous-région CEMAC, il y’a une perte de productivité agricole de l’ordre de 0,5%, due essentiellement au Tchad qui a une perte globale de productivité agricole de 19,7%.

Au regard de ces résultats, en termes de politiques économiques, un accent particulier doit être mis sur l’acquisition et l’utilisation des ressources de bonne qualité, l’utilisation d’une main d’œuvre qualifiée. Ceci accompagné de l’aspect d’innovation et acquisition de la nouvelle technologie dans le processus de production, qui sont des vecteurs de la compétitivité internationale.

TCHITCHOUA-Mise en évidence de l’efficacité de la production agricole en zone CEMAC-1137_a.docx

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