Overview and details of the sessions of this conference. Please select a date or location to show only sessions at that day or location. Please select a single session for detailed view (with abstracts and downloads if available).
Location: LDN.205 |
2nd floor Loughborough University London 40 capacity
|Date: Wednesday, 19/Jun/2019|
|10:45am - 12:25pm||4.j 1: Experience Design: Method and Evaluation|
Session Chair: Ming Cheung
Session Chair: Ksenija Kuzmina
10:45am - 11:10am
Consumption experience on Tmall: a social semiotic multimodal analysis of interactive banner ads
1Xi'an Jiaoting - Liverpool University, China, People's Republic of; 2Griffith University, Australia
This article contributes to the methodology literature of experience design by analysing banner ads on Tmall with a synthesis of social semiotics, multimodal analysis, and interactivity which guides our analysis of consumer-oriented advertising in e-commerce. Departing from Tmall’s annual Double 11 Carnival, our analysis shows that the banner ads have been incorporated into a gamification design to encourage consumers to spend more and buy things they may not need even after the event has been completed. Our approach of analysing the ads on both the syntagmatic and paradigmatic dimensions is explicitly multimodal, taking the linguistic, visual and interactive resources (the tri-fold convergence) into consideration to study new phenomena in an e-selling environment. The approach of this study could be helpful to scholars and practitioners in the field of experience design, where multimodality and textual analysis of visual information is of great importance.
11:10am - 11:35am
Experience design at Starbucks: from global brand management to local spatial experiences
1Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom; 2Heriot Watt University, Edinbrugh, United Kingdom
This study explores the question: Within the context of global brands management and the need for integrating local identities, how does Starbucks achieve global consistency and meaningfully localised experiences? Through a review of literature and a series of interviews with store designers, design managers and brand concept experts at Starbucks, we compiled the most commonly applied branding and design methods, with an emphasis on the locally relevant spatial experiences the global brand delivers. Moreover, we set out to classify our findings in a way that can assist other brand and experience design teams in overcoming shard challenges. Our findings focus on the management of the grounding brand concept, as well as operations and real estate teams. Through presenting some tools, manuals, guidelines and sample checklists, we suggest that store design teams in different locations can build strong, locally relevant spatial experiences that tie in successfully with the brand’s global principles.
11:35am - 12:00pm
Empathic Design as a Framework for Creating Meaningful Experiences
1Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Colombia; 2Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Colombia
This paper introduces empathic design as a framework and a strategy that can be adopted by the emerging field of experience design (XD) to create meaningful experiences connected with people’s lives and needs. The paper presents the rationale behind the emergence of empathic design, the traits that characterize this approach to design, a collection of empathic design methods and practices, and a critical discussion of the limitations of empathy in design. Methodologically, this paper is based on a systematic literature review on empathic design, human-centered design, and empathy, which is synthesized and focused its application in experience design. Ultimately, this paper intends to contribute to the broader discussion of how traditional design practices are adapting and evolving to respond to new realities, and how new design paradigms are needed to address the very complex challenges that we face in the 21st century.
12:00pm - 12:25pm
Experience Design Applied to Research: An Exploratory Method of User-Centered Research
Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul - PUCRS, Brazil
An accurate understanding of users' needs is essential for the development of innovative products. This article presents an exploratory method of user centered research in the context of the design process of technological products, conceived from the demands of a large information technology company. The method is oriented - but not restricted - to the initial stages of the product development process, and uses low-resolution prototypes and simulations of interactions, allowing users to imagine themselves in a future context through fictitious environments and scenarios in the ambit of ideation. The method is effective in identifying the requirements of the experience related to the product’s usage and allows rapid iteration on existing assumptions and greater exploration of design concepts that emerge throughout the investigation.
|2:00pm - 3:40pm||4.f 1/1: Strategic Design of Sustainable Business Models|
Session Chair: Giulia Calabretta
Session Chair: Duygu Keskin
2:00pm - 2:25pm
The evolution of the Strategic role of Designers for Sustainable Development
1Delft University of Technology; 2Lund University; 3Eindhoven University of Technology
Design for Sustainable Development refers to the application of a design process to solve a problem related to sustainability, such as creating a pair of shoes that can be recycled or managing waste collection in a large city. Since the origins of this concept in the 1960s, Design for Sustainable Development has been evolving, gradually broadening its scope over time from the design of products to the design of services, business models and wider ecosystems. In this evolution, designers have come closer and closer to business problems, thus becoming more strategic. In this paper, we explore this evolution from a business perspective. We visualize it into a framework and interview eight academic experts about the Strategic role of Designers for Sustainable Development. We find that the evolution can be framed around five topics: the strategic goal of designers, and their related perspective, language, key activities and main challenge. After discussing how the evolution took place around each topic, we draw implications for designers and managers who are willing to play an active role in the transition towards sustainable development.
2:25pm - 2:50pm
Service Blueprint For Sustainability Business Model Evaluation
Loughborough University London, United Kingdom
The adverse societal impacts caused by sharing mobility - a form of service-based sustainable business model innovations, showed that operation activities and managerial practices impact heavily on the sustainable value of a service offering. To identify how new service development (NSD) activities can better support the proposed service offering for sustainability, evaluating sustainability of service operations is needed. This study draws learnings from service design, product-service system and sustainable innovation research streams, to build sustainability evaluation framework into service blueprint. Six expert-interviews and two mobility case studies were developed, to illustrate service blueprint's capability in mapping sustainability input and benefits created during NSD and service operation activities. Results revealed a) the shift from using sustainable ‘value’ to ‘benefits’ concept in service operation evaluation, b) the public-private collaboration dilemma and c) the agile NSD and sustainable innovation incompatibility. This paper aims to offer a springboard for practitioners and researchers to uncover compelling insights, discuss latest service design developments, and envision future directions for integrating sustainability into service-based business model innovation.
2:50pm - 3:15pm
Minding the gap: The road to circular business models
Sao Paulo State University, Brazil
Despite strategic design (SD) and product portfolio management (PPM) play a pivotal role in driving companies toward a more sustainable economy, it is still not clear how SD and PPM can contribute to the advances of circular business models (CBM). In this context, the aim of this research was to analyse the main literature about SD, PPM and CBM proposing an integrative framework, as well as to reduce the gap on drivers and barriers in the development of CBM through a case study in a biodiversity company. As conclusions of this work, SD helps companies to define the strategic vision for innovation, integrating sustainable stakeholder objectives, meanwhile, PPM activities support the decision-making process, being responsible for the alignment of projects with firms’ strategy when generating circular business. In addition, regulatory requirements and cost of production have shown the main drivers, whereas technological restriction is the main barrier to overcome.
3:15pm - 3:40pm
Circular Archetypes – a feasibility study exploring how Makerspaces might support circular innovation, within the Scottish textile sector.
V&A Dundee, University of Dundee, United Kingdom
We live in a ‘throwaway and replace’ culture. Our growing population and demand for new products has placed huge pressures on our planet’s resources. The research argues design can play a strategic role in supporting the adoption of new mindsets, methods and models to enhance awareness and understanding of the need to design for a circular economy. This paper provides a practical example. Drawing upon a feasibility study into Makerspaces, it will explore how they might be developed in the future to support circular innovation, within the context of textiles, to address complex issues around material waste. The insights drawn from this research act as a starting point for future work, reflecting on the implications of the methods applied, concluding the circular economy is the same imperative whether people are focusing on ecology, economy or just their own business. Furthermore, it will suggest that design-led approaches play a role in embedding collaborative ways of working to integrate sustainability into the business modelling process.
|4:00pm - 5:40pm||w3.452: Workshop|
4:00pm - 5:40pm
Big Design - Designing at scale
1Jönköping University, Sweden; 2University of Johannesburg; 3Human Experience Design
Large-scale transformation projects have by and large been set up from a dirigist, technicistic perspective first and foremost. Their outcomes are on the other hand meant to be experienced by communities in a direct, engaged manner that is embodied, spatial and temporal. For processes meant to radically transform the lived experience of people, they have so far been strategically unconcerned with any human-centric view.
The workshop intends to suggest a necessary shift in perspective through the conceptual lens of pace layers and a system of temporal, spatial, and socio-cultural indicators: place-making, power and plasticity, and proxemics, and discuss the role and responsibilities of design in the production of large-scale systemic change. Questions that will be addressed during the workshop include:
When scaling up to regional level, does the design discourse belong? If so, when, where, how?
What role and responsibilities for designers?
Are designers comfortable with the level of abstraction these project comport?
Are current design processes useful or fit for the task?
Is designing at scale designing for people?
This is an activity-based workshop.
After an initial welcome and introduction moment, the facilitators will create groups of 3-5 attendees. These groups will work on three distinct activities framed through large-scale design problems: the facilitators will provide the practical and theoretical framing, a fictional hands-on case, supervision for the duration of the workshop, and finally coordinate the room for take-aways and reflection at wrap-up. Rough schedule:
00:00 - 00:20 Welcome, introduction
20:00 - 35:00 Framing: Pace layers
35:00 - 75:00 Activity #1, #2, #3
75:00 - 90:00 Reflections, wrap-up
Framing: Pace layers
The pace layer model will be used to frame the outcomes of the workshop and guide the participants through the individual activities. Pace layers postulate that different socio-technical superstructures move and change at different speeds.
Participants will be asked to reflect on and formulate how the individual activities relate to the pace layer model. At the end of the session, groups will create a pace layer visualization for their processes, with the general aim of having an organically built representation of what tasks, activities, opportunity and challenges reside in or across what layers when designing at scale. Participants will be given a baseline to start from, taking into account that:
in layers with high variability, adaptability should be maximized;
in layers with low variability, structures should be stabilized;
if changes happen too fast in a low-variability layer, their effects can become systemically detrimental as they negatively impact other layers.
These points will be recalled in the reflections during wrap-up to frame the workshop and further the conversation.
Activity 1: Placemaking
A dimension often overlooked in large-scale transformation projects is that addressed by placemaking. A core concept in city planning, placemaking centers on the necessity of designing environments that feel human and that speak to our sense of presence and belonging. While large-scale projects naturally work at the geographical scale, they seem to ignore the general need to meaningfully anchor infrastructure to human activities and the placemaking of the new digital/physical environments they create.
Activity 2: Power and plasticity
In cultural terms, power may be considered as control and the expression of biases in choices. Such control may be culturally explicit or tacit. Any call for large-scale transformation is a reflection on whether such efforts should alter or maintain the status quo. Human-centric approaches favor the individual and local bottom-up angle: strategic, policy-driven approaches favor the top-down, collective view. When designing at scale, as we abstract local needs upwards, can top-down structures provide the necessary plasticity to cater for cultural variance? What role does design play in avoiding technocratic approaches which may sideline social and cultural needs?
Activity 3: Proxemics and public spaces
Proxemics is a cultural approach to understanding and representing how people experience space and spatial components and suggests a scalable framework that conceptualizes different interactions through methods of distance-setting. Using De Waal’s three conceptual constructs for exploring proxemics at the level of the public space, the private, parochial and public domains, this activity will have groups figure out the how proxemics can contribute to make large-scale processes more human-centric.
Reduce the gap between the reality of large digital transformation projects and the current research framing and understanding of the problem space.
Challenge the current mainstream technicistic top-down approach, and disseminate a more rounded, humanistic way-of-doing that centers on socio-technical and temporal/spatial complexity.
Kickstart a process of aggregation of perspectives, cases, approaches, and results, for added insights.
Number of participants
15-30 participants, with a bare minimum of 9.
Participants will learn how to:
define the role and responsibilities of design when designing at scale;
recontextualize the role of technology in large scale transformative projects;
systemically relate human-scale indicators to large-scale priorities.
The workshop contributes to the conference’s theme by addressing/exploring the transformative nature of designing at scale and proposing a human-scale approach. It does so by applying three distinct research perspectives on the topic as well as offering a general framework for understanding the relationship between these.
|Date: Thursday, 20/Jun/2019|
|9:00am - 10:40am||1.a 1/2: Transformation of the ageing society and its impact on design|
Session Chair: Lu Yuan
Session Chair: Bo GAO
9:00am - 9:25am
Engaging Senior Adults with Technology for Behavior Change
1Eindhoven University of Technology; 2Philips Design; 3École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
Amidst today’s ever-expanding waistlines there is a clear need to investigate technology’s potential to support behavior change and stimulate increased physical activity. Physical activity has also been shown to increase the independence and well-being of older adults, yet an important segment of this community is often excluded from the necessary in-context research due to the barriers they face to technology acceptance. Currently, there is limited knowledge on how to overcome these barriers to participation. We created a specific Product Service System that supports older adults to engage with the proposed technological interventions to enable important in-context behavior change research. Our approach converges knowledge from the domains of living laboratories, co-design, and existing experience of design research with older adults. From our experiences with this Product Service System, we provide guidelines to support other researchers setting-up a living laboratory study with older adults to explore technology’s potential to motivate behavior change.
9:25am - 9:50am
Through service design to improve the HRQOL (Health-Related Quality of Life) in the treatment and rehabilitation of elderly women with breast cancer in Shanghai
Tongji University, China, People's Republic of
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in the world. As China enters the aging society, elderly breast cancer presents the characteristics of high incidence, late detection and long treatment time. This is related to the imperfect services that elderly women receive in the treatment and rehabilitation. Eventually, the quality of life of patients in their later years has declined. By using service design tools, the authors conducted field research and in-depth interviews in Shanghai hospitals and developed service strategy to improve the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) in the treatment and rehabilitation of elderly women with breast cancer. The paper presents three design contents: (1) smart healthcare service system; (2) improvement of service scenarios in the hospital; (3) a life-long service that links communities, families, and individuals to transform breast cancer into "chronic disease". In this paper, the authors also discuss the next step and prospects.
9:50am - 10:15am
Building an age-friendly city for elderly citizens through co-designing an urban walkable scenario
Politecnico di Milano, Italy
This paper is based on a research project carried out in the Metropolitan Area of Milan, which looks at the cities of the future as highly populated by long-living active people and innovative technological facilities. The project is conducted by a multidisciplinary research approach to study how to support social inclusion of elderlies living in urban environments by enhancing their active walking. The whole process will engage participants (senior citizens) and stakeholders in a human-centred design approach. In this paper we will present the results from the preliminary research activities carried out: case studies selection and territorial observations. The first activity was oriented to investigate and select innovative solutions to enhance the mobility of elderly pedestrians and to improve their (social) life. The seconds, helped us in better framing the design context of action and assessing at a microscopic level the degree of walkability of a specific territorial area.
10:15am - 10:40am
The Leisure Time Canvas: Eliciting Empathy for Older Adults through Activities and Hobbies
University of Technology Eindhoven, Netherlands, The
Understanding your user's daily life and interests is essential in providing insights that can be leveraged to define new design opportunities. However, when designing for older adults, this can be challenging because, users may find it complicated to express themselves; designers may have difficulties to take their perspective and empathize with them. This paper introduces the Leisure Time Canvas, an empathy toolkit designed to facilitate older users to share stories about their activities and hobbies, to elicit their perspectives, desires and needs, and thereby inspire the design process. We report on the design of the canvas and its explorative use with six older adults and reflect on the resulting stories and design implications. This canvas aims to facilitate interaction between designers and user groups that may be difficult to empathize with or experience challenges in verbalizing their needs.
|11:00am - 12:40pm||1.a 2/2: Transformation of the ageing society and its impact on design|
Session Chair: Lu Yuan
Session Chair: Bo GAO
11:00am - 11:25am
Co-refining Interactive Systems with Older Adults from Function, Form and Interaction
Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands
Designing interactive systems that are pragmatic, attractive and easy to use for older adults is challenging. Participatory design, as an approach to enhance the mutual understanding between designers and end users, has been proved to be useful to improve the quality of design for older people. However, PD research has long been criticized for extensively dealing with the early-phase design while putting less emphasis on the later stages. In this paper, we argue for the importance of collaborative refinement when designing interactive systems for older adults. Through a case study, we describe our experience of co-refining the preliminary design of an interactive system with older participants from three perspectives: function, form and interaction. We also explored to adopt some potential PD methods and conclude by discussing the effectiveness of the chosen approach and methods.
11:25am - 11:50am
Designing for Older Adults' Life Storytelling through a Tangible Interactive Device
Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands
There appears to be a mismatch between current interactive media and intergenerational storytelling, which leads to the elderly are often viewed as passive consumers, rather than active creators of story content. In this paper, we present our study aiming to facilitate storytelling of older adults living in the care facilities with their children, driven by the research questions: RQ1: What life stories would the older adults like to share? And RQ2: How to facilitate older adults to tell stories with their children? A research prototype named Slots-story was designed, which integrated functions of memory cue generator, story recording, and preservation. In the field study, eight pairs of participants (each pair consisting of an elderly adult and his/her child) were recruited to use the prototype for around ten days. Semi-structured interviews were conducted both with the elderly and their children. Stories collected were transcribed, and thematic analysis was conducted, which formed the foundation of the insights on the research questions.
|2:00pm - 3:40pm||5.j: Innovation Through Design for Meaning|
Session Chair: Marco Ajovalasit
Session Chair: Alison Rieple
2:00pm - 2:25pm
Making Markets: The Role of Design in the Process of Legitimation
1Wilfrid Laurier University, Canada; 2Oregon State University; 3Northwestern University
We examine the impact of design on the evolution of a product market from illicit to mainstream. We argue the importance of congruence with normative and cultural-cognitive structures in fostering legitimacy. To understand the role of product design in this process, we conducted an ethnographic study of the newly-legal recreational cannabis market in the US, a market that has attained regulatory acceptance in some states but lacks normative and cultural-cognitive legitimacy. By analyzing product design and interviewing managers, we find that design plays a pivotal role in legitimation. Producers transform a market by manipulating two distinct aspects of materiality: material in relation – how products relate to accepted products, and material in use – how design guides and enables consumption. We offer a framework for managing products in new markets, arguing that design can enable legitimacy by drawing on symbolic relationships to other products, considering affordances, and enhancing strategic socio-cultural innovation.
2:25pm - 2:50pm
Meaning of artefacts: interpretations can differ between designers and consumers
1Politecnico di Milano, Italy; 2Brunel University London, United Kingdom
Previous research has suggested three primary categories of meaning which designers should consider during their design processes, i.e. function, ritual and myth, which cover a spectrum from the purely instrumental to the purely symbolic. The research hypothesis of the current study was that the previously identified three primary categories of meaning would be commonly encountered in practice, and that statistically significant differences would occur between designers and consumers. A semi-structured questionnaire was deployed with ten designers and with ten consumers using a set of twenty photographs of designed artefacts. The results suggested that all three categories of meaning could occur individually or could be co-present to some degree. The results further suggested that statistically significant differences occurred between the group of designers and the group of consumers in the indicated category of meaning and in the adjectives used to describe the artefacts. The findings suggest that some meaning divergences may be occurring between designers and consumers, and would appear to highlight the need for carefully executed ethnographic and user testing activities.
2:50pm - 3:15pm
Design for Meaning of Smart Connected Products
1Politecnico di Milano, Italy; 2Habits studio
This paper tackles the topic of meaning-driven innovation from a Product Design perspective. It focuses on the design of Smart Connected Products: internet-enabled phygital products that blend hardware and software. This category of products represents a positive field of exploration for meaning-driven innovation. The paper highlights three kinds of meaning that are relevant for Smart Connected Products: the meaningful identity of the object as product category, the meaning of the product in relation to its shape and functionality, and in relation to a phygital ecosystem. The paper reflects on the methods that can support designers in the development of meaningful smart products and presents the “Mapping the IoT” Toolkit, a downloadable tool that guides in specific activities aimed at framing the product’s meaning. Tests with the Toolkit proved the effectiveness of using cards with critical questions as a way to deepen design concepts and reach a common, meaningful vision.
|4:00pm - 5:40pm||w10.453: Workshop|
4:00pm - 5:40pm
Shelter after disaster management. New approaches by design driven innovation
Higher Technical School of Industrial Design and Engineering / Technical University of Madrid, Spain
Despite several stakeholders involved in the shelter after disaster management, like academia or the private sector, are focused on the introduction of new products and on direct action, innovation in this sector is today more likely to be concerned with improvements in process and more related with facilitation.
Design driven innovation (DDI) focused on services, has clear potential to lead the sector in interesting and important new directions.