Conference Agenda

Overview and details of the sessions of this conference. Please select a date or location to show only sessions at that day or location. Please select a single session for detailed view (with abstracts and downloads if available).

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Session Overview
Date: Tuesday, 18/Jun/2019
9:00am - 9:30amPhD Training: PhD ADIM Collective 2019 Research Development Workshop

The ADIM Collective 2019 Research Development Workshop will benefit PhD students and early career researchers in the field of Design Innovation Management.

In order to participate in the ADIM 2019 Collective Research Development Workshop you had to apply for a place.

Foyer: Loughborough University London 
9:30am - 9:50amOpening PhD: ADIM Collective 2019 Research Development Workshop
Session Chair: Cees de Bont
Session Chair: Nusa Fain
10:00am - 11:00amTraining 1: Preparing for journal publications
Session Chair: Gerda Gemser
11:00am - 12:00pmTraining 2: How to establish a theoretical framework to guide the PhD research
Session Chair: Nusa Fain
12:15pm - 12:45pmPoster 1/4: Session Round 1/4
Session Chair: Brian Baldassarre
12:45pm - 1:15pmPoster 2/4: Session Round 2/4
Session Chair: Brian Baldassarre
1:15pm - 2:30pmLunch: PhD ADIM Collective 2019 Research Development Workshop
2:30pm - 3:30pmTraining 3: Mapping your PhD journey
Session Chair: Rachel Cooper
3:30pm - 4:30pmTraining 4: Life after PhD: designing a meaningful research career
Session Chair: Mieke van der Bijl-Brouwer
4:00pm - 4:30pmPoster 3/4: Session Round 3/4
Session Chair: Brian Baldassarre
4:30pm - 5:00pmPoster 4/4: Session Round 4/4
5:00pm - 5:10pmWrap-up: PhD ADIM Collective 2019 Research Development Workshop
5:20pm - 6:50pmDebate: PhD ADIM Collective 2019 Research Development Workshop
Session Chair: Federico Vaz
7:00pm - 8:30pmNetworking: PhD ADIM Collective 2019 Research Development Workshop
Date: Wednesday, 19/Jun/2019
8:15am - 9:00amDay 1: Registration
9:00am - 9:35amDay 1: Keynote: Design Futures: Making decisions about what to do next
Session Chair: Cees de Bont
Session Chair: Gerda Gemser

Chris Thompson,  Viadynamics Ltd
Rachel Cooper, Imagination, Lancaster University

Chris Thompson and Rachel Cooper discuss the future of design and innovation, from their own perspectives of the past and the present. Chris draws on a long career in industry to illustrate current challenges facing design and business. Rachel Cooper will respond, drawing on her experience and perspectives of design research and education. They conclude with a provocation to the audience, for further discussion.

9:45am - 10:30amDay 1: Keynote 2: Design as a Catalyst for change…by Design
Session Chair: Cees de Bont
Session Chair: Gerda Gemser

Eric Quint

Vice President and Chief Design Officer, 3M Company

Across businesses, communities, and technologies, one aspect remains constant in our connected world: change is ever-present. We know design can deliver competitive advantage, but how can we harness collaborative creativity to take this one step further, driving value, stimulating growth, and enhancing customer experiences?

Global enterprises are often large and complex and recognize the role of creativity and design as an opportunity to become more relevant, build audience engagement and drive transformation into the future. Eric Quint, Chief Design Officer of 3M Company, will share thoughts on how design can create competitive advantage and positive change; and will lend valuable insights into the challenges that we all face as strategists, creative professionals, and change-makers, as we work to drive innovation and enhance brand experiences…by design.

10:45am - 12:25pm3.d 1/1: How does design express value?
Session Chair: Tore Kristensen
Session Chair: Aysar Ghassan
10:45am - 11:10am

Identifying Product Design Trends at Dutch Design Week

Hannah Cardall1, Bryan F. Howell2

1Independent, United States of America; 2Brigham Young University, United States of America

Trends in design manifest in many ways, from fads in form or production to themes or topics explored. These trends are often generated within the design community, but also reflect local and global culture. To identify meta-trends in contemporary design culture, we worked with nine student researchers to gather data seen during an academic trip to Dutch Design Week in 2017. The results indicated growing interest in four central themes: identity, globalization, technology, and production. From these themes, nine trends were outlined; social engagement, production consciousness, design for agency, material innovation, humanist design, humanity and technology, re-interrogating history, speculative design, and questioning the role of design practice itself. We noted a shift from narrative-driven to experiential designed objects and a change from individual expression toward communal experience. We also observed a discipline in flux as designers struggle with these large themes, objecthood, and the role of the designer.

Track 3.d-Identifying Product Design Trends at Dutch Design Week-264Cardall_a.pdf

11:10am - 11:35am

How to create value in public service delivery? Exploring the co-design approach

William Voorberg, Arwin van Buuren, Geert Brinkman

Erasmus University, Netherlands, The

In the public domain, co-design is considered to create value by including service users in the fundamental aspects of these services. However, in order to create value, the design approach needs to be ‘translated’ into an applicable framework, appropriate for the public domain. Therefore, we first explore what kind of value is supposed to be generated within the public domain. Subsequently, by focusing on well-known contributions to the design literature, we review what can be learned from design approaches in terms of value creation. Then, we examine what kind of specific characteristics of the public domain needs to be taken into consideration, when applying a design-oriented approach for public service design. Ultimately, based on a synthesizing exercise, we conclude how the design approach, can be made applicable within the public domain. In doing so, this paper aims to formulate a grab-hold for both academics and policy makers alike.

Track 3.d-How to create value in public service delivery Exploring the co-design approach-329Voorberg_a.pdf

11:35am - 12:00pm

The value of design: How does design enhance commercial value in co-branding strategy development?

Yueyi Wang, David Hands

Lancaster University, United Kingdom

Emergent trends of co-branding strategies are increasingly being utilised in fashion marketing and retailing; as such, the role of design is becoming paramount in collaborative partnerships when devising co-branding strategies. In particular, designers are central to the process of collaborative partnerships when developing highly novel products more that are attractive to demanding consumers. This paper critically examines the role of co-branding strategies as a source of innovation in fashion marketing; and to understand how organisations draw upon co-branding to inform the development of new products, services and brands. Branding strategies, new product development, design, innovation, and fashion marketing are discussed and critically analysed.

Track 3.d-The value of design-334Wang_a.pdf

12:00pm - 12:25pm

Design Capabilities for the Evolution of Value Creation

Nicola Morelli, Luca Simeone, Amalia De Götzen

Aalborg University, Denmark

The process of value creation cannot be an exclusive preserve of designers, but it is rather the result of a diffuse problem solving capability. The creation of new value is also connected to the concept of innovation and can happen in different logical contexts, from limited and confined contexts (niches) to consolidated structures (regimes) and to wider sociotechnical contexts (landscapes). In all those contexts, design can have a different role and whoever designs should use different capabilities and tools. Furthermore, design capabilities can also be useful when aligning value creation and change in different levels, thus contributing to understand the relationships between small scale interactions and wider scale transformation of sociotechnical landscapes. This paper proposes a framework to understand the contribution of design to the value creation process at the three levels, focusing on design capabilities and tools to work across different logical contexts.

Track 3.d-Design Capabilities for the Evolution of Value Creation-276Morelli_a.pdf
10:45am - 12:25pm4.b 1/3: Designerly ways of Innovating
Session Chair: Gerda Gemser
Session Chair: Nico Florian Klenner
10:45am - 11:10am

Developing and applying performance metrics to evaluate co-design activities in design-led innovation

Jamie O'Hare, Elies Dekoninck, Lorenzo Giunta

University of Bath, United Kingdom

An increasing number of companies are experimenting with ‘designerly ways of innovating’ to improve the agility, speed and hit rate of their innovation activities. Co-design activities are emerging as part of a design-led innovation approach. Whilst there is extensive academic literature on design process performance metrics, they have rarely been applied by organisations that are testing co-design activities, possibly due to the time and effort that is required to apply them. This paper begins to address this challenge by developing a tailored suite of design process performance metrics. Some basic guidelines from the academic literature and the results of a practitioner survey inform the selection of metrics. We go on to apply the metrics to real-world projects within companies that are trialling technology-supported co-creation sessions. The metrics and the insights into their development and application are likely to prove useful to other design researchers and practitioners that wish to evaluate the benefits of adopting co-design activities as part of a design-led innovation approach.

Track 4.b-Developing and applying performance metrics to evaluate co-design activities-316OHare_a.pdf

11:10am - 11:35am

The 3rd Dimension of Innovation Processes

Christos Chantzaras

Technical University of Munich, Germany

Architects understand and visualize organizations and processes differently from management disciplines. With rising complexities of markets and blurring organizational boundaries, linear models of innovation processes reach limits in explaining interrelations and interdependencies. Design-led disciplines became of interest to provide frames and ‘design’ structures for fostering innovation. Architecture remained unnoticed though dealing with the conceptualization and realization of R&D and innovation centres. The paper explains how architects’ way to reframe complexities, to focus on social interactions and shape invisible patterns prior to building design offers new perspectives to innovation research. It critically reviews changing context of innovation and relational models in literature and outlines the relevance of integrating spatial proximities and time for a constructive 3-dimensional representation. By showing two case studies the basic principles are sketched for the development of an integrative approach and further research. The specific skill-set and thinking of architects opens a 3rd dimension of innovation processes.

Track 4.b-The 3rd Dimension of Innovation Processes-207Chantzaras_a.pdf

11:35am - 12:00pm
Research in Progress

Designing a conducive context for ambidexterity: How nascent design-led ventures can nurture contextual ambidexterity

Nico Florian Klenner, Gerda Gemser, Ingo Oswald Karpen

RMIT University, Australia

The present paper expands our understanding of how nascent design-led ventures can create and sustain an organizational context that is conducive for ambidexterity. Our study draws on the wider paradox literature, which positions ambidexterity as a crucial driver for organizations' long-term performance. To study the process of contextual ambidexterity emergence, we engaged in a longitudinal, ethnographic study of a nascent design-led venture. Grounded by our data, we discuss how the design-led venture transitioned from exploration to simultaneous exploration and exploitation, and we explain how the design-led venture leveraged nested paradoxes of belonging, organizing and performing. Leveraging these nested paradoxes allowed the venture to effectively balance the exploitation of a product-centered business model and the exploration of a service-centered business model. Our findings advance theory by explaining how nested paradoxical tensions can be used as a resource for achieving contextual ambidexterity. Further, we consider the implications of our findings for the management of organizational ambidexterity in design-led organizations.

Research in Progress-Designing a conducive context for ambidexterity-279Klenner.pdf

12:00pm - 12:25pm

Design practices for strategic innovation in start-ups

Daphna Glaubert1,2, Zarina Charlesworth1, Nathalie Nyffeler1, Luc Bergeron2

1HEIG-VD, University of Applied Arts & Sciences Western Switzerland, HES-SO, Switzerland; 2ECAL, University of Applied Arts & Sciences Western Switzerland, HES-SO, Switzerland

This paper looks at the use of design practices in start-up firms for the creation of strategic advantage through product/service innovation. Start-ups face non-negligible challenges during the early-stage of development. The research questions examined to what extent design practices can provide the leverage needed to face these challenges. A 4-day Innovation by Design Challenge workshop provided the field for the research carried out. Participants were start-up firms each working together with two designers to form six teams. Methods used included: observation for the mapping of team activities; a short self-report questionnaire and; pre- and post-workshop semi-directed interviews with the start-ups. The findings support the idea that design practice integration into the initial development of a start-up can indeed provide a lever for success and provide the start-up with the strategic vision needed to go through the early-stage and bring their products/services to market successfully.

Track 4.b-Design practices for strategic innovation in start-ups-300Glaubert_a.pdf
10:45am - 12:25pm4.j 1: Experience Design: Method and Evaluation
Session Chair: Ming Cheung
Session Chair: Ksenija Kuzmina

10:45am - 11:10am

Consumption experience on Tmall: a social semiotic multimodal analysis of interactive banner ads

Zhen Troy CHEN1, Ming CHEUNG2

1Xi'an Jiaoting - Liverpool University, China, People's Republic of; 2Griffith University, Australia

This article contributes to the methodology literature of experience design by analysing banner ads on Tmall with a synthesis of social semiotics, multimodal analysis, and interactivity which guides our analysis of consumer-oriented advertising in e-commerce. Departing from Tmall’s annual Double 11 Carnival, our analysis shows that the banner ads have been incorporated into a gamification design to encourage consumers to spend more and buy things they may not need even after the event has been completed. Our approach of analysing the ads on both the syntagmatic and paradigmatic dimensions is explicitly multimodal, taking the linguistic, visual and interactive resources (the tri-fold convergence) into consideration to study new phenomena in an e-selling environment. The approach of this study could be helpful to scholars and practitioners in the field of experience design, where multimodality and textual analysis of visual information is of great importance.

Track 4.j-Consumption experience on Tmall-238CHEN_a.pdf

11:10am - 11:35am

Experience design at Starbucks: from global brand management to local spatial experiences

Amani Ali Alaali1, Irini Pitsaki2

1Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, United Kingdom; 2Heriot Watt University, Edinbrugh, United Kingdom

This study explores the question: Within the context of global brands management and the need for integrating local identities, how does Starbucks achieve global consistency and meaningfully localised experiences? Through a review of literature and a series of interviews with store designers, design managers and brand concept experts at Starbucks, we compiled the most commonly applied branding and design methods, with an emphasis on the locally relevant spatial experiences the global brand delivers. Moreover, we set out to classify our findings in a way that can assist other brand and experience design teams in overcoming shard challenges. Our findings focus on the management of the grounding brand concept, as well as operations and real estate teams. Through presenting some tools, manuals, guidelines and sample checklists, we suggest that store design teams in different locations can build strong, locally relevant spatial experiences that tie in successfully with the brand’s global principles.

Track 4.j-Experience design at Starbucks-305Alaali_a.pdf

11:35am - 12:00pm

Empathic Design as a Framework for Creating Meaningful Experiences

Fabio Andres Tellez1, Juanita Gonzalez2

1Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Colombia; 2Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Colombia

This paper introduces empathic design as a framework and a strategy that can be adopted by the emerging field of experience design (XD) to create meaningful experiences connected with people’s lives and needs. The paper presents the rationale behind the emergence of empathic design, the traits that characterize this approach to design, a collection of empathic design methods and practices, and a critical discussion of the limitations of empathy in design. Methodologically, this paper is based on a systematic literature review on empathic design, human-centered design, and empathy, which is synthesized and focused its application in experience design. Ultimately, this paper intends to contribute to the broader discussion of how traditional design practices are adapting and evolving to respond to new realities, and how new design paradigms are needed to address the very complex challenges that we face in the 21st century.

Track 4.j-Empathic Design as a Framework for Creating Meaningful Experiences-408Tellez_a.pdf

12:00pm - 12:25pm

Experience Design Applied to Research: An Exploratory Method of User-Centered Research

Andrea Capra, Ana von Frankenberg Berger, Daniela Szabluk, Manuela Oliveira

Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul - PUCRS, Brazil

An accurate understanding of users' needs is essential for the development of innovative products. This article presents an exploratory method of user centered research in the context of the design process of technological products, conceived from the demands of a large information technology company. The method is oriented - but not restricted - to the initial stages of the product development process, and uses low-resolution prototypes and simulations of interactions, allowing users to imagine themselves in a future context through fictitious environments and scenarios in the ambit of ideation. The method is effective in identifying the requirements of the experience related to the product’s usage and allows rapid iteration on existing assumptions and greater exploration of design concepts that emerge throughout the investigation.

Track 4.j-Experience Design Applied to Research-351Capra_a.pdf
10:45am - 12:25pm6.a 1/2: Materiality in the Digital Age
Session Chair: Bo GAO
Session Chair: J. Fiona Peterson
10:45am - 11:10am

Learning to create images with computer code

Peter Haakonsen, Laila Belinda Fauske

OsloMet – Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway

Programming is becoming a part of the school curricula in Norway both in lower and upper secondary education – this includes subjects such as art, design and craft. What can programming contribute to the learning processes of these subjects? ‘Tinkering’ is a creative phase in a learning/working process, emphasising both creation and learning. In this project, visual images are created via computer programming to enhance the main author’s learning. The process is structured into stages. The important phases of the learning process are realised as a result of tinkering with existing codes. An important discovery for the learner, and one key aspect of programming images is that, as a mode, it opens up ways to create repetitions effectively, resulting in various patterns. This turned out to be motivating for the learner. This paper discusses tinkering as a learning process that is relevant to programming within art, design and craft education.

Track 6.a-Learning to create images with computer code-292Haakonsen_a.pdf

11:10am - 11:35am

Learning about Materiality through Tinkering with Micro:bits

Ingvild Digranes, Jon Øivind Hoem, Arnhild Liene Stenersen

Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway

This paper discusses two pilot projects in Art and design education at the teacher training at Western Norway University of Applied Sciences. In the second round of drafts for the new curriculum of Art and design digital knowledge is described as stretching from using simple digital resources to master and shape your own digital products. It is no longer limited to two dimensional visual modelling as previously drafted. This is in our view a new approach in a subject where making, tinkering and designing allows for explorations in both 2D and 3D. Given that we want to encourage the use of the digital together with the use of physical materials, the pilot case studies demonstrate the importance of bringing coding and the material aspects of tinkering, making, and creating into play. The BBC Micro:bit was used to make coding and mechanical control part of projects made with traditional material. Further research and development should be undertaken to bring such practices into classrooms in primary and lower secondary schools.

Keywords: Art and design education, materiality, programming, Micro:bits, citizenship

Track 6.a-Learning about Materiality through Tinkering with Micro-306Digranes_a.pdf

11:35am - 12:00pm

Designing an intuitive interface to enhance trigonometry learning

Francisco Zamorano, Catalina Cortés, Mauricio Herrera, María Elena Errázuriz

Universidad del Desarrollo, Chile

In the last three decades, the application of TUIs (tangible user interfaces) in education has demonstrated its positive influence on performance and learning of students. At Universidad del Desarrollo in Chile, monitoring of diagnostic tests over time evidences difficulties and challenges in the teaching-learning of trigonometry in first-year Engineering education. This study consisted in designing and validating a tangible interface to learn trigonometry in the classroom setting. The methodology used was a quasi-experiment with first-year students from the Schools of Design and Engineering at Universidad del Desarrollo in Chile. Principles of the theory of Embodied Cognition and Blended Interaction were applied to model an intuitive, collaborative and meaningful learning experience. During the design process, three Intermediate Models were tested with several types of users, and two Prototypes were tested with an experimental group. User-testing highly contributed to the design of the interaction experience and the interface, progressively defining the functional and pedagogical aspects. Comparative analysis of Pre and Post-Test results, demonstrate that students’ performance increased by 37.1% after two sessions using the interface.

Track 6.a-Designing an intuitive interface to enhance trigonometry learning-216Zamorano_a.pdf

12:00pm - 12:25pm

Engaging in Materiality: Issues in Art and Design Education

Delane Ingalls Vanada

University of Florida, United States of America

In the training of art and design educators, we must not overlook modes of engagement that can build capacities for connecting theory to practice through creative research and connections to the physical materiality of art. Whether online or on-the-ground learning, artist-teachers must not disconnect from the power of engagement with and the materiality of art. This paper places a focus on ways that teacher training programs can anticipate and activate attitudes of new materialism, providing a much-needed anchor in the digital age against disembodiment. With a contemplative view of art practice as research, projects in an art and design education program elevate opportunities for exchanging understanding, promoting dialogue, and approaching learning and research as relationship. Intentionality in the ways that the practice of teaching itself is also materiality, as a living practice, along with the training teachers as designers and facilitators of cultures of making, thinking, and learning are discussed.

Track 6.a-Engaging in Materiality-406Ingalls Vanada_a.pdf
10:45am - 12:25pmCases 1/5: Case Studies from the Frontlines of Design Innovation Management
Session Chair: Jochen Schweitzer
Session Chair: Charlotta Windahl
10:45am - 11:00am

Community Based Naloxone Kits: Using design methods to transform complex user needs into innovative community partner project

Gillian Harvey1, Stephanie VandenBerg2

1University of Alberta, Canada; 2University of Calgary, Canada

The opioid crisis in Alberta is a public health crisis. In 2016, more people died from an opioid poisoning than from motor vehicle crashes. Naloxone is an opioid antagonist which means that it can reverse an opioid overdose for a period of 30–60 minutes, at which point, the overdose may return. In December 2015, the Take Home Naloxone (THN) Program was rolled out in response to the opioid crisis. Under the renamed the Community Based Naloxone Program (CBNP), naloxone kits are now available free of cost at many pharmacies and community clinics around Alberta. The wide availability has led to a new challenge—that the kits may be used by people who have received little to no training.

Some may encounter the kit instructions for the first time when there is an emergency in which they need to administer an injection urgently to someone who has passed out.

Studies have found that most overdoses occur in the presence of another person—this provides an opportunity for someone to intervene. People often die from witnessed opioid poisonings because other people do not know what to do to help. A pilot study conducted through community partnerships involved 30 participants in two different urban centres (Edmonton and Calgary) who self identified as either experienced substance users or friends/family of people with lived experience has revealed some interesting findings.

Qualitative observations and data collected in the initial pilot work show that end users are experiencing unique challenges in accessing opioid education and have challenges using instructions on how to administer naloxone in an overdose setting. User testing and observation of user behavior has great potential to support educational material for opioid awareness.Human-centred design approaches that gather information with and about people using antidote kits are urgently needed in order to mitigate risk and ensure successful administration of first aid and naloxone in an emergency.

Case Studies-Community Based Naloxone Kits-161Harvey_a.pdf

11:00am - 11:15am

Design + Social Impact: a Workshop in Cairo

Mark James Randall, John Bruce

The New School: Parsons School of Design, United States of America

In October 2018, the US Embassy in Cairo, Egypt invited Parsons professors John Bruce and Mark Randall to give an intensive, five-day workshop on critical areas for those interested in taking a design-strategy approach for entrepreneurial or intrapreneurial ventures addressing complex social challenges. This type of cultural exchange, one potentially charged with political issues, was a milestone for the Embassy. From over 200 applications, 25 professionals from diverse backgrounds – NGOs, education, film, design, architecture and performance – were selected to attend. A pre-workshop exercise focused intentions; themes included empowerment, cities, health and culture. All were action-oriented and addressed particular challenges within Egyptian society. The curriculum included innovative design-led research theories and practicable methods. Immediate outcomes revealed positive shifts in perspectives on systems, stakeholder activation, and narrative development for advocacy and implementation. The energy and emotion was palpable over the course of the week, culminating in an event for the public, press and top government officials.

Case Studies-Design Social Impact-121Randall_a.pdf

11:15am - 11:30am

Thinking-through-making; physical model-making as a business model education strategy

Aaron Fry

The New School - Parsons, United States of America

Design thinking currently enjoys public recognition and is increasingly utilized

in business consulting and strategic decision-making. It has given rise to university programs while opening up varied careers for design strategists. As design enters mainstream management consulting practice, a critical question being asked of educators, designers and businesses is what kind of design is privileged within design thinking-

as-business strategy. Moreover, has this version of design thinking delivered additional creativity to business environments centered on process efficiency? Nussbaum

(2011) argues that business has embraced a brand of design thinking that is recognizably process-oriented, and this has limited its capacity to deliver on its mission of

enhancing business creativity.

This study examines a project delivered in the first semester of Parsons’ Master of Science in Strategic Design and Management program, it is called Understanding-through-making: building new dimensions in the new economy. This practical studio-based project requires students to physically build a model that exemplifies their understanding of the dynamics defining and driving business in the 21st Century.

This project attempts to counter a scientific, process-oriented design thinking with

a more beaux arts, craft-oriented, thinking-through-making approach. Currently

student outcomes are varied; some exist as pedagogic devices while others are recognizable as tools (e.g., navigators and compasses).

The study analyzes these current outcomes, highlights the shortcomings of both the current project and its outcomes and proposes possibilities for future iterations that promise to explore other paradigms in the application of design thinking to business.

Case Studies-Thinking-through-making physical model-making as a business model education strategy-160Fry_a.pdf

11:30am - 11:45am

Managing Vulnerability and Uncertainty: Developing design competencies within an American healthcare non-profit.

Rhea Alexander1, Sarah Jones2, Vinay Kumar Mysore1

1Parsons School of Design, United States of America; 2PMDAlliance, United States of America

This case study explores building design competencies and a design-driven organizational culture within an American healthcare non-profit. With a staff are primarily from the healthcare space, as well as some in banking and sales, we look at how the staff has adapted to working within a design-driven organization. By applying iterative design methods and embracing innovation and uncertainty we observe how the organization’s founder has helped guide team members through a process of discomfort and vulnerability within an experimentally-driven and human-centered organization.

Using interviews with employees and the founder at various points in new employee on-boarding processes we chart a transformational arc over six months.

The learnings to share include both the universal and the particular: what are the core competencies to develop in all organizational members, and what are the specific and different ways competencies can take form. From building explicitly shared languages to facilitated sensemaking this case study offers an opportunity to share new and developing practices for embedding design-driven innovation and management practices in new fields and contexts.

Case Studies-Managing Vulnerability and Uncertainty-139Alexander_a.pdf

11:45am - 12:00pm

Transitioning Business for a Circular Economy

Susan Evans

Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong

This case study explores the strategic business opportunities, for Lane Crawford, an iconic luxury department store, to transition in a circular economy towards sustainability.

A new experimentation framework was developed and conducted among cross departmental employees, during a Design Lab, with intention to co-create novel business concepts towards a new vision: the later was a reframe of the old system based on the principles of sustainability; to move beyond a linear operational model towards a circular economy that can contribute to a regenerative society. This work draws on both academic and professional experience and was conducted through professional practice. It was found that innovative co-created concepts, output from the Design Lab, can create radical change in a circular economy that is holistically beneficial and financially viable; looking forward to extract greater value a)Internal organization requires remodeling to transform towards a circular economy; b)Requirement for more horizonal teams across departments vs solely vertical; c)New language and relationships are required to be able to transition towards a circular economy; d)Some form of physical and virtual space requirements, for cross-disciplinary teams to come together to co-create; e)Ability to iterate, learn and evolve requires agency across the business

Case Studies-Transitioning Business for a Circular Economy-137Evans_a.pdf

12:00pm - 12:15pm

Empowering seniors' mobility to maintain a healthy lifestyle: a case study

Chiara Treglia1, Yuan Lu2

1Royal College of Art/Imperial College of London, United Kingdom; 2Eindhoven University of Technology

Ageing population is one of the most pressing societal issues that current and future generations will need to face. As part her graduation research, a student from Industrial Design at University of Technology Eindhoven looked at the Dutch context and researched how empowering independent mobility could intrinsically motivate seniors to maintain a healthy lifestyle.

The research culminated in a concept, YouGoIGo, which is the subject of this case study. YouGoIGo is a participatory mobility service that aims to suit the needs of every traveller, regardless of their age, physical abilities or access to technology. The service lets anyone become a “travel buddy”, by matching seniors and regular travellers according to their planned routes and providing rewards.

In this case study, we will firstly illustrate the steps of the participatory design process used to develop YouGoIGo; secondly, we will discuss which probes have been designed to collect quantitative/qualitative data (from different stakeholders and users) and how they have been deployed.

As an example of innovation by intersecting engineering, social sciences and design, this case study aims to contribute towards a body of research that looks at holistic prevention and intervention systems, to engage the elderlies in healthy lifestyles.

Case Studies-Empowering seniors mobility to maintain a healthy lifestyle-181Treglia_a.pdf
12:40pm - 2:00pmDay 1: Lunch
Foyer: Loughborough University London 
2:00pm - 3:40pm4.b 2/3: Designerly ways of Innovating
Session Chair: Gerda Gemser
Session Chair: Nico Florian Klenner
2:00pm - 2:25pm

Enhancing collaboration: A design leader’s role in managing paradoxical identity tensions through Dual Identification

Emma J Coy, Johanna E Prasch

RMIT, Australia

As the role of design grows in prominence in the workplace, managing designers such that they can effectively collaborate in multifunctional innovation teams becomes an important consideration. We draw on social identity and paradox research to extend insights on this topic. We suggest that, to operate effectively in the workplace, designers need to experience both similarity-with and distinctiveness-from other colleagues, and that these needs are paradoxical. We argue that tensions arising from these paradoxical needs can be managed through Dual Identification – a model which promotes dual identities, allowing the fulfillment of both needs of sameness and difference. We propose that design leaders can enable Dual Identification in designers through consistent language and associated visuals, and that this will allow designers to feel secure in their identity as both a designer, and as an innovation team member. We suggest that, ultimately, this security will translate to enhanced collaboration of designers in innovation teams.

Track 4.b-Enhancing collaboration-215Coy_a.pdf

2:25pm - 2:50pm

Design artefacts as flexible and persuasive tools for customer-centric innovation

Jacqueline Wechsler1, Jochen Schweitzer2

1Sticky Design Studio, Australia; 2University of Technology, Sydney Australia

More organisations are adopting customer-centric innovation practices to increase business value; however, very little is known about the factors driving customer-centric innovation or the conditions under which innovation succeeds. Similarly, very little is known about the role of design artefacts as inputs in customer-centric innovation processes or as instruments that support the organisational change required for successful change. A practice-led case study was conducted to examine the role of design artefacts and to demonstrate how they are flexible and persuasive tools that mediate the social and intertwined demands of customer-centric innovation strategies. Five distinct roles of design artefacts are proposed and their value in contributing to innovation and organisational change are considered.

Track 4.b-Design artefacts as flexible and persuasive tools-208Wechsler_a.pdf

2:50pm - 3:15pm

Exploring the design space of innovation canvases

Katja Thoring1,2, Roland M. Mueller3, Petra Badke-Schaub1

1Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands; 2Anhalt University of Applied Sciences, Germany; 3Berlin School of Economics and Law, Germany

Designerly innovation tools, such as canvases, are widely used for facilitating team and collaboration processes. This paper outlines the potential design space of such innovation canvases. Based on a systematic analysis of 123 existing canvases we developed a morphological box that distinguishes between six different parameters identified as relevant: (1) addressed process step, (2) involved media, (3) sequence of use, (4) available instructions, (5) number of elements, and (6) design specifics, as well as possible choices among them. The analysis also yielded several research gaps. Furthermore, we present an in-depth discussion of the possible theoretical underpinnings of innovation canvases and summarize them in a theoretical framework. The results of this paper provide references for other researchers and practitioners to better understand working mechanisms and fields of application of existing canvases and for developing such visual innovation tools for their own purposes.

Track 4.b-Exploring the design space of innovation canvases-243Thoring_a.pdf

3:15pm - 3:40pm

Storytelling and Low-Resolution Prototypes for Innovative Simulated Experiences in User-Centered Research

Daniela Szabluk, Ana von Frankenberg Berger, Andrea Capra, Manuela Ferreira de Oliveira

Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

This article discusses the use of low-resolution prototypes and storytelling as tools for planning and building simulated interactive experiences as a part of an exploratory method of user-centered research. We contextualize the concept of low-resolution prototyping and storytelling, present its insertion in the method and discuss its relevance to design user-centered experiences. The results suggest that using low-resolution prototypes and storytelling to create immersive experiences to validate products/services enable a deep understanding about users, which is an important perspective to design driven-innovation, considering that people do not buy products and services, but meanings. The combination of both tools gives the researchers a qualified amount of data that covers what the user consciously speaks, automatically does and unconsciously expresses. Using the proposed method companies will be able to identify the value perceived by customers, in order to create a better experience.

Track 4.b-Storytelling and Low-Resolution Prototypes for Innovative Simulated Experiences-310Szabluk_a.pdf
2:00pm - 3:40pm4.f 1/1: Strategic Design of Sustainable Business Models
Session Chair: Giulia Calabretta
Session Chair: Duygu Keskin
2:00pm - 2:25pm

The evolution of the Strategic role of Designers for Sustainable Development

Brian Baldassarre1, Giulia Calabretta1, Nancy Bocken2, Jan Carel Diehl1, Duygu Keskin3

1Delft University of Technology; 2Lund University; 3Eindhoven University of Technology

Design for Sustainable Development refers to the application of a design process to solve a problem related to sustainability, such as creating a pair of shoes that can be recycled or managing waste collection in a large city. Since the origins of this concept in the 1960s, Design for Sustainable Development has been evolving, gradually broadening its scope over time from the design of products to the design of services, business models and wider ecosystems. In this evolution, designers have come closer and closer to business problems, thus becoming more strategic. In this paper, we explore this evolution from a business perspective. We visualize it into a framework and interview eight academic experts about the Strategic role of Designers for Sustainable Development. We find that the evolution can be framed around five topics: the strategic goal of designers, and their related perspective, language, key activities and main challenge. After discussing how the evolution took place around each topic, we draw implications for designers and managers who are willing to play an active role in the transition towards sustainable development.

Track 4.f Strategic-The evolution of the Strategic role of Designers for Sustainable Development-228Baldassarr_a.pdf

2:25pm - 2:50pm

Service Blueprint For Sustainability Business Model Evaluation

Sau Ching Cheryl Cheung, Ksenija Kuzmina

Loughborough University London, United Kingdom

The adverse societal impacts caused by sharing mobility - a form of service-based sustainable business model innovations, showed that operation activities and managerial practices impact heavily on the sustainable value of a service offering. To identify how new service development (NSD) activities can better support the proposed service offering for sustainability, evaluating sustainability of service operations is needed. This study draws learnings from service design, product-service system and sustainable innovation research streams, to build sustainability evaluation framework into service blueprint. Six expert-interviews and two mobility case studies were developed, to illustrate service blueprint's capability in mapping sustainability input and benefits created during NSD and service operation activities. Results revealed a) the shift from using sustainable ‘value’ to ‘benefits’ concept in service operation evaluation, b) the public-private collaboration dilemma and c) the agile NSD and sustainable innovation incompatibility. This paper aims to offer a springboard for practitioners and researchers to uncover compelling insights, discuss latest service design developments, and envision future directions for integrating sustainability into service-based business model innovation.

Track 4.f Strategic-Service Blueprint For Sustainability Business Model Evaluation-229Cheung_a.pdf

2:50pm - 3:15pm

Minding the gap: The road to circular business models

Marco Antonio Paula Pinheiro, Daniel Jugend

Sao Paulo State University, Brazil

Despite strategic design (SD) and product portfolio management (PPM) play a pivotal role in driving companies toward a more sustainable economy, it is still not clear how SD and PPM can contribute to the advances of circular business models (CBM). In this context, the aim of this research was to analyse the main literature about SD, PPM and CBM proposing an integrative framework, as well as to reduce the gap on drivers and barriers in the development of CBM through a case study in a biodiversity company. As conclusions of this work, SD helps companies to define the strategic vision for innovation, integrating sustainable stakeholder objectives, meanwhile, PPM activities support the decision-making process, being responsible for the alignment of projects with firms’ strategy when generating circular business. In addition, regulatory requirements and cost of production have shown the main drivers, whereas technological restriction is the main barrier to overcome.

Track 4.f Strategic-Minding the gap-278Pinheiro_a.pdf

3:15pm - 3:40pm

Circular Archetypes – a feasibility study exploring how Makerspaces might support circular innovation, within the Scottish textile sector.

Jen Ballie

V&A Dundee, University of Dundee, United Kingdom

We live in a ‘throwaway and replace’ culture. Our growing population and demand for new products has placed huge pressures on our planet’s resources. The research argues design can play a strategic role in supporting the adoption of new mindsets, methods and models to enhance awareness and understanding of the need to design for a circular economy. This paper provides a practical example. Drawing upon a feasibility study into Makerspaces, it will explore how they might be developed in the future to support circular innovation, within the context of textiles, to address complex issues around material waste. The insights drawn from this research act as a starting point for future work, reflecting on the implications of the methods applied, concluding the circular economy is the same imperative whether people are focusing on ecology, economy or just their own business. Furthermore, it will suggest that design-led approaches play a role in embedding collaborative ways of working to integrate sustainability into the business modelling process.

Track 4.f Strategic-Circular Archetypes – a feasibility study exploring how Makerspaces might support c_a.pdf
2:00pm - 3:40pm6.a 2/2 & 3.b 1/2: Materiality in the Digital Age & Measuring and communicating the value of design
Session Chair: Bo GAO
Session Chair: Jo'Anne Langham
2:00pm - 2:25pm

Experiencing (from) the inside – Mediated perspectives in kindergartens

Ingvard Bråten, Jon Hoem

Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway

This paper presents a case study of preservice kindergarten teachers’ use of new form of digital imagery. The paper introduces spherical cameras and digital microscopes and discusses their affordances when introduced in practical use in in teacher education and in kindergartens. The use in kindergartens was introduced through a class of 34 teacher students in kindergarten education. The students were specializing in Arts and design at Western Norway University of Applied Sciences. The use of images from spherical cameras and digital microscopes is discussed and analysed, based on data from student responses through two questionnaires, group presentations and discussions in class, and an analysis of various media material produced by students.

Track 6.a-Experiencing (from) the inside – Mediated perspectives-254Bråten_a.pdf

2:25pm - 2:50pm

Aarup 1960 and the poetics of materials

Liv Mildrid Gjernes

Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway

All design has its own conditional modes of expression; however, these are realised through the maker’s sense of the possibilities of materiality. This essay was inspired by a reclaimed piece of 1960s furniture designed in the modernist idiom, and is based upon autobiographical experiences, original works from own and contemporary aesthetic practices, and associated thoughts in the present. A completely new artistic expression was developed, which questioned the strict, use-defined style ideals and let shape reveal other values and statements than function.

The intention of this essay is to put into words some of the cognitive processes in which creativity, critical reflection and the senses’ experience-based insights may bring up something new. In creative work, the goal is not to reach a single result; every little discovery made by examining something specific could open up new worlds.

Track 6.a-Aarup 1960 and the poetics of materials-267Gjernes_a.pdf

2:50pm - 3:15pm
Research in Progress

Design as a Catalyst for Change – Towards Strategically Embedded Design in SMEs

Dorota Biniecka1, Erik Bohemia2

1Mitchell & Cooper, UK; 2Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway

Effective application of design brings benefits across corporate, business and operational levels within an organisation, from contributing to development of competitive advantage to opportunity identification and innovation project execution. Nevertheless, transition to strategic design requires transformation of culture, structures and processes in a manner tailored to organisation’s unique competitive realities. As such, this paper reviews interview-based findings of the latter of a two-part Design and Innovation Capability Audit of a family-owned SME, to provide insight into the state of the design use in this context. Design Management Europe Staircase is used as an evaluative framework. The interviews illustrate diverse perspectives of design across organisational hierarchy and demonstrate struggles many SMEs experience in evolving design’s application. Additionally, audit’s immediate to-date benefits are discussed. Finally, the paper concludes discussing the contribution qualitative interviews can offer in measuring Design Capability, thus contributing to expansion of the DME Staircase as an audit tool.

Research in Progress-Design as a Catalyst for Change – Towards Strategically Embedded Design-383Biniecka.pdf

3:15pm - 3:40pm

Mapping strategies for distributed, social and collaborative design systems of makers, designers and social entrepreneurs

Massimo Menichinelli1,2, Alessandra Gerson Saltiel Schmidt2,3, Priscilla Ferronato4,2

1RMIT University; 2IAAC | Fab City Research Lab; 3AGS Invest; 4University of Illinois Urbana Champaign - Illinois Informatics Institute

The practice of designers has recently evolved from a relatively closed ecosystem of professional actors to an ecosystem with less clear boundaries and roles. Makers can be considered (and often are) designers or a new kind of designers working with open, peer-to-peer, distributed and DIY approaches. And both makers and designers increasingly work with social innovation initiatives, becoming thus social entrepreneurs or collaborating with them. Where are makers, designers and social entrepreneurs, how many are there, how do we reach them and network them? This article presents a first exploration of literature, cases and datasets that represent direct or indirect approaches for mapping where they can be found. These formal or informal approaches are clustered in three groups: work, place and community. Each dimension generates a different perspective with different approaches and datasets, which influences our view and definition of makers, designers and social entrepreneurs.

Track 3.b-Mapping strategies for distributed, social and collaborative design systems-378Menichinelli_a.pdf
2:00pm - 3:40pm6.c 1/1: Entrepreneurship in Design Education
Session Chair: Bryan F. Howell
Session Chair: Curtis Anderson
2:00pm - 2:25pm

Design Thinking & Entrepreneurial Opportunities: Visual Case Studies of Chilean Designer/Non-Designer Founders

Camilo Sergio Potocnjak-Oxman

Australian National University, Australia

An interesting development in the entrepreneurial economy is the rise in both number and diversity of roles played by designers in the global entrepreneurship ecosystem. Be it as consultants, contractors, educators, founders or funding decision-makers, design skills seem to be increasingly attractive to entrepreneurial teams, accelerator programs and venture capital. This study asks whether the practices, cognitive processes and mindsets prevalent in a formal design education help in the formation of entrepreneurial opportunities. Using a visual case study approach, it compares the processes through which entrepreneurial opportunities were formed by 14 Chilean founders from design and non-design backgrounds, with the purpose of identifying how design thinking contributes to, or hinders, those processes. Preliminary findings suggest that successful entrepreneurs from design backgrounds extend the human-centred view to include organisations, industries and societies, use continuous observation and learning-by-doing to develop their ventures, rely on interdisciplinary collaboration and are tolerant of failure. Design thinking does not, however, seem to provide a clear understanding of the importance of value creation and resource leveraging in the formation of entrepreneurial opportunities.

Track 6.c-Design Thinking & Entrepreneurial Opportunities-404Potocnjak-Oxman_a.pdf

2:25pm - 2:50pm

Contamination Lab of Turin (CLabTo): how to teach entrepreneurship education to all kinds of university students

Eleonora Fiore, Giuliano Sansone, Chiara Lorenza Remondino, Paolo Marco Tamborrini

Politecnico di Torino, Italy

Interest in offering Entrepreneurship Education (EE) to all kinds of university students is increasing. Therefore, universities are increasing the number of entrepreneurship courses intended for students from different fields of study and with different education levels. Through a single case study of the Contamination Lab of Turin (CLabTo), we suggest how EE may be taught to all kinds of university students. We have combined design methods with EE to create a practical-oriented entrepreneurship course which allows students to work in transdisciplinary teams through a learning-by-doing approach on real-life projects. Professors from different departments have been included to create a multidisciplinary environment. We have drawn on programme assessment data, including pre- and post-surveys. Overall, we have found a positive effect of the programme on the students’ entrepreneurial skills. However, when the data was broken down according to the students’ fields of study and education levels, mixed results emerged.

Track 6.c-Contamination Lab of Turin-359Fiore_a.pdf

2:50pm - 3:15pm

Entrepreneurial Mindset: a longitudinal study of three different teaching approaches to developing it

Nusa Fain1, Michel Rod2, Erik Bohemia3

1Queen's University, Canada; 2Carleton University, Canada; 3Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway

This paper explores the influence of teaching approaches on entrepreneurial mindset of commerce, design and engineering students across 3 universities. The research presented in this paper is an initial study within a larger project looking into building ‘entrepreneurial mindsets’ of students, and how this might be influenced by their disciplinary studies. The longitudinal survey will measure the entrepreneurial mindset of students at the start of a course and at the end. Three different approaches to teaching the courses were employed – lecture and case based, blended online and class based and fully project-based course. The entrepreneurial mindset growth was surprisingly strongest within the engineering cohort, but was closely followed by the commerce students, whereas the design students were slightly more conservative in their assessments. Future study will focus on establishing what other influencing factors beyond the teaching approaches may relate to the observed change.

Track 6.c-Entrepreneurial Mindset-312Fain_a.pdf
2:00pm - 3:40pmCases 2/5: Case Studies from the Frontlines of Design Innovation Management
Session Chair: Charlotta Windahl
Session Chair: Mark James Randall
2:00pm - 2:15pm

Integrating Business and Design through Experiential Learning

Charlotta Windahl

University of Auckland, New Zealand

This case study highlights how design merged with business studies addresses some of the key issues facing management teaching and learning. It outlines a pedagogical design framework, capturing both content and process through balancing analytical and creative thinking. The students interpret and use theory throughout various stages of a design challenge; through presentations and written submissions, students turn knowledge into reflection and action. The case study highlights how the developed framework engages the students in continuous learning cycles that are supported by an iterative assessment structure and catalysed by curiosity, creativity and courage.

Case Studies-Integrating Business and Design through Experiential Learning-120Windahl_a.pdf

2:15pm - 2:30pm

Breaking Boundaries: A Unique Inter-University Program Addressing the 21st Century Skills Gap

Rhea Cristina Alexander1, Matthew Stewart2, R. Shane Snipes3

1The New School University, United States of America; 2The Do School, Berlin; 3BMCC CUNY (Borough of Manhattan Community College @ The City University of New York)

According to the World Economic Forum 2020, some of the most critical skills needed to thrive in the future economy will be the ability to collaborate in multidisciplinary teams, build diverse networks, and be human-centered problem solvers. However, many university students have limited exposure to interdisciplinary problem solving, and tend to develop connections within their bubbles (socioeconomic level, college, the field of study).

In this study, we’ll review Innovate NYC (iNYC), an extracurricular program offered by the DO School, addressing these skills gaps. In three cohorts between 2016-18, 50 students from 12 New York City colleges, collaborated in multidisciplinary teams to solve real-world problems using innovation methods like HCD (Human Centred Design) and lean business strategies. The challenges were provided by partners like NYCEDC (NYC Economic Development Corporation) and other locally focused non-profits. However, was it successful? In this study we aim to 1. assess the strength and diversity of social connections between former iNYC participants, 2. identify any effect the program may have had on their career pathways, and 3. their continued use of innovation methods. To do this, we will dive into the structure and delivery of the program, review qualitative exit surveys and longitudinal survey results.

Case Studies-Breaking Boundaries-117Alexander_a.pdf

2:30pm - 2:45pm

Towards an interdisciplinary knowledge exchange model. Uniandes design school help to transform Avianca into a design driven company in the flight industry.

Diego Mazo Rosete, Santiago De francisco

Universidad de los Andes, Colombia

Universities and corporates, in Europe and the United States, have come to a win-win

relationship to accomplish goals that serve research and industry. However, this is not a

common situation in Latin America. Knowledge exchange and the co-creation of new

projects by applying academic research to solve company problems does not happen


To bridge this gap, the Design School of Universidad de los Andes, together with Avianca,

are exploring new formats to understand the knowledge transfer impact in an open

innovation network aiming to create fluid channels between different stakeholders. The

primary goal was to help Avianca to strengthen their innovation department by apply

design methodologies. First, allowing design students to proposed novel solutions for the

traveller experience. Then, engaging Avianca employees to learn the design process.

These explorations gave the opportunity to the university to apply design research and

academic findings in a professional and commercial environment.

After one year of collaboration and ten prototypes tested at the airport, we can say that

Avianca’s innovation mindset has evolved by implementing a user-centric perspective in

the customer experience touch points, building prototypes and quickly iterate.

Furthermore, this partnership helped Avianca’s employees to experience a design

environment in which they were actively interacting in the innovation process.

Case Studies-Towards an interdisciplinary knowledge exchange model Uniandes design school help-116Mazo Rosete_a.pdf

2:45pm - 3:00pm

“We need an internet connection” - A systemic process for the exploration of a transformative physical - digital environment as a blended space

Andrea Resmini, Bertil Lindenfalk

Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Sweden

The case details the application of a systemic, actor-centered design approach to a strategic process of digital transformation in support of industry/research collaboration in one of the administrative regions of southern Sweden.

Project mainstays include regional development of “digital leadership”, the creation of a digital/physical competence center, and a larger plan to connect these mainstays to an already established, extremely successful computing- and entertainment-centered yearly event in the main city in the region.

Structured around the initial problem space identification and formalization aspects, the case discusses the process followed and the results obtained in the divergent stages of the project from the early engagement of different actor groups in workshop activities to investigate the physical competence center, what it should be and why, what activities it should facilitate and for whom.

Take-aways include an analysis of how transformative approaches in the setup phase do not provide solid foundations for the systemic design and implementation of blended space solutions; a preliminary process for the design of complex digital/physical ecosystems and the experiences they enable; a redefinition of actor-centered processes as the originator of the experience ecosystem being investigated; the role and relative weight of digital in that context.

Case Studies-“We need an internet connection”-133Resmini_a.pdf

3:00pm - 3:15pm

A design contribution to the entrepreneurial experience

Juan David Roldan Acevedo, Ida Telalbasic

Loughborough University London, United Kingdom

In recent history, different design approaches have been entering fields like management and strategy to improve product development and service delivery. Specifically, entrepreneurship has adopted a user-centric mindset in methodologies like the business canvas model and the value proposition canvas which increases the awareness of the users’ needs when developing solutions. What happens when a service design approach is used to understand the entrepreneurs’ experience through the creation of their startups? Recent literature suggests that entrepreneurial activity and success is conditioned by their local entrepreneurship ecosystem. This study investigates the Entrepreneurship Ecosystem of Medellín, Colombia - an ecosystem in constant growth but that lacks qualitative analysis. The sample consists of 12 entrepreneurs in early-stage phase. The data was gathered with two design research methods: Cultural Probes and Semi-structured interviews. The analysis of the information collected facilitated the development of 4 insights about the entrepreneurs and an experience map to visualise and interpret their journey to create a startup. The results of this study reflected the implications of the ecosystem, the explanation of the users’ perceptions and awareness and propose a set of ideas to the local government to improve the experience of undertaking a startup in Medellín.

Case Studies-A design contribution to the entrepreneurial experience-115Roldan Acevedo_a.pdf

3:15pm - 3:30pm

Business as Unusual: Creative industries, international trade and Brexit

Nick Dunn, Roger Whitham, CM Patha

Lancaster University, United Kingdom

UK government statistics maintain that only 18 per cent of creative industries firms engage in international trade. The UK’s Industrial Strategy: Creative Industries Sector Deal aims to increase UK creative industry exports by 50% within 5 years, arguing there is a “great deal of untapped potential in the sector.” It also identifies small company size as a barrier to creative industry exports. Our research, however, challenges these assumptions. At least one creative industries hub is already deeply entwined in global trade. In Liverpool’s creative and digital hub Baltic Creative, 69 per cent of tenants export. Furthermore, these exporters are highly dependent on their overseas income. Over one-third of exporters earn more than 50 per cent of their annual income from exports. Our research also finds that small company size was not a deterrent to international trade. Rather company owners report concerns about access to global markets after Brexit, which had already resulted in significant financial losses for some. Our study reveals that even the smallest micro-enterprises are exporting not by way of strained or concerted efforts, but simply because they are operating in an open, digital, global environment where international trade is integral to their business.

Case Studies-Business as Unusual-183Dunn_a.pdf
4:00pm - 5:40pm4.b 3/3: Designerly ways of Innovating
Session Chair: Gerda Gemser
Session Chair: Nico Florian Klenner
4:00pm - 4:25pm

Service Design Creating Value for Industrial Corporates through AI Proofs of Concept

Titta Jylkäs1,2, Essi Kuure1, Satu Miettinen1

1University of Lapland, Finland; 2Volkswagen Financial Services AG, Germany

The field of service design has set practices that are useful during servitization transformations intended to help businesses respond to customers’ rising expectations regarding the value of the service experience itself. As businesses increasingly pursue service development alongside product development, they need new ways of working and of evaluating solutions. Simultaneously, technological advances open avenues to new services and ways of interacting with customers. This paper draws on two workshop case studies of artificial intelligence (AI) assistant projects to examine service design in the industrial context. Through these case studies, the paper illustrates how proof of concept (PoC) is used at different project stages and explores how service design can support creation of PoCs in large industrial corporate contexts. The findings reveal the aspects of PoC as embodied experiencing of intangible AI concepts, the creation of PoCs through conversations, and the role of PoCs in industrial service design process.

Track 4.b-Service Design Creating Value for Industrial Corporates through AI Proofs-322Jylkäs_a.pdf

4:25pm - 4:50pm

Disruptive Innovation Ecosystems: Reconceptualising Innovation Ecosystems

Badziili Nthubu, Daniel Richards, Leon Cruickshank

Lancaster University, United Kingdom

Ecosystems are valuable in creating diverse and collaborative environments that enable businesses to innovate in ways that are much more difficult without them. However, business managers can be reluctant to participate in building ecosystems mainly due to lack of understanding. Specifically, businesses can be uncomfortable sharing resources, data, intellectual property and secrets with other ecosystem actors. Drawing on inter-disciplinary perspectives from literature, we use a ‘design focused ecosystem thinking' to propose a new type of Disruptive Innovation Ecosystem (DIE). Firstly, we discuss the significance of adopting innovation ecosystems to create shared value. Secondly, we conceptualize a new type of DIE and propose steps on how DIEs can be created and fostered. Finally, we discuss DIE roles in relation to Amazon, Apple, Uber, and Siemens ecosystem cases. This paper offers a new type of DIE design process which may be leveraged by businesses towards building sustainable innovation ecosystems.

Track 4.b-Disruptive Innovation Ecosystems-318Nthubu_a.pdf

4:50pm - 5:15pm

Unlocking the Potential of the Salesperson in the Virtual Fitting Room: Enhancing the Online Retail Experience for Fashion Brands

Eirini Bazaki1, Vanissa Wanick2

1University of Southampton, United Kingdom; 2University of Southampton, United Kingdom

In the last decade, online shopping has become increasingly popular, as evidenced in the global growth of e-commerce and m-commerce. Alongside these developments, it is important to ensure customer satisfaction and requirements. The integration of smart technologies with service design and Applications introducing the virtual fitting room are on the increase and are contributing to the fierce competition between online retailers. However, there is little understanding about the most effective way to use this technology and how it can transform services touchpoints, particularly for fashion brands. Considering this, the current study compares and contrasts virtual fitting room models found in the literature with examples from popular websites. The main contribution of this paper is the introduction of the concept of the salesperson in the virtual fitting room. Recommendations as to how this can be explored in the future are provided.

Track 4.b-Unlocking the Potential of the Salesperson in the Virtual Fitting Room-387Bazaki_a.pdf

5:15pm - 5:40pm

Speeding-Up Innovation with Business Hackathons: Insights into Three Case Studies

Myrna Flores1,2, Matic Golob1, Doroteja Maklin1, Christopher Tucci1,2

1Lean Analytics Association, Switzerland; 2EPFL, Switzerland

In recent years, the way organizations innovate and develop new solutions has changed considerably. Moving from ‘behind the closed doors’ style of innovating to open innovation where collaboration with outsiders is encouraged, organizations are in the pursuit of more effective ways to accelerate their innovation outcomes. As a result, organizations are establishing creative and entrepreneurial ecosystems, which not only empower employees but also involve many others to co-create new solutions. In this paper, we present a methodology for organizing hackathons, i.e. competition-based events where small teams work over a short period of time to ideate, design, prototype and test their ideas following a user-centric approach to solve a specific challenge. This paper also provides insights into two different hackathons organized in the United Kingdom, and Mexico, as well as a series of 5 hackathons organized in Argentina, Mexico, Switzerland, United Kingdom and in Senegal.

Track 4.b-Speeding-Up Innovation with Business Hackathons-263Flores_a.pdf
4:00pm - 5:40pmw1.476: Workshop
LDN.0.17 & 0.18 
4:00pm - 5:40pm

Design for Climate Services: A Co-Design Approach

Melanie Woods1, Drew Hemment2, Raquel Ajates Gonzalez1, George Konsta3

1University of Dundee, United Kingdom; 2Edinburgh University, United Kingdom; 3FutureEverything, United Kingdom

Droughts, floods and other climate-related hazards present critical challenges for communities across the world. Design is well placed to respond to such wicked problems (Buchanan, 1992) however a user-led to the development of climate services is rare (Christel et al, 2017). Instead, scientists and governments rely on research and innovation between science and industry to develop climate services for early warning systems and decision-making. In citizens observatories (CO) we see new developments in social innovation where citizens and communities are gathering environmental data on issues that matter to them and innovating with it (Schartinger et al, 2017). Many of these projects are driven by design thinking and methods that support action orientated outcomes for communities to transform these matters of concern themselves (Woods et al, 2018). We propose large scale climate services can be developed in collaboration with citizens whose livelihoods and communities are affected by extreme events, such as forest fires, drought and flooding. The design community is uniquely placed to contribute to such developments, particularly where citizens are themselves at the forefront of change-making.

This workshop will introduce delegates to the concept of Citizens Observation, and nine communities across Europe, who are currently monitoring soil in real time across a range of geographic and climatic areas. The purpose of the workshop is threefold, to present the opportunity to test and reflect on assets and materials; to ideate services to enable other researchers and practitioners to better understand climate service innovation; to present data from real communities facing critical environmental challenges.

The workshop will have three main phases 01 presentation of the Citizen Observatories and workshop aims; 02 ideation and prototype service innovation with the toolkit; 03 sharing and feedback.

01 The workshop will commence with a quick fire introduction to citizen observatories. Followed by an introduction to soil as a dataset for climate change, with an outline of critical environmental issues e.g. drought, flooding, forest fires and heatwaves. The workshop objectives will be introduced. (10 mins)

02 Participants will divide into groups around tables and be presented with a range of design assets (see Figure 1) in the form of a post it’s, pens, playful prototyping materials and a deck of cards, including:

Persona Cards - representing the concerns, motivations and livelihoods of citizens, community champions, scientists, local government and stakeholder organisations.

Place Cards - a description of place, natural assets, resilience, geographic and climate information

Data Cards – climate and environmental data relevant to the people, place and scenario

Scenarios –emerging climate related critical issue

The group will work through a series of facilitated questions using an empathy timeline (see Figure 2), to iteratively ideate conceptual ‘innovations that are both good for society and enhance society’s capacity to act’ in response to their scenario. They will reflect on the development of a service from a primary user perspective, but will also consider other users, and available data. (50 mins)

03 Groups will share the resulting climate services to the room. A quick feedback session will using a wall based ‘dotocracy’ – red and green dots – will gather feedback on the design cards for personas, place, data and scenario for most and least useful assets. These suggestions will be taken up for revision. (25 mins)

Takeaways for the participants

Participants will

Be introduced to toolkits that leverage design thinking into citizen science.

Gain access to unpublished research data through the personas, place and community scenario cards.

Have the opportunity to collaborate and feedback on the revision and implementation of design assets for which they will receive accreditation.

Each receive a copy of the award winning publication ‘Citizen Sensing: A Toolkit’ (see figure 3).

Strategy to capture content and results

Facilitators will capture feedback on prepared assets through presentation, discussion and ‘rating’ of assets. They will document feedback and capture images prototype service outcomes from group work.

Results and final reflections for consideration

Designers will have the opportunity to apply to attend a citizen science community gathering in 2019. There are spaces for 3 design delegates at each event.

A validated toolkit will be prepared for community uptake and reported to the design community.

Space requirements

A room with tables to host up 4 - 5 people per table


Data Projector

1 wall for placing asset ‘dotocracy’ ranking and feedback

Maximum number of participants

20 people in 5 groups of 4 people


Buchanan, R. (1992). Wicked Problems in Design Thinking. Design Issues, 8(2), 5-21. doi:10.2307/1511637

Christel, I., Hemment, D., Bojovic, D., Cucchietti, F., Calvo, L., Stefaner, M., & Buontempo, C. (2017). Climate Services.

Schartinger, D., Wepner, B., Andersson, T., Abbas, Q., Asenova, D., Damianova, Z., ... & Schröder, A. (2017). Social Innovation in Environment and Climate Change: Summary Report.

Woods, M., Balestrini, M., Bejtullahu, S., Bocconi, S., Boerwinkel, G., Boonstra, M., ... Seiz, G. (2018). Citizen Sensing: A Toolkit. Making Sense.

Workshops-Design for Climate Services-476Woods_a.pdf
4:00pm - 5:40pmw2.464: Workshop
4:00pm - 5:40pm

A Semiotic Rosetta Stone Workshop: Enhancing visual communication through design semiotics.

Dave Wood

Northumbria University, United Kingdom

Workshop purpose and primary aims

In this 90-minute design semiotics workshop, ADIM delegates will learn how the quality of user-participation can be enhanced by improving the visual communication within designed outputs. The workshop’s aim is to provide a direct, hands–on experience, to explore how iconic, indexical and symbolic semiotic representation can improve design’s message, concept or affordance. It will complement the conference sub-track 5.e Seeking signification in transformational times: design semiotics and the negotiation of meaning.

Theoretical relationship

Over 90-minutes through two exercises and a plenary, the workshop will explore how C.S. Peirce’s pragmatic semiotic theory of Semiosis can be synthesised into design practice. The triadic nature of Semiosis focuses on the inter-relationship between the design concept, how this is visually represented, and how this representation affects how the intended meaning is finally interpreted. The workshop exercises take a Constructivist approach to facilitate participants’ own revelation as to how design outputs can be improved through applying the triadic relationship of Semiosis.

Workshop approach

The approach for the 90-minute workshop would follow this structure:

00:00 Welcome, workshop aims, semiotic audit (@ 20 mins)

• Welcome message

• Projection of a semiotic audit form and explanation:

o Participants will have a paper copy of a semiotic audit form

o They will complete first section before workshop begins

o This captures the initial level of pre-existing understanding of semiotic theory

• Then an overview of rudimentary Semiosis and its triadic relationship between concept, its representation, and the role of interpretation in the context of designed artefacts.

00:20 Exercise 1: Symbolic representation in designing effective visual communication (@20 mins)

• Using print outs of existing design campaigns, products, etc. participants will discuss in small group the principle of the symbolic representation of the concept present in the design example.

• Using scissors/markers/etc. participants will indicate what they believe is the symbolic representation visually communicating the intended message in the design example.

• Participants will then be asked to connect the designed connotation to the basics of Peirce’s semiotics using their own design terms.

00:40 Exercise 2: Indexical and Iconic representation in designing effective visual communication (@20 mins)

• Again*, using print outs of design campaigns, products, etc. participants will discuss in small group the principle of the indexical, and then the nested iconic representations of the object present in the design example.

*each table will have several versions of the design examples so that multiple passes at analysis can be made by the designers

• Using scissors/markers/etc. participants will indicate what they believe is the indexical representation in the design, and then break the design down further into its iconic elements that help visually communicate the intended message or affordance.

• Participants will then be asked to connect these to the basics of Peirce’s semiotics.

Figure 1: Example of plenary session with displayed worksheets

01:00 Plenary and Completion of semiotic audit (@30 mins)

• The results of exercise 1 & 2 can be displayed by group on a wall (see Figure 1), and feedback their assumptions which can then be discussed. Through this plenary phase participants can begin to understand how much of their tacit knowledge can be mapped to pragmatic semiotic theory, and how they can seek more theory to increase the effectiveness of their visual communication within designed artefacts.

• Participants will also complete the 2nd section of the designer semiotic audit form.

o This captures their level of desire to understand more Peircean semiotic theory, and to ask how they would like that to happen.

01:30 Workshop Ends

Takeaways for the participants

The workshop participants will work together in small groups using handouts and an A3 worksheet. On this worksheet, they will annotate their emergent understanding of the inter-relationship between the design concept, how it is visually represented and interpreted. Then in the final plenary part of the workshop, the participants will discuss in their own words how they understand how the manipulation of iconic, indexical and symbolic representation affords different levels of meaning.

Strategy to capture content and results

The final plenary session is important to the Constructivist approach we take, as from a pragmatic position the participants’ understanding emerges from the acts of engaging in the process of unlocking theory within existing design practice. Participants can opt into supplying their emails to be kept informed of the ongoing research.

Results and final reflections for consideration

The completed worksheets (or photographs of them), plus completed semiotic audits, will provide the workshop team with valuable sensory data to be further analysed as part of continuing Semiotic Rosetta Stone research. This ultimately is to define more designer-centric methods of disseminating Peircean theory into design practice.

Space requirements

A digital projector for our Mac laptop, in a room with flat tables and wall space for display will suffice.

Maximum number of participants

A maximum of 20 participants (5x groups of 4) will be ideal.

Workshops-A Semiotic Rosetta Stone Workshop-464Wood_a.pdf
4:00pm - 5:40pmw3.452: Workshop
4:00pm - 5:40pm

Big Design - Designing at scale

Bertil Lindenfalk1, Andrea Resmini1, Terence Fenn2, Jason Hobbs3

1Jönköping University, Sweden; 2University of Johannesburg; 3Human Experience Design

Workshop aims

Large-scale transformation projects have by and large been set up from a dirigist, technicistic perspective first and foremost. Their outcomes are on the other hand meant to be experienced by communities in a direct, engaged manner that is embodied, spatial and temporal. For processes meant to radically transform the lived experience of people, they have so far been strategically unconcerned with any human-centric view.

The workshop intends to suggest a necessary shift in perspective through the conceptual lens of pace layers and a system of temporal, spatial, and socio-cultural indicators: place-making, power and plasticity, and proxemics, and discuss the role and responsibilities of design in the production of large-scale systemic change. Questions that will be addressed during the workshop include:

When scaling up to regional level, does the design discourse belong? If so, when, where, how?

What role and responsibilities for designers?

Are designers comfortable with the level of abstraction these project comport?

Are current design processes useful or fit for the task?

Is designing at scale designing for people?

Workshop outline

This is an activity-based workshop.

After an initial welcome and introduction moment, the facilitators will create groups of 3-5 attendees. These groups will work on three distinct activities framed through large-scale design problems: the facilitators will provide the practical and theoretical framing, a fictional hands-on case, supervision for the duration of the workshop, and finally coordinate the room for take-aways and reflection at wrap-up. Rough schedule:

00:00 - 00:20 Welcome, introduction

20:00 - 35:00 Framing: Pace layers

35:00 - 75:00 Activity #1, #2, #3

75:00 - 90:00 Reflections, wrap-up

Framing: Pace layers

The pace layer model will be used to frame the outcomes of the workshop and guide the participants through the individual activities. Pace layers postulate that different socio-technical superstructures move and change at different speeds.

Participants will be asked to reflect on and formulate how the individual activities relate to the pace layer model. At the end of the session, groups will create a pace layer visualization for their processes, with the general aim of having an organically built representation of what tasks, activities, opportunity and challenges reside in or across what layers when designing at scale. Participants will be given a baseline to start from, taking into account that:

in layers with high variability, adaptability should be maximized;

in layers with low variability, structures should be stabilized;

if changes happen too fast in a low-variability layer, their effects can become systemically detrimental as they negatively impact other layers.

These points will be recalled in the reflections during wrap-up to frame the workshop and further the conversation.

Activity 1: Placemaking

A dimension often overlooked in large-scale transformation projects is that addressed by placemaking. A core concept in city planning, placemaking centers on the necessity of designing environments that feel human and that speak to our sense of presence and belonging. While large-scale projects naturally work at the geographical scale, they seem to ignore the general need to meaningfully anchor infrastructure to human activities and the placemaking of the new digital/physical environments they create.

Activity 2: Power and plasticity

In cultural terms, power may be considered as control and the expression of biases in choices. Such control may be culturally explicit or tacit. Any call for large-scale transformation is a reflection on whether such efforts should alter or maintain the status quo. Human-centric approaches favor the individual and local bottom-up angle: strategic, policy-driven approaches favor the top-down, collective view. When designing at scale, as we abstract local needs upwards, can top-down structures provide the necessary plasticity to cater for cultural variance? What role does design play in avoiding technocratic approaches which may sideline social and cultural needs?

Activity 3: Proxemics and public spaces

Proxemics is a cultural approach to understanding and representing how people experience space and spatial components and suggests a scalable framework that conceptualizes different interactions through methods of distance-setting. Using De Waal’s three conceptual constructs for exploring proxemics at the level of the public space, the private, parochial and public domains, this activity will have groups figure out the how proxemics can contribute to make large-scale processes more human-centric.

Expected outcomes

Reduce the gap between the reality of large digital transformation projects and the current research framing and understanding of the problem space.

Challenge the current mainstream technicistic top-down approach, and disseminate a more rounded, humanistic way-of-doing that centers on socio-technical and temporal/spatial complexity.

Kickstart a process of aggregation of perspectives, cases, approaches, and results, for added insights.

Number of participants

15-30 participants, with a bare minimum of 9.


Participants will learn how to:

define the role and responsibilities of design when designing at scale;

recontextualize the role of technology in large scale transformative projects;

systemically relate human-scale indicators to large-scale priorities.


The workshop contributes to the conference’s theme by addressing/exploring the transformative nature of designing at scale and proposing a human-scale approach. It does so by applying three distinct research perspectives on the topic as well as offering a general framework for understanding the relationship between these.

Workshops-Big Design - Designing at scale-452Lindenfalk_a.pdf
4:00pm - 5:40pmw4.451: Workshop
4:00pm - 5:40pm

Building Adaptable Teams for Co-configuration

Rael Glen Futerman

University of Cape Town, South Africa

In innovative organisations we are seeing an increase in cross-functional teams being built around projects. Their diverse perspectives drawn from personal world-views and organisational roles contribute to radical collaboration across traditional boundaries of work.

Co-configuration, an emerging customer-centric mode of work, "involves building and sustaining a fully integrated system that can sense, respond, and adapt to the individual experience of the customer" (Victor & Boynton, 1998:195). In practices of co-configuration there is a need to go beyond conventional team work or networking to the practice of ‘knotworking’ (Engeström et al, 1999). Knotworking, the emerging interactional core of co-configuration, is where separate actors can quickly come together and tie a knot and work together and solve a problem or design a task in the most efficient way possible (Engeström, 2012).

Knotworking, Engeström (2008:196) claims,"poses qualitatively new learning challenges to work communities." Critical to knotworking and the functioning of constantly changing participant configurations is rapid negotiation and improvisation (ibid).

The changing configurations of teams happen over time, specifically "the entire life trajectory of the product or service" (Engeström, Puonti, & Seppänen, 2003). The life trajectory of products/services is framed as expansive and aligned here with the iterative innovation learning journey (Beckman & Barry, 2007).

This diversity in collaborators and temporality of team configurations, based on objective/motive of the project at a specific time, can present challenges around cohesion, alignment and synchronicity.

Foundational work practices, that is, the enacted values of a team change with each iteration. These foundational work practices are rooted in the personal values of each individual and espoused as team values. With rapidly changing teams, the misalignment between espoused and enacted values can create tensions which can hinder or derail a teams efforts.

This hands-on workshop aims at testing a rapid team alignment activity in which teams propose core values and align these to the innovation learning cycle, synthesising them into foundational work practices for each phase. These are then reframed as the teams' innovation narrative.

Workshops-Building Adaptable Teams for Co-configuration-451Futerman_a.pdf
4:00pm - 5:40pmw5.471: Workshop
4:00pm - 5:40pm

Discourse Mapping: Navigating the Politics of Sustainable Design

joanna boehnert

Loughborough University, United Kingdom

Despite accumulative social and technological innovation, the design industry continues to face significant obstacles when addressing issues of sustainability. This workshop investigates some of these difficulties by focusing attention on the politics of design. It responds to an increasing awareness within the design research community of the many ways political and economic dynamics influence the potential for the design of sustainable transitions. The political context in which designers operate is complex and difficult to navigate - especially when policy proclamations cannot be taken at face value. One of the ways that political scientists make sense of this confusing terrain is with the use of discourse analysis. Discourses constitute different ideological perspectives and theories of change that shape how individual and institutional actors respond to global environmental challenges. Discourse mapping is a knowledge mapping method that reveals relationship between the different discursive positions. Diverse discourses create the socio-political landscape which determines whether and how designers are able to create sustainable alternatives. This workshop will build capacity to respond more effectively to global environmental challenges by exploring the politics of design with discourse mapping.

Workshops-Discourse Mapping-471boehnert_a.pdf
6:00pm - 7:00pmDay 1: Reception
Date: Thursday, 20/Jun/2019
8:30am - 9:00amDay 2: Registration
Foyer: Loughborough University London 
9:00am - 10:40am1.a 1/2: Transformation of the ageing society and its impact on design
Session Chair: Lu Yuan
Session Chair: Bo GAO
9:00am - 9:25am

Engaging Senior Adults with Technology for Behavior Change

Carlijn Valk1, Peter Lovei2, Ya-Liang Chuang1, Yuan Lu1, Pearl Pu3, Thomas Visser2

1Eindhoven University of Technology; 2Philips Design; 3École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

Amidst today’s ever-expanding waistlines there is a clear need to investigate technology’s potential to support behavior change and stimulate increased physical activity. Physical activity has also been shown to increase the independence and well-being of older adults, yet an important segment of this community is often excluded from the necessary in-context research due to the barriers they face to technology acceptance. Currently, there is limited knowledge on how to overcome these barriers to participation. We created a specific Product Service System that supports older adults to engage with the proposed technological interventions to enable important in-context behavior change research. Our approach converges knowledge from the domains of living laboratories, co-design, and existing experience of design research with older adults. From our experiences with this Product Service System, we provide guidelines to support other researchers setting-up a living laboratory study with older adults to explore technology’s potential to motivate behavior change.

Track 1.a-Engaging Senior Adults with Technology for Behavior Change-198Valk_a.pdf

9:25am - 9:50am

Through service design to improve the HRQOL (Health-Related Quality of Life) in the treatment and rehabilitation of elderly women with breast cancer in Shanghai

Bo GAO, Xiaolin SHEN

Tongji University, China, People's Republic of

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in the world. As China enters the aging society, elderly breast cancer presents the characteristics of high incidence, late detection and long treatment time. This is related to the imperfect services that elderly women receive in the treatment and rehabilitation. Eventually, the quality of life of patients in their later years has declined. By using service design tools, the authors conducted field research and in-depth interviews in Shanghai hospitals and developed service strategy to improve the Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) in the treatment and rehabilitation of elderly women with breast cancer. The paper presents three design contents: (1) smart healthcare service system; (2) improvement of service scenarios in the hospital; (3) a life-long service that links communities, families, and individuals to transform breast cancer into "chronic disease". In this paper, the authors also discuss the next step and prospects.

Track 1.a-Through service design to improve the HRQOL-294GAO_a.pdf

9:50am - 10:15am

Building an age-friendly city for elderly citizens through co-designing an urban walkable scenario

Xue Pei, Carla Sedini, Francesco Zurlo

Politecnico di Milano, Italy

This paper is based on a research project carried out in the Metropolitan Area of Milan, which looks at the cities of the future as highly populated by long-living active people and innovative technological facilities. The project is conducted by a multidisciplinary research approach to study how to support social inclusion of elderlies living in urban environments by enhancing their active walking. The whole process will engage participants (senior citizens) and stakeholders in a human-centred design approach. In this paper we will present the results from the preliminary research activities carried out: case studies selection and territorial observations. The first activity was oriented to investigate and select innovative solutions to enhance the mobility of elderly pedestrians and to improve their (social) life. The seconds, helped us in better framing the design context of action and assessing at a microscopic level the degree of walkability of a specific territorial area.

Track 1.a-Building an age-friendly city for elderly citizens through co-designing an urban walkable_a.pdf

10:15am - 10:40am

The Leisure Time Canvas: Eliciting Empathy for Older Adults through Activities and Hobbies

Marjolein C. den Haan, Rens G. A. Brankaert, Yuan Lu

University of Technology Eindhoven, Netherlands, The

Understanding your user's daily life and interests is essential in providing insights that can be leveraged to define new design opportunities. However, when designing for older adults, this can be challenging because, users may find it complicated to express themselves; designers may have difficulties to take their perspective and empathize with them. This paper introduces the Leisure Time Canvas, an empathy toolkit designed to facilitate older users to share stories about their activities and hobbies, to elicit their perspectives, desires and needs, and thereby inspire the design process. We report on the design of the canvas and its explorative use with six older adults and reflect on the resulting stories and design implications. This canvas aims to facilitate interaction between designers and user groups that may be difficult to empathize with or experience challenges in verbalizing their needs.

Track 1.a-The Leisure Time Canvas-421den Haan_a.pdf
9:00am - 10:40am3.b 2/2: Measuring and communicating the value of design
Session Chair: Jo'Anne Langham
Session Chair: Alison Rieple

9:00am - 9:25am

The semantics of design and why they matter

Awais Hameed Khan, Ben Matthews

The University of Queensland, Australia

Understanding the value of design in industry is a contemporary issue both in academia and industry. Many studies have been conducted using historic data, macro-level indicators, questionnaire-based tools, and abstracted post-hoc accounts of the value of design. However, very little research attempts to uncover direct insights from real-world practical experiences of designers in industry and how they negotiate design-value space. This study uncovers rich qualitative, pragmatic considerations of how the value of design is operationalized in situ by design practitioners in industry through a series of 6 in-depth interviews. Initial results indicate that different designers undertake a series of different context-dependent strategies: these range from from changing the narrative of the contribution of design based on the KPIs of the audience, to taking a non-action stance allowing for consequences and pressure from external stakeholders to help drive design in practice, as well as performing “designer-ly” activities under a different alias.

Track 3.b-The semantics of design and why they matter-405Khan_a.pdf

9:25am - 9:50am

Communicating the Value of Design: Design Considerations to Assist Practitioner Rationale in FMCG Packaging Development

Nicholas Samuel Johnson, George Edward Torrens, Ian Storer

Loughborough University, United Kingdom

A product’s packaging design is often produced through the practical application of tacit knowledge, rule of thumb and professional connoisseurship. Stakeholders are increasingly demanding that designers provide clarity of reasoning and accountability for their design proposals. Therefore, a better framework for the design of fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) is needed. This paper proposes a taxonomy of ‘design considerations’ for the development of low involvement FMCG packaging to aid in rationale communication for design solutions. 302 academic sources were reviewed, and inductive content analysis performed to code topics, then validated with academic and industry experts (n=9) through modified-Delphi card sorting method. The research provides movement towards a comprehensive framework and common ground for discussion between stakeholders, practitioners and managers to assist in communicating the value that design can offer to FMCG. The constructed taxonomy provides a set of 156 ‘design considerations’ to support practitioners in objective and informed design decision-making.

Track 3.b-Communicating the Value of Design-184Johnson_a.pdf

9:50am - 10:15am

Do Beautiful Stores improve Product Evaluation?

Mia B. Münster, Tore Kristensen, Gorm Gabrielsen

Copenhagen Business School, Denmark

Retail designers often emphasize the importance of creating stores that consumers will find attractive. This paper challenges that commonly held view, presenting empirical results from a field experiment showing that a positive rating of a store interior does not affect the product rating to the degree expected. This paper proposes a method for measuring spillover effects, which ordinarily take place without conscious attention. The method was applied in an experiment where 50 shoppers were asked to rate six fashion products in three differently designed stores. Respondents were asked to rate stores and products from within the stores. Any discrepancy between the in-store ratings can be interpreted as the influence of the store design. Results indicate measurable spillover effects from store design to product preference. Surprisingly, however, only one of the three stores showed a significant correlation between the respondents’ highest product rating and store preference.

Track 3.b-Do Beautiful Stores improve Product Evaluation-173Münster_a.pdf
9:00am - 10:40am4.c 1/3: Transformation IN and BY Design Thinking
Session Chair: Claudio Dell'Era
Session Chair: Stefano Magistretti

LDN.0.17 & 0.18 
9:00am - 9:25am

Business Empathy: A Systems Thinking Perspective

Jack Waring1, Rebecca Anne Price2, Carl Donald Waring3

1TU Delft, Netherlands; 2TU Delft, Netherlands; 3University of Derby, United Kingdom

The strength of design is it that brings new perspectives - often referred to as ‘out of the box’ thinking. However, an attitudinal and methodological strength need not render the designer humble in systems-based business knowledge that improves the prospect of ideas being carried through to implementation. Systems thinking as a discipline offers designers a way to model and understand how a business works, from its processes and power structures to its people and underlying architecture. This paper proposes an incorporation of key system thinking tools including; Soft Systems Methodology, Business Architecture and Viable Systems Modelling into the design process to develop what we term business empathy. The paper contributes a system thinking perspective to an increasing body of literature regarding design innovation.

Track 4.c-Business Empathy-200Waring_a.pdf

9:25am - 9:50am

The Organizational Impacts of Design Thinking used as a Toolbox for Managers or as a Theory of Design

Estelle Berger1, Valérie Mérindol2

1Strate School of Design, France; 2Paris School of Business, France

The adoption of Management Innovation in organizations is difficult to investigate. Controversies exist on the nature of Design thinking (DT), which can be used as a toolbox for managers, or as a theory of design practice. Based on a multi-case study, this article investigates the impacts brought by DT in organizations, in terms of new practices and roles played by designers. Referring to various definitions of DT and its relation to Design, this article proposes a framework articulating the objectives of DT as Management Innovation and its adoption. The results show two intertwined factors: the fit between the cultural, technical and political dimensions of the organization, and the profile of the change agent, designer or not.

Track 4.c-The Organizational Impacts of Design Thinking used as a Toolbox-204Berger_a.pdf

9:50am - 10:15am

A Model of Positive Strategic Sensemaking for Meaningfulness

Tarja Pääkkönen, Satu Miettinen, Melanie Sarantou

University of Lapland, Finland

This article proposes a design perspective on strategizing by presenting a Model of Positive Strategic Sensemaking for Meaningfulness. Theory elaboration is used drawing from three related disciplinary fields; strategizing, sensemaking and design. It is proposed that positive and human-centred design facilitation enhances strategizing as an ongoing embodied and material activity where meaning changes in strategy and vision may emerge. By viewing strategizing as a socially constructed evolving phenomenon the model adopts sensemaking and critical theory perspectives where the consequences of decisions for human beings and environment guide further activities. Designers as co-strategist may support or challenge an existing strategic direction resulting in incremental or more radical meaning changes among those affected by, and affecting, the emergence of strategies.

Track 4.c-A Model of Positive Strategic Sensemaking for Meaningfulness-217Pääkkönen_a.pdf

10:15am - 10:40am

Envisioning a design approach towards increasing well-being at work

Maite Oonk, Giulia Calabretta, Christine De Lille, Erik Jan Hultink

Delft University of Technology

Organizational attention to increasing employee well-being (EWB) is a relatively recent phenomenon, which can be linked to the penetration of information technology, its connection to organizational performance, and millennials facing a lack of optimism about the future. Recent research in the field of management has indicated that design principles like human centeredness and holistic thinking should be applied to create better employee experiences. However, how the positive impact of design on EWB can be achieved, is underspecified in literature. In this conceptual paper, we explore complementarities and potential synergies of design principles and practices with the conditions for EWB, leading to a principle-practice-ingredient (PPI) portfolio. This portfolio can help designers of employee experiences succeed in increasing EWB through the process they apply. For instance when applying envisioning and inspiring activities that address virtue and personal significance to develop workplace tools (such as an app for teamwork around a specific task).

Track 4.c-Envisioning a design approach towards increasing well-being-374Oonk_a.pdf
9:00am - 10:40am5.g 1/1: Design with Foresight: Strategic Anticipation in Design Research
Session Chair: Jörn Bühring
Session Chair: Nermin Azabagic

9:00am - 9:25am

The Role of Horizon Scanning in Innovation and Design Practice

Isabel Meythaler, Elies Ann Dekoninck

University of Bath, United Kingdom

This paper aims to investigate how horizon scanning (HS) is used by practitioners to create foresight for design and innovation and which methods, tools and approaches innovation practitioners use for spotting and acting upon changes in the business environment as well as in the consumer and technological landscape. Thus, this study contributes to the field of horizon scanning and innovation management by presenting the results from 16 in-depths expert interviews with innovation practitioners. Specifically, the aim of this research was to: discuss the role and importance of horizon scanning for innovation and design; identify dominant methods and approaches used within horizon scanning; and compare the methods typically used by different types of innovation practitioners. This study discovered that HS in conjunction with creative and lateral thinking, technology scouting as well as human-centred thinking not only facilitates the early detection of emerging trends and technologies but also facilitates turning insights into actionable ideas, increasing the likelihood of more successful product development, meaningful innovations and sustainable competitiveness.

Track 5.g-The Role of Horizon Scanning in Innovation and Design Practice-344Meythaler_a.pdf

9:25am - 9:50am

Mapping Abstract Futures

Timothy Stock1,2, Marie Lena Tupot2

1Parsons the New School for Design; 2scenarioDNA

The future we need to explore is more abstract than it is concrete. As designers, we are constantly conjuring ideas based on a concrete world to improve what we have already seen. Within these predetermined frameworks, we unintentionally bring our own biases to planning the future based on what we know and what we consider safe. However, methods of gathering evidence must reveal the essential dynamics and tensions of the individual in the context of society. The cultural system that represents this process of adaptation can be plotted as a system of language that reflects the dynamics between the concrete and abstract worlds. A craving for such emotional intelligence requires that we expand our binary world into an abstract space for which only the human brain has the capacity. We need such a systematic view in order to think intuitively on multiple levels at the same time.

Track 5.g-Mapping Abstract Futures-186Stock_a.pdf

9:50am - 10:15am

Bringing futures scenarios to life with video animation: A case of disseminating research to nonexpert audiences

Jörn Bühring, Nurry Vittachi

Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong S.A.R. (China)

In social science, researchers are often confronted with large amounts of data generated through qualitative methods such as interviews, interpretive narration, and oral history. While selecting an appropriate form of communicating the findings at the end of a research project is every research’s obligation, the dissemination of key insights gained from academic research, and presenting these in other formats that effectively extend the research results and new knowledge gained to nonexpert audiences, is many times forgotten. The purpose of this research is to address this gap in the literature by answering the question of how to communicate futures scenarios to nonexpert audiences, corporate decision-makers, and their staff using video animation as a medium. The process presented in this paper is based on a use case in which academics and designers, at a design school, took the findings of a financial services futures study and applied storytelling and visualisation techniques to bring futures scenarios to life with video animation.

Track 5.g-Bringing futures scenarios to life with video animation-213Bühring_a.pdf

10:15am - 10:40am

Systemic Design for Policy Foresight: towards sustainable future

Eliana Ferrulli, Carolina Giraldo Nohra, Silvia Barbero

Politecnico di Torino, Italy

In the last 15 years, tackling wicked problems have evolved into a process that requires multiple change-makers able to face complexity. At the same time, it has generated an increasing interest and proficient relation among foresight and design, due to their shared interest in anticipation and future orientation. Such relationships are visible on similarities they both have on the mindset and methodology used when approaching future scenarios. This paper aims to delve into a better comprehension of how the combination of Systemic Design and foresight can think both creatively and systematically about the future and have a strategic role in a policy-making process. This example of collaborative foresight is illustrated by RETRACE Interreg Europe project (A Systemic Approach for Transition towards a Circular Economy funded by the Interreg Europe), demonstrating how Systemic Design with a foresight vision can play a leverage effect in the transition of the European regions towards Circular Economy in a long-term horizon.

Track 5.g-Systemic Design for Policy Foresight-366Ferrulli_a.pdf
9:00am - 10:40am6.b 1/4: Design Literacy enabling Critical Innovation Practices
Session Chair: Liv Merete Nielsen
Session Chair: Catalina Cortés
9:00am - 9:25am

Framing the concept design literacy for a general public

Eva Lutnæs

OsloMet - Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway

Educating the general public to be design literate can be a catalyst for both environmental protection and degradation, human aid and human-made disasters depending on how the scope of design is framed – and how ‘design literacy’ is defined. This paper explores how design literacy can support critical innovation and sustainable issues by sketching a conceptual framework on how to cultivate ‘design literacy’. The research approach is a literature review of key texts on the topic of design literacy for a general public. Four narratives are identified: ‘Awareness through making’, ‘Empower for change and citizen participation’, ‘Address complexity of real-world problems’, and ‘Participate in design processes’. Moving towards more sustainable modes of consumption and production, a design literate general public provides a critical mass of users empowered to question how a new innovation supports the well-being of people and the planet and to voice their own ideas.

Track 6.b-Framing the concept design literacy for a general public-224Lutnæs_a.pdf

9:25am - 9:50am

Developing design literacy for social agency

Miikka J. Lehtonen1,2, Jia Ying Chew2

1Aalto University School of Arts, Design and Business, Finland; 2Aalto University School of Business

Preparing a workforce that is well-equipped with the skills and knowledge to navigate the complexities of our global human society is a key responsibility of design and higher education. Extant research has advocated design as one of the essential skills to master in the future, and this design literacy has been claimed to be a critical factor in creating innovations and new solutions towards transforming our societies. To explore how non-designers become more design literate, in this paper we present findings from a study looking at how multidisciplinary student teams develop their design literacy in an action-oriented course setting. Based on our initial analysis, blending the boundaries between universities and the surrounding society positively contributes towards developing design literacy. This, in turn, has pedagogical implications as well as increases our understanding on how design travels to other disciplinary domains.

Track 6.b-Developing design literacy for social agency-223Lehtonen_a.pdf

9:50am - 10:15am

A Framework to Accelerate Universal Design Literacy

Chris Pacione

LUMA Institute, United States of America

Design has historically been a specialty, something practiced exclusively by engineers, architects and all manner of design professionals. This is changing. Just as arithmetic was once a peripheral skill until the industrial age brought about the need for math literacy, the socioeconomic conditions of our current age are heralding the need for millions of people to level up in design. The expanding role innovation and collaboration play in our daily work, combined with the ever-increasing complexity and rate of change of today’s products, services, and systems are making the case for design literacy. This paper: 1.) makes the case that design is poised to become the next universal literacy; 2.) argues that in order for such a literacy to arise, there must first exist a framework of agreed-upon skills that are taught and practiced by the masses; and 3.) proposes such a set of skills along with the research and reasoning that supports this proposed framework.

Track 6.b-A Framework to Accelerate Universal Design Literacy-479Pacione_a.pdf

10:15am - 10:40am

Developing design literacy through brand-based artefacts

Catarina Lelis1, Oscar Mealha2

1University of West London, United Kingdom; 2Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal

The brand is a powerful representational and identification-led asset that can be used to engage staff in creative, sustainable and developmental activities. Being a brand the result of, foremost, a design exercise, it is fair to suppose that it can be a relevant resource for the advancement of design literacy within organisational contexts. The main objective of this paper was to test and validate an interaction structure for an informed co-design process on visual brand artefacts. To carry on the empirical study, a university was chosen as case study as these contexts are generally rich in employee diversity. A non-functional prototype was designed, and walkthroughs were performed in five focus groups held with staff. The latter evidenced a need/wish to engage with basic design principles and high willingness to participate in the creation of brand design artefacts, mostly with the purpose of increasing its consistent use and innovate in its representation possibilities, whilst augmenting the brand’s socially responsible values.

Track 6.b-Developing design literacy through brand-based artefacts-358Lelis_a.pdf
9:00am - 10:40amCases 3/5: Case Studies from the Frontlines of Design Innovation Management
Session Chair: Rhea Cristina Alexander
Session Chair: Mark James Randall
9:00am - 9:15am

Design innovation practices in a global supply chain: a Fung Group case study

Nikolina Dragicevic1, Richard Kelly2, Eng Chew3

1The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong, S.A.R. China; 2Fung Academy, Fung Group, Hong Kong, S.A.R. China; 3University of Technology, Sydney

Whereas the contribution of design thinking has already been appreciated both in academic literature and practice in the West, there have been little serious and comprehensive studies focusing on Hong Kong and China. This case study paper, therefore, reports about the design innovation practice in Fung Group, a Hong Kong-based company whose core businesses operate across the global supply chain for consumer goods including sourcing, logistics, distribution and retailing. The analysis (1) identifies and describes design practices that the company initiated to support service innovation (including new products, processes and business models) (2) identifies challenges in adopting and institutionalising such practices. The results show that the company supports both externally and internally oriented design practices – and loosens the boundary between the two – through the activities in the Fung Academy and a new innovation hub, Explorium, with a particular focus on utilising digital technologies. Specifically, the study demonstrates how the company empowers and involves a variety of stakeholders (individuals, groups, and organisations) in value co-creating practices involving absorptive, collaborative, and adaptive practices that aim to challenge or disrupt current practices. The study uncovers that some of the major challenges in such aspirations lie in the adaptation of design thinking organising logic and mindset to specifics of the Chinese socio-cultural context.

Case Studies-Design innovation practices in a global supply chain-424Dragicevic_a.pdf

9:15am - 9:30am

Causing a Stir: Co-creating a Crowd-voted Grants Platform for Creative Entrepreneurs

Camilo Sergio Potocnjak-Oxman1,2, Vincent Ward1,2

1Ninpo Design Pty Ltd; 2CBR Innovation Network

Stir was a crowd-voted grants platform aimed at supporting creative youth in the early stages of an entrepreneurial journey. Developed through an in-depth, collaborative design process, between 2015 and 2018 it received close to two hundred projects and distributed over fifty grants to emerging creatives and became one of the most impactful programs aimed at increasing entrepreneurial activity in Canberra, Australia. The following case study will provide an overview of the methodology and process used by the design team in conceiving and developing this platform, highlighting how the community’s interests and competencies were embedded in the project itself. The case provides insights for people leading collaborative design processes, with specific emphasis on some of the characteristics on programs targeting creative youth.

Case Studies-Causing a Stir-122Potocnjak-Oxman_a.pdf

9:30am - 9:45am

System Design for People Dealing with the Liminal Space

Ora Schwarz-Lis, Elad Persov

Ora Schwarz-Lis, Israel

A 23% increase in the number of family members that find themselves as care providers has been documented throughout the last decade. In 2017, more than 1.6 Million people in Israel (18%) are defined as ‘caregivers’ to family member. In Israel, approximately 70% of yearly death cases are from terminal illness (Elizera, 2018).

Accompanied is a family member who accompanies any terminal ill family member at some time during their illness. This project examines a system-design solution for the helplessness and obstacles that the Accompanied experiences.

This project combines qualitative methods and human-based design. Based on the findings, three prototypes were developed using a participative graphic experience map and the co-design of illustrated storyboards. These prototypes were presented to senior caregivers in healthcare system and to a nursing manager of one of the biggest hospitals in Israel.

This project found that the most efficient service for alleviating the Accompanied’s helplessness is a Case Facilitator (CF) who has expert knowledge of the health bureaucratic system and Interpersonal skills. The CF will escort the Accompanied during all critical situations throughout the process. This system-design solution could also solve similar problems for any person who find themselves dealing with liminal bureaucratic spaces.

Case Studies-System Design for People Dealing with the Liminal Space-206Schwarz-Lis_a.pdf

9:45am - 10:00am

‘Project Kapıdağ: Locality of Production’: A Case of Research for Social Design in Complex Collaboration

Gizem Öz1,2, Aysun Ates Akdeniz1,2

1Istanbul Bilgi University, Turkey; 2Istanbul Technical University

Social design is a much-discussed topic in the context of facilitating change towards social ends. Growing problems in the social and political realm can trigger social change. In the last few years, Kapıdağ, Turkey has been stuck between top-down mass industrialization and longstanding local production dynamics. “Project Kapıdağ: Locality of Production” was emerged from the struggles associated with local production in the region and was realized in collaboration with local organizations, local community and İstanbul Bilgi University Faculty of Architecture. The project aims to pinpoint the assets Kapıdağ for the collective wellbeing of the region and reveal the potential intervention opportunities in the region through mapping out the network of relations between production, materials, public and institutions. In this paper, the project will be examined as research for social design case in complex collaboration. Different proposals that were developed out of this undertaking will be exemplified to discuss issues on the responsive role of the designer in ‘infrastructuring’ social design process. The paper further attempts to demonstrate how the research process can also function as an alignment tool between collaborators to attain objectives and open up possibilities for new collaborations and projects.

Case Studies-‘Project Kapıdağ-112Öz_a.pdf
10:40am - 11:00amDay 2: Morning Break
Foyer: Loughborough University London 
11:00am - 12:40pm1.a 2/2: Transformation of the ageing society and its impact on design
Session Chair: Lu Yuan
Session Chair: Bo GAO
11:00am - 11:25am

Co-refining Interactive Systems with Older Adults from Function, Form and Interaction

Kai Kang, Jun Hu, Bart Hengeveld, Joep Frens, Caroline Hummels

Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands

Designing interactive systems that are pragmatic, attractive and easy to use for older adults is challenging. Participatory design, as an approach to enhance the mutual understanding between designers and end users, has been proved to be useful to improve the quality of design for older people. However, PD research has long been criticized for extensively dealing with the early-phase design while putting less emphasis on the later stages. In this paper, we argue for the importance of collaborative refinement when designing interactive systems for older adults. Through a case study, we describe our experience of co-refining the preliminary design of an interactive system with older participants from three perspectives: function, form and interaction. We also explored to adopt some potential PD methods and conclude by discussing the effectiveness of the chosen approach and methods.

Track 1.a-Co-refining Interactive Systems with Older Adults-257Kang_a.pdf

11:25am - 11:50am

Designing for Older Adults' Life Storytelling through a Tangible Interactive Device

Cun Li, Jun Hu, Bart Hengeveld, Caroline Hummels

Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands

There appears to be a mismatch between current interactive media and intergenerational storytelling, which leads to the elderly are often viewed as passive consumers, rather than active creators of story content. In this paper, we present our study aiming to facilitate storytelling of older adults living in the care facilities with their children, driven by the research questions: RQ1: What life stories would the older adults like to share? And RQ2: How to facilitate older adults to tell stories with their children? A research prototype named Slots-story was designed, which integrated functions of memory cue generator, story recording, and preservation. In the field study, eight pairs of participants (each pair consisting of an elderly adult and his/her child) were recruited to use the prototype for around ten days. Semi-structured interviews were conducted both with the elderly and their children. Stories collected were transcribed, and thematic analysis was conducted, which formed the foundation of the insights on the research questions.

Track 1.a-Designing for Older Adults Life Storytelling through a Tangible Interactive Device-273Li_a.pdf
11:00am - 12:40pm1.b 1/2: Re-Designing Health: Transforming Systems, Practices and Care
Session Chair: Aidan Rowe
Session Chair: Gillian Harvey
11:00am - 11:25am

Reframing Healthcare: Emerging Health Design Opportunities

Aidan Rowe1, Michelle Knox2

1University of Alberta, Canada; 2McGill University, Canada

Healthcare systems are faced with increasingly complex demands: ageing populations, chronic diseases, growing drug ineffectiveness, and access to comprehensive services are just a few of the challenges we face. Design offers methods, practices and processes to help address these rising complications. While design and health have a long history of working together, much of this work has been limited. In this paper, we make the case for further opportunities for design and health to work together in deep, meaningful and human ways.

We begin by discussing the changing space of design, then we articulate the similarities between design and healthcare. We then present two health design research projects that employ design methods and processes within healthcare settings, exploring new opportunities for design and health to collaborate. We conclude by summarizing the benefits and challenges of these projects, articulating future possibilities for design and healthcare to collaborate.

Track 1.b-Reframing Healthcare-286Rowe_a.pdf

11:25am - 11:50am

Aesthetic Considerations in the Ortho-Prosthetic Design Process

Parth Shah, Hassan Iftikhar, Yan Luximon

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong S.A.R. (China)

Medical products, including prosthetics and orthotics, are designed to partially or completely assist or replace the functionality of specific body parts affected by ailments or medical deformities. People using such devices share similar sensibilities and concerns, such as looking attractive or being able to wear fashionable clothing. However, due to a greater emphasis on function over fashion in designing these medical products, the aesthetic values of the user are not fully considered. This aesthetic paucity may have a strong psychological and cognitive impact, which affects the user experience. Hence, this study aims to explore key parameters affecting the aesthetics of medical products such as prosthetics and orthotics, and identify the challenges involved in their design process. Recommendations have also been suggested for the designers with the help of a design example.

Track 1.b-Aesthetic Considerations in the Ortho-Prosthetic Design Process-214Shah_a.pdf

11:50am - 12:15pm

Exploring the role of Design in the context of Medical Device Innovation

Jessica Lea Dunn, Keum Hee Kimmi Ko, David Lahoud, Erez Nusem, Karla Straker, Cara Wrigley

School of Architecture, Design and Planning, University of Sydney, Australia

Technology is the leading driving force in healthcare and medical device design, however, innovations which emerge from these practices are often driven by clinical requirements. Such innovations are focused on developing products that addresses current health issues, diseases or medical problems – often lacking consideration of the end users’ needs. Design innovation advocates that user-centred design happens much earlier in the product development process so that the patient needs are prioritised. However, this emerging field is yet to be defined and explored in a medical context. This paper therefore proposes a framework of Medical Device Design Innovation to explore the role of design in medical device innovation through two medical device case studies. The proposed framework suggests a way to navigate the nuances and complexities of the medical device industry in order to put the patient first while ensuring commercial viability.

Track 1.b-Exploring the role of Design in the context of Medical Device Innovation-303Dunn_a.pdf
11:00am - 12:40pm2.e 1: Design Innovation and Philosophy of Technology: the Practical Turn
Session Chair: Wouter Eggink
Session Chair: Heather Wiltse
11:00am - 11:25am

Changing Things: Innovation through Design Philosophy

Johan Redström, Heather Wiltse

Umeå University, Sweden

Digital networked technologies are currently at the forefront of contemporary innovation, driving changes in sociotechnical practices across industrial sectors and in everyday life. Yet technical innovation has been outpacing our capacity to make sense of these technologies and the fundamental changes associated with them. This sense-making enterprise is the focus of our current research in developing a design philosophy for changing things. We describe a conceptual framework developed around the concept of things as fluid assemblages to investigate and articulate what is going on with things, and how their development might be (re)directed toward preferable futures. Specifically, we here examine the important role of design philosophy in innovation, using the conceptual framework developed as a way to point toward potential sites for innovation in the current sociotechnical landscape. The line of investigation we pursue suggests that doing philosophy should become a central part of innovative design practices.

Track 2.e-Changing Things-252Redström_a.pdf

11:25am - 11:50am

Values that Matter: Mediation Theory and Design for Values

Merlijn Smits1, Bas Bredie1, Harry van Goor1, Peter-Paul Verbeek2

1Radboud University Medical Center; 2University of Twente

Philosophy of technology could bring new insights when applied to design practice. This paper brings together mediation theory and design for values. We present a new design for values methodology: Values that Matter. Via the four phases; explore, conceptualise, anticipate and test, VtM allows for anticipating value dynamics. It starts with the assumption that value expression and definition arise in the interplay between users and technology. An extensive mediation analysis then helps to provide insight in and allows for anticipation on potential effects of technology on users and value dynamics, something that current value sensitive design approaches cannot deliver. Those insights are tested with involved actors to bring about best values by design. VtM has been applied to the case study of ViSi Mobile, a medical device developed for continuous monitoring of vital signs in hospitalised patients. A redesign was proposed that better empowers these patients.

Track 2.e-Values that Matter-203Smits_a.pdf

11:50am - 12:15pm

Towards a Tangible Philosophy through Design: Exploring the question of being-in-the-world in the digital age

Jonne van Belle, Jelle van Dijk, Wouter Eggink

University of Twente, Netherlands, The

The combined philosophy and design approach called Philosophy-through-Design (PtD) is proposed using an exemplary project about being-in-the-world in the digital age. PtD is a practical way to do philosophy through designing interventions and involves various people in the exploration of philosophical concepts. It stems from the overlapping questions found in philosophy and design regarding human-technology interaction. By intertwining both, they benefit from describing, understanding and proposing human-technology interactions to unfold new questions and perspectives. In the exemplary project, being-in-the-world refers to a way of being that is embodied, active, open-ended and situational, based on the phenomenological and embodied theories of Tim Ingold. This concept questions what it means to be human in the digital age and how our lives with technology are built. The first results show the process of weaving together observation, creation, and reflection, which presents Philosophy-through-Design as a promising method for designers to practice a tangible philosophy.

Track 2.e-Towards a Tangible Philosophy through Design-195van Belle_a.pdf

12:15pm - 12:40pm

From Hype to Practice: Revealing the Effects of AI in Service Design

Titta Jylkäs1,2, Andrea Augsten3, Satu Miettinen1

1University of Lapland, Finland; 2Volkswagen Financial Services AG, Germany; 3University of Wuppertal, Germany

With the new rise of artificial intelligence (AI) during in the past decade, AI has become known in the everyday products and services. One of the its application forms are is that of AI assistants, such as voice assistants and chatbots. While new types of customer service channels are have been introduced through these assistants, until now, the intelligence of AI has mostly resides resided in the backend systems of services until now. Studying a service design process and practices focussing on AI-enabled services, the present research draws on a multi-method approach out of involving seven expert interviews and five use cases on AI assistant projects in industry. The Authors authors evaluated the data sets through coding cycles aiming at identifying the shifts AI brings to service design. The results present and discuss the emerging fields of change in service design: , namely, the application of AI, the service design process with AI and the role of the service designer in the creation of AI-enabled services.

Track 5.j-From Hype to Practice-349Jylkäs_a.pdf
11:00am - 12:40pm4.c 2/3: Transformation IN and BY Design Thinking
Session Chair: Claudio Dell'Era
Session Chair: Stefano Magistretti
LDN.0.17 & 0.18 
11:00am - 11:25am

Design strategy is the competitive advantage of firms

Andy Dong1, Maaike Kleinsmann2, Dirk Snelders2, Erik Jan Hultink2

1The University of Sydney, California College of the Arts; 2Delft University of Technology

This article extrapolates the characteristics of Marc Newsom’s celebrated Lockheed Lounge and Raymond Loewy’s famous design strategy acronym, MAYA – the Most Advanced Yet Acceptable principle – as starting points to explain the competitive advantage of firms. Our design-based recommendation for the competitive advantage of firms is to focus on shaping the heterogeneity of as many elements of the firm as its paying customers would deem valuable. This sort of orchestration of resources will eventually secure what we call valuable heterogeneity. Going beyond the role of a design in creating rents above and beyond what other firms can imagine, our claim focuses executive and employee attention toward the ways in which heterogeneity across the firm is a fundamental driver of its success. The ease with which the firm’s heterogeneous characteristics can be eroded or replicated will determine the duration of the firm’s competitive advantage. If correct, the design-based view suggests that the ideal level of heterogeneity of the firm relative to current competitive conditions and evolution paths adopted by the firm and its competitors is more fundamental to firm existence and profitability than its resources.

Research in Progress-Design strategy is the competitive advantage of firms-180Dong.pdf

11:25am - 11:50am

Evolution of Design Thinking Capabilities

Stefano Magistretti, Claudio Dell'Era, Roberto Verganti

School of Management, Politecnico di Milano, Italy

Design and especially design thinking is becoming a strategic source of competitive advantage. From its business theorization in the early 2000s, the adoption and awareness in both academics and practitioners’ world are unmeasurable. Today the attention of academics is no more only on the process and its phases, inspiration, ideation, and implementation but more and more attention are positioned on the team dynamics and the more hidden aspects of such methodology. As a matter of fact, the literature shows that design thinking is not unique but it can be framed in at least four different kinds creative problem solving, sprint execution, creative confidence, and innovation of meaning. The investigation aims at discovering which are the different capabilities characterizing the different kinds of design thinking. Through a survey on the Italian market of service providers of design thinking services, the paper shows the different skills, competencies and attitudes that are more relevant for each of the four kinds of design thinking. This is valuable for both practitioner and academics because it enriches the knowledge on the team composition in terms of capabilities, a still blurred element of the design thinking literature.

Track 4.c-Evolution of Design Thinking Capabilities-291Magistretti_a.pdf
11:00am - 12:40pm6.b 2/4: Design Literacy enabling Critical Innovation Practices
Session Chair: Eva Lutnæs
Session Chair: Janne Beate Reitan
11:00am - 11:25am

Representations of Design Process

Úrsula Bravo1, Erik Bohemia2

1Universidad del Desarrollo, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile; 2Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway

We argue that visual representations of design processes contribute toward social and material practices of design(ing). They are used as didactic devices. We will discuss them using metaphors to illustrate that they are active material devices of which circulation, production and consumption are informed and informing perceived complexities, ambiguities and paradoxes associated with design. We propose a follow-up study to investigate how teachers and designers use and interpret visual design process models. The reason is to identify how these models are informing what design is as we are interested to understand how these models are contributing to the development of Design Literacies.

Track 6.b-Representations of Design Process-295Bravo_a.pdf

11:25am - 11:50am

Working Together - Cooperation or Collaboration?

Randi Veiteberg Kvellestad1, Ingeborg Stana2, Gunhild Vatn3

1Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway; 2Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway; 3Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway

Teamwork involves different types of interactions and is necessary in education and a number of other professions. ‘Working Together’ was an action-research project in design education for specialised teacher training in design, arts, and crafts at the … University. The project included three student groups in the material areas of drawing, ceramics, and textiles. The differences between cooperation and collaboration underline the role of the teacher in influencing group dynamics. These dynamics represent both a foundation for professional design education and a prequalification for students’ competences as teachers and for critical evaluation. The project developed the participants’ patience, manual skills, creativity, and abilities; these personal qualities are important for design education and innovation and represent cornerstones of almost every design literacy and business environment. The hope is that students will also be able to transform this competence to teaching pupils of all ages.

Track 6.b-Working Together-259Kvellestad_a.pdf

11:50am - 12:15pm

Social innovation for modified consumption by means of the school subject Art and craft

Anita Neuberg

Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway

In this paper I will take a look at how one can facilitate the change in consumption through social innovation, based on the subject of art and design in Norwegian general education. This paper will give a presentation of books, featured relevant articles and formal documents put into context to identify different causal mechanisms around our consumption. The discussion will be anchored around the resources and condition that must be provided to achieve and identify opportunities for action under the subject of Art and craft, a subject in Norwegian general education with designing at the core of the subject, ages 6–16. The question that this paper points toward is:

"How can we, based on the subject of Art and craft in primary schools, facilitate the change in consumption through social innovation?”

Track 6.b-Social innovation for modified consumption by means-326Neuberg_a.pdf
11:00am - 12:40pmCases 4/5: Case Studies from the Frontlines of Design Innovation Management
Session Chair: Charlotta Windahl
Session Chair: Aaron Fry
11:00am - 11:15am

Design Thinking in Law School: A Case Study of SoloSuit

Curtis Anderson, Bryan F. Howell

Brigham Young University, United States of America

LawX is an interdisciplinary educational experience sponsored by the J. Reuben Clark Law School at Brigham Young University. This course was designed to address a challenging social justice issue utilizing design thinking methods. The experience integrated human centred design methods with legal requirements and processes. Law students researched, designed, and validated a fully functional digital legal product in one semester. The students personally gained an empathetic understanding of the products stakeholders; users, court judges, legal/judicial clerks, development engineers, and user experience designers, then interlaced the legal constraints and court processes to define a meaningful product offering. Using rudimentary product prototypes, students designed and validated product concepts with users and successfully integrated both the non-legal and legal components of the project from the earliest stages. SoloSuit, is an online digital tool to assist people who have been sued appropriately respond to the initial legal procedures of addressing the suit they have been named on. It was launched for public use at the end of the course. The product has won awards, garnered media recognition and has assisted 1000’s of users. This paper addresses the processes and issues experienced in the course.

Case Studies-Design Thinking in Law School-381Anderson_a.pdf

11:15am - 11:30am

Equity, Listening, and the Transference of Power

Matthew Alexander Manos

University of Southern California, United States of America

The American Heart Association has almost 100 years of experience uncovering barriers to better health across the United States. Looking to transition towards a more equitable approach to health, the AHA partnered with verynice, a design strategy consultancy, in 2017, to develop a design research toolkit that could understand the needs of rural communities, align scientific understanding with human-centered design, and build capacity for qualitative design research. In 2018, Professor Matthew Manos of the USC Iovine and Young Academy led a group of 19 graduate students on a Professional Practices Residential in Dallas, Texas. Along the way, students developed a series of strategic recommendations for the organization moving forward. In a second application of the toolkit, Professor Manos led 20 additional graduate students in a residential experience with the Children’s Hospital of Los Angeles in 2019. By introducing the framework in the offerings of the Academy, we saw first-hand the power of the methodology in an educational environment as a tool for teaching students how to listen to community needs, and suspend their bias.

Keywords: Design Research, Design Education, Social Impact

Case Studies-Equity, Listening, and the Transference of Power-104Manos_a.pdf

11:30am - 11:45am

Design Thinking Mindset: Exploring the role of mindsets in building design consulting capability

Leanne Sobel1, Jochen Schweitzer1, Bridget Malcolm1, Lars Groeger2

1University of Technology Sydney, Australia; 2Macquarie Graduate School of Management

This case study reflects on the role of design thinking mindsets in building design thinking capability within professional services consultancies. The nine design thinking mindset attributes developed bySchweitzer et. al (2016) formed the basis of five engagements with consultancies including workshops and semi-structured interviews. Data collection and observation by the authors identified key themes relating to the role of design thinking mindsets at an individual, team and organisational level, as well as challenges and opportunities of embedding design thinking mindsets to build capability. The authors believe that capability development through the use of design thinking mindsets has the potential to support professional service consultancies to make more significant progress in embedding design thinking beyond the current focus on methods. Potential experiential learning frameworks and measurement tools are also identified.

Case Studies-Design Thinking Mindset-154Sobel_a.pdf

11:45am - 12:00pm

Designing a business unit and creating the first ever responsive kitchen.

Tommaso Cora, Paolo Festa, Lucilla Fazio

Tipic, Italy

Is it possible to transform stone into a technological and innovative device?

The meeting with one of the main stone transformers in Europe produced the intention of a disruptive operation that could affect the strategy of the whole company. A contagious singularity.

By intertwining LEAN methodologies and the human-centric approach of design thinking, we mapped the value creation in the company activating a dialogue with the workers and the management, listening to people, asking for ambitions, discovering problems and the potential of production.

This qualitative and quantitative analysis conducted with a multidisciplinary approach by designers, architects and marketing strategists allowed us to define a new method. We used it to design a platform that could let all the players to express their potential to the maximum.

This is how the group's research laboratory was born, with the aim of promoting the relationship between humans and stone through product innovation.

With this goal, we coordinated the new team, developing technologies that would allow creating more direct relationship between man and surface, making the stone reactive. The result was the first responsive kitchen ever.

Case Studies-Designing a business unit and creating the first ever responsive kitchen-129Cora_a.pdf

12:00pm - 12:15pm

Designing a coherent land registration system for rural Portugal

Miguel Azevedo Coutinho, Tiago Nunes, Rui Quinta

With Company, Portugal

After almost a century of several attempts to establish a coherent land registration system across the whole country, in 2017 the Portuguese government decided to try a new, digital native, approach to the problem. Thus, a web-based platform was created where property owners from 10 pilot municipalities could manually identify its properties using a map based on satellite images.

After the first month of submissions, it became clear that at the current rate, it would take years to achieve the goal of getting to 100% of rural properties identification across the 10 municipalities.

With on field research during the first month after launch, we were able to understand owners relationships with their land, map their struggles with the platform, and prototype ways to improve the whole service. Because all these improvements would still not be enough to get to the necessary daily rate, we proposed, tested and validated an algorithm that allows us to identify a rural property shape and location without coordinates.

Today, we are able to help both Government and owners identify a rural property’s location with the click of a button.

Case Studies-Designing a coherent land registration system for rural Portugal-150Azevedo Coutinho_a.pdf

12:15pm - 12:30pm

Designing and Developing Entrepreneurial Culture for a Small UK Based University

Louise Valentine

University of Dundee, United Kingdom

An undeniable truth is the rise of status and responsibility assigned to Enterprise and Entrepreneurship within the UK Higher Education Institutions, as a means of crafting a more competitive economy. With a growing interest in this area from the Creative Industries, there is a need to articulate the entrepreneurship developments more often, and pinpoint where, how, and to what degree, design innovation management research is supporting this in a meaningful manner. It shares why the development of entrepreneurial culture has been purposefully designed and offers insight into how this has been achieved. This is to give a tangible example of design as a strategy for leadership.

The case study is a reflection on practice; a contemplative dialogue on design innovation management research as agency for cultural change and development of a process of becoming an entrepreneurial university. It is an example of work undertaken to create an outward-facing, more networked entrepreneurial culture within a small UK based university, as well as leveraging adjacent cultural and economic resources as part of a more entrepreneurial ecosystem within the residing city and country. It discusses a grand-scale entrepreneurial activity within a traditionally rigid structure i.e. a University, as a means of sharing how design innovation management can be used to nudge cultural change over the medium term and beyond design’s own discipline and culture. It captures the essence of concept development using a macro lens. In addition to deploying traditional methods, the work uses a dynamic participatory process, designed to grow iteratively and deliberatively working with people as collaborators throughout. The five key learnings shared are the importance of making entrepreneurship a strategic priority; employ design as a strategy for developing an entrepreneurial culture; uphold the act of being inclusive; value a strategically activist approach, and actively manage risk using design principles.

Case Studies-Designing and Developing Entrepreneurial Culture for a Small UK Based University-145Valentine_a.pdf
12:40pm - 2:00pmDay 2: Lunch
Foyer: Loughborough University London 
2:00pm - 3:40pm1.b 2/2: Re-Designing Health: Transforming Systems, Practices and Care
Session Chair: Aidan Rowe
Session Chair: Stephanie VandenBerg
2:00pm - 2:25pm

Gaining patient experience insights: an integrated and multi-leveled framework of information

Maitane Garcia-Lopez, Ester Val, Ion Iriarte, Raquel Olarte, Marina Gonzalez-Zubiaurre

Design Innovation Center (DBZ), Mondragon Unibertsitatea – Faculty of Engineering

Taking patient experience as a basis, this paper introduces a theoretical framework, to capture insights leading to new technological healthcare solutions. Targeting a recently diagnosed type 1 diabetes child and her mother (the principal caregiver), the framework showed its potential with effective identification of meaningful insights in a generative session. The framework is based on the patient experience across the continuum of care. It identifies insights from the patient perspective: capturing patients´ emotional and cognitive responses, understanding agents involved in patient experience, uncovering pain moments, identifying their root causes, and/or prioritizing actions for improvement. The framework deepens understanding of the patient experience by providing an integrated and multi-leveled structure to assist designers to (a) empathise with the patient and the caregiver throughout the continuum of care, (b) understand the interdependencies around the patient and different agents and (c) reveal insights at the interaction level.

Track 1.b-Gaining patient experience insights-253Garcia-Lopez_a.pdf

2:25pm - 2:50pm

A Collaboration of University and Civil Society Organisation: Development of a Web-Based Platform for Promoting Accessibility in Design

Abdusselam Selami Cifter1, Ramazan Bas2, Sema Ergonul1

1Mimar Sinan Fine Arts University, Turkey; 2Spinal Cord Paralytics Association of Turkey

Accessibility is a fundamental element and a basic requirement of our daily lives; however, in many cases we are not aware of it unless we encounter its absence. Particularly people with disabilities regularly experience accessibility problems in various domains, where in certain cases these problems even hinder them from accessing to their basic needs. Designers have an important responsibility to design inclusively; however, they need a diverse range of reliable and up-to-date information for this, which also fits with their requirements. This paper presents an example of a collaboration of university-civil society organisation within the scope of “I CAN ACCESS” project, which aimed to develop a web-based platform for designers’ use in Turkey in an effort to increase their awareness on accessibility and assist them to design inclusively. The paper particularly focuses on the advantages of collaborations between civil society organisations and universities by revealing their specific resources and possibilities.

Track 1.b-A Collaboration of University and Civil Society Organisation-270Cifter_a.pdf

2:50pm - 3:15pm

Design as an Agent for Public Policy Innovation

Federico Vaz, Sharon Prendeville

Loughborough University London, United Kingdom

Described as units developing public policies in a design-oriented manner, Policy Labs are tasked to innovate to gain in policy effectiveness and efficiency. However, as public policymaking is a context-dependent activity, the way in which these novel organisations operate significantly differs. This study discusses the emergence of design approaches for policy innovation. The purpose is to map how Policy Labs in Europe introduce design approaches at distinct stages of the policymaking cycle. For this study, 30 organisations in Europe operating at various levels of government were surveyed. Based on the public policymaking process model, it investigates which design methods are Policy Labs deploying to innovate public policies. The study exposed a gap in the awareness of the utilised methods' nature. It also showed that the use of design methods is of less importance than the introduction of design mindsets for public policy innovation, namely ‘user-centredness’, ‘co-creation’, and ‘exploration’.

Track 1.b-Design as an Agent for Public Policy Innovation-231Vaz_a.pdf
2:00pm - 3:40pm2.a 1/1: Decolonising Knowledge to Transform Societies
Session Chair: Vanissa Wanick
Session Chair: Nusa Fain
2:00pm - 2:25pm

Colonizing Innovation: The Case of Jugaad

Abhinav Chaturvedi1, Alf Rehn2

1Bennett University, India; 2University of South Denmark

Innovation is one of the most popular concepts and desired phenomena of contemporary Western capitalism. As such, there is a perennial drive to capture said phenomena, and particularly to find new ways to incite and drive the same. In this text, we analyze one specific tactic through which this is done, namely by the culturally colonial appropriation of indigenous knowledge systems. By looking to how jugaad, a system of frugal innovation in India, has been made into fodder for Western management literature, we argue for the need of a more developed innovation critique, e.g., by looking to postcolonial theory.

Track 2.a-Colonizing Innovation-261Chaturvedi_a.pdf

2:25pm - 2:50pm

Understanding Development Discourse through Ontological Design: The case of South Korea

Boeun Bethany Hong, Sharon Prendeville

Loughborough University London, United Kingdom

Discourse is a powerful way of understanding/forming the world. It consolidates/disassembles society by conforming/disarticulating. However, the work of discourses has not been explained sufficiently in terms of design theory. In this respect, this paper aims to explore how the work of discourses can be understood in relation to the concept of ontological design, especially from the perspective of coloniality. The case of South Korea’s development experience around different types of development assistance strategies was used to interrogate this question. A hermeneutic approach and discourse analysis were adopted for the empirical analysis. The research found the designed development assistance strategies of the “West” design back the development thinking and new development assistance strategies in South Korea. In doing so, the country replicates the “West-centred” discourse of developmentalism. From this, we conclude that discourses are shared through the ontological practices of designing. This informs design studies of how discourse relates to design.

Track 2.a-Understanding Development Discourse through Ontological Design-241Hong_a.pdf

2:50pm - 3:15pm

Decolonising Namibian Arts and Design through Improvisation

Melanie Augusta Sarantou, Caoimhe Isha Beaule, Satu Anneli Miettinen

University of Lapland, Australia

The research investigates the role of service design and improvisation as decolonising practice. It is based on case study research with a focus group consisting of Namibian artists, designers, artisans and arts organisations who participated in artistic and cultural exchange activities of the Art South-South Trust (ASST), a start-up Namibian not for profit (NFP) organisation. The goal of ASST was to increase visibility of the focus group members, enable global exposure and create an arena for multi-vocality. The paper creates a practical framework for decolonising practices in Namibian arts and design by drawing on reflective practice to analyse the activities of ASST alongside interview data collected from Namibian and Australian partner organisations and participants in the program. Critical thinking is used to evaluate the impact of realised activities and processes both in situ in Namibia and in exchange in Australia. This paper explores practices that can enable decolonising processes in Namibian arts and design spheres.

Track 2.a-Decolonising Namibian Arts and Design through Improvisation-364Sarantou_a.pdf

3:15pm - 3:40pm

Design, power and colonization: decolonial and anti-oppressive explorations on three approaches for Design for Sustainability

Nicholas Baroncelli Torretta1, Lizette Reitsma2

1Umeå University, Sweden; 2Rise Interactive, Sweden

Our contemporary world is organized in a modern/colonial structure. As people, professions and practices engage in cross-country Design for Sustainability (DfS), projects have the potential of sustaining or changing modern/colonial power structures. In such project relations, good intentions in working for sustainability do not directly result in liberation from modern/colonial power structures. In this paper we introduce three approaches in DfS that deal with power relations. Using a Freirean (1970) decolonial perspective, we analyse these approaches to see how they can inform DfS towards being decolonial and anti-oppressive. We conclude that steering DfS to become decolonial or colonizing is a relational issue based on the interplay between the designers’ position in the modern/colonial structure, the design approach chosen, the place and the people involved in DfS. Hence, a continuous critical reflexive practice is needed in order to prevent DfS from becoming yet another colonial tool.

Track 2.a-Design, power and colonization-314Baroncelli Torretta_a.pdf
2:00pm - 3:40pm4.c 3/3: Transformation IN and BY Design Thinking
Session Chair: Claudio Dell'Era
Session Chair: Stefano Magistretti
LDN.0.17 & 0.18 
2:00pm - 2:25pm

Using Corpus Linguistics to Analyse How Design Research Frames Design Thinking

Aysar Ghassan

Coventry University, United Kingdom

Academic research communities create knowledge which helps them to claim authority over their investigative domain. The knowledge is not necessary objectively true—often it is skewed to help communities to claim legitimacy. This paper investigates how the design research community frames ‘Design Thinking’, a key concept in design research. Existing literature identifies skewed methods which the community uses when framing Design Thinking. The literature suggests that creating an artificial separation between the ways that designers and scientists think helps the community to claim knowledge on Design Thinking. To further investigate how the community creates knowledge, this paper subjects abstracts from peer-reviewed journal papers which focus on Design Thinking to empirical analysis using Corpus Linguistics methods. The study suggests that use of ‘nominals’ and the creation of ‘meta-knowledge’ helps researchers to claim authority on Design Thinking. These practices appear however to perpetuate an artificial separation between Design Thinking and other design domains.

Track 4.c-Using Corpus Linguistics to Analyse How Design Research Frames Design Thinking-302Ghassan_a.pdf

2:25pm - 2:50pm

Digital Design – Secret Histories and Hidden Practices

John Knight1, Tom McEwan2, Alan Dix3

1Aalto University of Arts, Design and Architecture, United Kingdom; 2Independent Consultant; 3Computational Foundry, Swansea University

Digital design practice is distinctive in its relationship to material and focus on fabricating that into interactive products and services. It’s a discipline that has evolved from significantly different disciplines: Product Design and Human-computer Interaction (HCI). The foundational role that HCI played in the growth of digital design is largely hidden, as is the secret world of design practice. These two shrouded phenomena have evolved within from early user interface research, through user experience, to today’s post-agile world and tomorrow’s open design. We report ten years of first-hand accounts to create a grounded, contextualised and evidence-based account of design in the real-world. There are many discrepancies between this ‘account of practice’ and the orthodox model of design, and computer science for that matter. In reality, digital design has evolved into a unique hybrid activity that has continually accrued traces of its evolving academic heritage and commercial application.

Track 4.c-Digital Design – Secret Histories and Hidden Practices-360Knight_a.pdf

2:50pm - 3:15pm

Exploring the Fourth Order: Designing Organizational Infrastructure

Joannes Barend Klitsie1, Rebecca Anne Price1, Christine De Lille2

1Delft University of Technology, Netherlands, The; 2The Hague University of Applied Sciences, Netherlands, The

Companies are organised to fulfil two distinctive functions: efficient and resilient exploitation of current business and parallel exploration of new possibilities. For the latter, companies require strong organisational infrastructure such as team compositions and functional structures to ensure exploration remains effective. This paper explores the potential for designing organisational infrastructure to be part of fourth order subject matter. In particular, it explores how organisational infrastructure could be designed in the context of an exploratory unit, operating in a large heritage airline. This paper leverages insights from a long-term action research project and finds that building trust and shared frames are crucial to designing infrastructure that affords the greater explorative agenda of an organisation.

Track 4.c-Exploring the Fourth Order-227Klitsie_a.pdf

3:15pm - 3:40pm

The practice of ‘managing as designing’

Mustafa Selçuk Çıdık1, Vedran Zerjav2, Vasiliki Papagiannopoulou3

1School of the Built Environment and Architecture, London South Bank University; 2Bartlett School of Construction and Project Management, University College London; 3Faithful + Gould

Recent studies of ‘design thinking’ for management have criticized the current focus on principles and tools of design thinking, for creating an over-simplified view of a complex process. As a response, this paper sets out to study the empirical details of ‘doing designing’ in order to explore what ‘managing as designing’ involves in practice. Adopting a practice-based theoretical orientation, the paper presents findings from the design meetings of three residential refurbishment projects in the UK. The findings suggest that the management of design practices was accomplished through everyday interactions during which the nature and level of uncertainty of various issues were established, and the corresponding adaptive and innovative courses of actions were developed. Based on these insights, it is concluded that ‘managing as designing’ is primarily about facilitation of everyday organizational interactions, and leadership for the reconciliation of various concerns of multiple stakeholders.

Track 4.c-The practice of ‘managing as designing’-352Çıdık_a.pdf
2:00pm - 3:40pm5.j: Innovation Through Design for Meaning
Session Chair: Marco Ajovalasit
Session Chair: Alison Rieple
2:00pm - 2:25pm

Making Markets: The Role of Design in the Process of Legitimation

Aimee Huff2, Ashlee Humphreys3, Sarah JS Wilner1

1Wilfrid Laurier University, Canada; 2Oregon State University; 3Northwestern University

We examine the impact of design on the evolution of a product market from illicit to mainstream. We argue the importance of congruence with normative and cultural-cognitive structures in fostering legitimacy. To understand the role of product design in this process, we conducted an ethnographic study of the newly-legal recreational cannabis market in the US, a market that has attained regulatory acceptance in some states but lacks normative and cultural-cognitive legitimacy. By analyzing product design and interviewing managers, we find that design plays a pivotal role in legitimation. Producers transform a market by manipulating two distinct aspects of materiality: material in relation – how products relate to accepted products, and material in use – how design guides and enables consumption. We offer a framework for managing products in new markets, arguing that design can enable legitimacy by drawing on symbolic relationships to other products, considering affordances, and enhancing strategic socio-cultural innovation.

Track 5.j-Making Markets-282Huff_a.pdf

2:25pm - 2:50pm

Meaning of artefacts: interpretations can differ between designers and consumers

Marco Ajovalasit1, Joseph Giacomin2

1Politecnico di Milano, Italy; 2Brunel University London, United Kingdom

Previous research has suggested three primary categories of meaning which designers should consider during their design processes, i.e. function, ritual and myth, which cover a spectrum from the purely instrumental to the purely symbolic. The research hypothesis of the current study was that the previously identified three primary categories of meaning would be commonly encountered in practice, and that statistically significant differences would occur between designers and consumers. A semi-structured questionnaire was deployed with ten designers and with ten consumers using a set of twenty photographs of designed artefacts. The results suggested that all three categories of meaning could occur individually or could be co-present to some degree. The results further suggested that statistically significant differences occurred between the group of designers and the group of consumers in the indicated category of meaning and in the adjectives used to describe the artefacts. The findings suggest that some meaning divergences may be occurring between designers and consumers, and would appear to highlight the need for carefully executed ethnographic and user testing activities.

Track 5.j-Meaning of artefacts-266Ajovalasit_a.pdf

2:50pm - 3:15pm

Design for Meaning of Smart Connected Products

Ilaria Vitali1, Venanzio Arquilla1, Innocenzo Rifino2

1Politecnico di Milano, Italy; 2Habits studio

This paper tackles the topic of meaning-driven innovation from a Product Design perspective. It focuses on the design of Smart Connected Products: internet-enabled phygital products that blend hardware and software. This category of products represents a positive field of exploration for meaning-driven innovation. The paper highlights three kinds of meaning that are relevant for Smart Connected Products: the meaningful identity of the object as product category, the meaning of the product in relation to its shape and functionality, and in relation to a phygital ecosystem. The paper reflects on the methods that can support designers in the development of meaningful smart products and presents the “Mapping the IoT” Toolkit, a downloadable tool that guides in specific activities aimed at framing the product’s meaning. Tests with the Toolkit proved the effectiveness of using cards with critical questions as a way to deepen design concepts and reach a common, meaningful vision.

Track 5.j-Design for Meaning of Smart Connected Products-251Vitali_a.pdf
2:00pm - 3:40pm6.b 3/4: Design Literacy enabling Critical Innovation Practices
Session Chair: Liv Merete Nielsen
Session Chair: Catalina Cortés
2:00pm - 2:25pm

Adaptive digital capability development: Professional learning for educators across disciplines

J. Fiona Peterson1, Cathy Lockhart2, Catherine Raffaele2

1Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand; 2University of Technology Sydney, Australia

In a cross-university project, a mixed methods approach was adopted to design a learning model for digital work practices in line with evolving industry needs. Drawing upon industry input (n=50), developmental learning and technology affordance theory, a model was trialled with Design, Journalism and Engineering students (n=78). Workshops were held at five universities with educators (n=66) and this paper discusses their perspectives on the model. Their responses indicated a predominantly functional digital capability focus in their current learning and teaching practice; rather than integrating functional, perceptual and adaptive digital capabilities, in high demand but short supply in industry. The educators highlighted a need for their own professional learning. We offer practical suggestions for moving beyond a functional digital focus and argue that it is vital for students and educators to learn and use the vocabulary of technology affordances, to strengthen professional learning for digital work futures.

Track 6.b-Adaptive digital capability development-237Peterson_a.pdf

2:25pm - 2:50pm

Democratizing Design: Can Higher Education Survive?

Rebecca Kelly

Syracuse University: VPA, School of Design, United States of America

The tools and techniques of graphic design have become accessible to the public at large to such a degree that the profession itself may be threatened with extinction. At the same time, design literacy — the knowledge and reasoning beyond the use of those techniques — does not seem to be experiencing the same widespread dissemination. In order to re-establish its value, the design profession must introduce a higher level of insight beyond the mere the decoration of artefacts – an ability to understand “big picture” concepts and to work across disciplines to become involved in every step of a project, from concept to completion. Thus, U.S. undergraduate design education must change as well. Educators must be innovative in order to prepare a new generation to evolve quickly and continuously. Programs must be fluid and adaptable, which requires educators to treat their curricula as design problems, to be solved with radical thinking and creativity.

Track 6.b-Democratizing Design-402Kelly_a.pdf

2:50pm - 3:15pm

Design Thinking Mindset: Developing Creative Confidence

Lars Groeger1,2, Jochen Schweitzer3, Leanne Sobel3, Bridget Malcolm3

1MGSM, Macquarie University, Australia; 2RWTH Aachen University, Germany; 3University of Technology Sydney, Australia

While knowledge of design thinking (DT) processes and familiarity with its tools can be achieved relatively quickly, few educational programs foster a DT mindset. This study examines the effect of an experiential DT learning environment on the development of a DT mindset. We analyse the extent to which key attributes of a DT mindset are understood, evaluated and assessed. We show that the general value and related challenges of learning a DT mindset are well understood. However, students perceive the importance and value of particular mindset attributes differently; in particular, postgraduate student reflections provide a nuanced and interlinked view of different mindset attributes. We provide a framework for learning objectives and exemplary activities to teach and encourage designerly ways of thinking and doing in business education. We argue that a mindset that embodies DT can address deficits in business school education, better preparing students for future work.

Track 6.b-Design Thinking Mindset-288Groeger_a.pdf

3:15pm - 3:40pm

Stressors and creativity in Industrial Design practice

John Richard McCardle, Samuel Dempsey, Max Humberstone

Loughborough Design School, United Kingdom

Current literature suggests that stress influences creativity, however further research is required concerning this relationship with a focus on education. Current views are clearly divided on whether any negative effects on creativity are more dictated by environmental stressors or the reactions of individuals whilst under stress. For this study, participants completed a questionnaire comprising of a perceived stress scale and thematic questions, to give an indication of whether they were more influenced by environmental stressors or their individual reactions to stress. Two Torrance tests of creativity were conducted to assess creativity over a two-week period as time pressures increased. The results suggested that participants who identified as being more affected by their own negative reactions to stress displayed a lower calibre of creativity when time-pressure increased, whereas the participants who were suggested to be more influenced by their environment remained at a relatively constant perceived level of creativity.

Track 6.b-Stressors and creativity in Industrial Design practice-392McCardle_a.pdf
4:00pm - 5:40pm6.b 4/4: Design Literacy enabling Critical Innovation Practices
Session Chair: Eva Lutnæs
Session Chair: Ursula Bravo
4:00pm - 4:25pm

Complexity, interdisciplinarity and design literacy

Tore Andre Ringvold, Liv Merete Nielsen

OsloMet University, Norway

In today’s complex world, a variety of perspectives are needed to better understand and solve challenges. For decades, global organisations and researchers have pointed to interdisciplinarity as a way forward for educational systems. Educational research offers great possibilities and gains for students involved in interdisciplinary teaching and learning processes, and the interdisciplinary nature of design thinking and practice can play a vital role in interdisciplinary general education. This paper explores how future scenario-building, as part of general design education, can serve as a framework for inter-disciplinarity in general education and contribute to a better understanding of complex problems, challenges and design literacy.

Track 6.b-Complexity, interdisciplinarity and design literacy-244Ringvold_a.pdf

4:25pm - 4:50pm

Networking for strengthening design literacy

Irene Brodshaug, Janne Beate Reitan

Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway

This article focuses on design education for the general public and the ways in which students and teachers can become more design literate through the development of networks, such as professional groups for teachers. The aim of professional groups is to create a structure that focuses on design competency among Design, Art and Crafts teachers as well as design education in Norway’s primary and secondary schools. Etienne Wenger's theories of community of practice and Unn Stålsett's theory about the development of networking through professional groups are highlighted in this study through the comparison of two municipalities in conjunction with informant interviews. The emphasis of this study is on how each municipality gives time and space for the development of design competence through professional groups. A well-organized professional group will hopefully contribute to a deeper level of expertise in schools and an increased ability for the general public to recognize design education.

Track 6.b-Networking for strengthening design literacy-384Brodshaug_a.pdf
4:00pm - 5:40pmCases 5/5: Case Studies from the Frontlines of Design Innovation Management
Session Chair: Aaron Fry
Session Chair: Rebecca Cain
4:00pm - 4:15pm

Development of JIT patient-specific implants: design-led approach to healthcare and manufacturing transformation in an Australian context

Leanne Sobel, Katrina Skellern, Kat Pereira

University of Technology Sydney, Australia

Design thinking and human-centred design is often discussed and utilised by teams and organisations seeking to develop more optimal, effective or innovative solutions for better customer outcomes. In the healthcare sector the opportunity presented by the practice of human-centred design and design thinking in the pursuit of better patient outcomes is a natural alignment. However, healthcare challenges often involve complex problem sets, many stakeholders, large systems and actors that resist change. High-levels of investment and risk aversion results in the status quo of traditional technology-led processes and analytical decision-making dominating product and strategy development. In this case study we present the opportunities, challenges and benefits that including a design-led approach in developing complex healthcare technology can bring. Drawing on interviews with participants and reflections from the project team, we explore and articulate the key learning from using a design-led approach. In particular we discuss how design-led practices that place patients at the heart of technology development facilitated the project team in aligning key stakeholders, unearthing critical system considerations, and identifying product and sector-wide opportunities.

Case Studies-Development of JIT patient-specific implants-157Sobel_a.pdf

4:15pm - 4:30pm

Discovery – co-designing the software requirements for use in Community Dental Services in the NHS

Lucille Valentine1, Rebecca Wassall1,2

1Newcastle University UK; 2NHS

1. A dentist working in Community Dental Services (CDS) in the Northumberland Healthcare Trust of the NHS wanted to develop open source software to use in their clinics since most of the systems that they currently use are paper-based. The question was, what should the software look like?

2. Here, where teeth are the easy part, oral health services are provided for patients with very complex or special needs or disabilities including autism, dementia and phobias. All NHS Trusts deliver these services and four Trusts with varying software systems agreed to second staff for half a day a week for six months to take part in the discovery. Co-design workshops were facilitated by the care analyst every second week and in alternate weeks staff were given tasks to do at their Trust clinics; observing, timing, collecting forms and data.

3. Each Trust has its own version of every piece of management form. At first people act as though their document flow represents the pathways that should be “automated”. Software specification in the NHS is often done by people without special skills or experience but persistent co-design delivered an agreed patient care pathway as well as an extended narrative for future software development.

Case Studies-Discovery – co-designing the software requirements-147Valentine_a.pdf

4:30pm - 4:45pm

Applying design to gender equality programming

Isabella Gady1, Nancy Khweiss2, Sara de la Peña Espín2, María Tarancón2

1Parsons School of Design; 2Fund for Gender Equality (UN Women)

This case study explores the application of design methods and tools in women’s rights programming and feminist grant making - both areas that are, despite growing interest and evidence on potential benefits, still rather underexplored.

In 2018, following its first independent evaluation and with the aim to increase its grantees‘ impact and capabilities, the Fund for Gender Equality, a grant-making mechanism of the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women, launched Re-Think.Experiment., an initiative exploring the potential for design to serve as a tool for innovation of programs.

Through providing training in key principles of the design process and a safe space for experimentation, nine women-led civil society organizations operating in eleven countries have been equipped with tools and methodologies tailored to their needs to address specific project challenges.

This case study introduces the context, process and initial results of the initiative and discusses whether hopes for design to serve as a tool to foster innovation were met. Furthermore, it offers a critical reflection on its limitations, the need for contextualizing tools, and growing opportunities by marrying design methods with other social innovation disciplines.

Case Studies-Applying design to gender equality programming-153Gady_a.pdf

4:45pm - 5:00pm

Applying Equity Design to Address Oakland’s Homelessness Human Rights Crisis

Julia Kramer, Julia Kong, Brooke Staton, Pierce Gordon

Reflex Design Collective, United States of America

In this case study, we present a project of Reflex Design Collective, an experimental social equity design consultancy based in Oakland, California. Since founding Reflex Design Collective four years ago, we have reimagined the role of “designers” to transform relationships structured by oppression. To illustrate this reimagination, we present a case study of our work as ecosystem-shifters. In 2017, we facilitated a co-design innovation summit where unhoused Oakland residents led collaborative efforts to alleviate the burdens of homelessness, with city staff and housed residents serving as allies instead of experts. Our approach to design facilitation differs from a typical design thinking process by pairing our clients with those on the front-lines of social inequity in a collaborative design process. Specifically, we elevate the importance of democratized design teams, contextualized design challenges, and ongoing reflection in a design process.

We highlight successes of our design facilitation approach in the Oakland homelessness summit, including outcomes and areas for improvement. We then draw higher-level key learnings from our work that are translatable to designers and managers at large. We believe our approach to equity design will provide managers and designers an alternative mindset aimed to amplify the voices of marginalized groups and stakeholders.

Case Studies-Applying Equity Design to Address Oakland’s Homelessness Human Rights Crisis-151Kramer_a.pdf
4:00pm - 5:40pmw10.453: Workshop
4:00pm - 5:40pm

Shelter after disaster management. New approaches by design driven innovation

Felix Bendito, Pablo Bris

Higher Technical School of Industrial Design and Engineering / Technical University of Madrid, Spain

Despite several stakeholders involved in the shelter after disaster management, like academia or the private sector, are focused on the introduction of new products and on direct action, innovation in this sector is today more likely to be concerned with improvements in process and more related with facilitation.

Design driven innovation (DDI) focused on services, has clear potential to lead the sector in interesting and important new directions.

Workshops-Shelter after disaster management New approaches by design driven innovation-453Bendito_a.pdf
4:00pm - 5:40pmw7.468: Workshop
4:00pm - 5:40pm

Discovering design narratives to humanize organizations

Andrea Augsten1, Titta Jylkäs2, Bernadette Geuy3, Rachel Hollowgrass4, Marjukka Mäkelä Klippi5

1University of Wuppertal, Germany; 2University of Lapland, Finland; 3Independent Service Design Consultant, San Francisco; 4University of California, Berkeley; 5AaltoUniversity, Finland

Workshop Purpose and Aims

Human-centered design approaches have emerged in business organizations since the rise of service design and design thinking. As a consequence, designers have been shifting their role from pure aesthetics towards innovating. Thus, in this workshop, we look at the role of design and designer in the frame of designing organizations. Lots of designers are becoming involved in strategic projects in the context of organizational change, such as creating a more creative, design-driven work attitude, bringing a human perspective into existing processes and acknowledging employee’s individual diversity. But, do designers feel prepared for that? Are they aware of the organizational design narratives of companies?

Mostly, the introduction of new practices labeled as design thinking or service design is not adapted to the organizational circumstances, company values, habits, beliefs and experiences. However, we believe that each company would benefit from emphasizing its design narrative while introducing employees to new design practices in order to exploit its full potential and stay healthy as an organization.

Especially identifying solutions that fit both to the needs of users and to the organizational environment is challenging. Here, the lack of communication about an organizational design narrative challenges the work of a designer. Rather, the use of design activities is seen through new initiatives, such as labs, workspaces and innovation projects that aim to disrupt the organization towards more human-centric culture.

We, the workshop convenors, did a conceptual literature review to explore the topic of humanizing an organization by building upon co-created dimensions that have been developed with design scholars and practitioners in 2018. We identified four aggregated themes around management, design and organizational change. Each theme describes one aspect relevant to humanizing an organization.

During the workshop, participants use the two dimensions of pre-text and context of organizational design narratives as a basis for creating future scenarios for strategies to humanize an organization. The workshop aims to raise awareness for an organizational design narrative, to strengthen participants sensibility for organizational design practices and to deliver hands-on methods for experiencing and exploiting the approach.

Through a practical workshop approach, we are positioning and exploring the phenomena of humanizing organizations in design research by linking historical roots with complex issues currently arising in the context of design management and organizational change.

Theoretical Relation

The idea of reflecting and being aware of the organizational design narrative is firstly claimed by Junginger and Bailey in 2017. According to them (2017, p.39), a design narrative aligns the design pre-text and the design context of an organization with other narratives and reconstructs the organizational journey, the design practices, design principles and design methods, as well as fosters its resilience.

Workshop Approach

Through the interactive workshop concept, we introduce a design framework built through a selection of tools and methods to help participants first to identify an organizational design narrative, and second, to create future scenarios with strategies for fitting the organizational design narrative to design activities for a more humanized organization.

The workshop structure is built through three main parts:

1. Introduction: The workshop topic is introduced by the convenors through synthesized results of the literature review in a presentation of maximum 20 minutes at the beginning of the workshop. The presentation also includes the introduction of the workshop agenda.

2. Interactive team work: After the introduction, the participants are divided into groups working on the given main themes identified in the literature review.

a. The teams are given a description of their theme, as well as a predefined organizational context as a basis for the exercise.

b. After getting familiar with the material, teams are guided through an exercise to (1) recognize and complete the dimensions of pre-text and context of the design narrative, and to (2) create a future scenario for humanizing the organization.

c. All materials are provided as paper-based templates.

d. Convenors are guiding the teams through the exercises step by step ending up in a block of 45 minutes in total.

3. Wrap up: At the end of the workshop, each team will present their results, sharing learnings and reflections utilizing the working templates as their structure. The presentations are filmed as short video clips for documentation purposes. (20 min)

The maximum number of participants for the workshop is 30 people. The participants will be divided into groups of maximum five people in each.

Takeaways for the Participants

The workshop exercises will result in narrated future scenarios of humanized organizations. The outcomes serve as a framework for the participants to take design actions in their own or their client's organizations for more humanized practice.

Results and Final Reflections for Consideration

The workshop facilitators are building the workshop upon a literature review in the context of humanizing organizations through design. By transferring the theoretical results in practical exercises and presentable design narratives, the fields of research and practice are linked in a collaborative format. The workshop results will be documented as a workshop report building on the literature review through the notes of the teams on paper templates accompanied by photos and short videos of the presentations.

Workshops-Discovering design narratives to humanize organizations-468Augsten_a.pdf
6:00pm - 9:00pmConference Dinner: Studio9294 + Number90 Bar
Date: Friday, 21/Jun/2019
9:30am - 9:50amDay 3: Registration
10:00am - 10:40amDay 3: Keynote 3: Design Management Research: a Critical Review and Synthesis
Session Chair: Cees de Bont
Session Chair: Nusa Fain

Alison Rieple, University of Westminster

Dr Alison Rieple, is Professor of Strategic Management and the Director of IDEaS (the Innovation, Design Entrepreneurship and Strategy) Research Group at the University of Westminster’s Business School in London, UK. Alison first became aware of and interested in design management through teaching on the University of Westminster’s pioneering MBA in Design Management many years ago. Since then she has been closely involved with the ADIM and its forerunners in organising conferences and championing design management research, such as editing conference proceedings  and special issues of the Design Management Journal.

Her research focuses mainly on management of innovation, especially in the creative and cultural industries. Current projects include the role of the design and innovation ecosystem in the construction of disruptive innovation, particularly related to the Chinese technology sector and 3-D printing, the role of digitization on business strategy, and the role of geography on the fashion designing process. She is the co-author of two books on strategic management and is the co-editor of a book published by Edward Elgar in 2016 on Business Innovation and Disruption in Design. She is currently writing a chapter for the Oxford Handbook of Industry Dynamics on the influences on change in the UK fashion industry over the last hundred years.

11:10am - 12:50pm2.b 1/1: Design & Democracy
Session Chair: John Richard McCardle
Session Chair: Brian Baldassarre
11:10am - 11:35am

Redesign democratic debates

Danielle Arets, Bas Raijmakers

Design Academy Eindhoven, Netherlands, The

For the revitalisation of democracy, healthy public debates are key as many scholars have stressed throughout history. There is currently a genuine cry out to get rid of polarized debates and work towards consensus. However, over time, philosophers as Aristotle (384-322 BC), Arendt (1958), Mouffe (2000, 2005), have convincingly argued that struggle, agony and conflict are part of a healthy democracy and that we need to design rules to retain these conflicts. How can design offer us the means, tools and spaces to better articulate differences and to deal with current polarized debates? To answer this rather ambitious question, we will first sketch how public debates have evolved over time, mapping out the rules that were designed to prevent conflicts to go out of hand. After that we will dive into a specific case study that we explored during a DESIS philosophy workshop during (October 2018). Based on the generated insights, we will demonstrate how design can offer us meaningful tools for constructive debates.

Track 2.b-Redesign democratic debates-274Arets_a.pdf

11:35am - 12:00pm

An Immanent Criticism of Urban Design in Montevideo

Washington Morales Maciel

Universidad de la República (Uruguay), Uruguay

The debate about the so called “excluding design” has been a focus for applied philosophy for several years. The structure of this debate is constituted by deontological and consequentialist’s applied ethics and as well as agonistic democratic approaches. This paper asks for the applicability of these points of view to the particular socio-political reality of Montevideo. Examining this reality closer, I hold that we cannot comprehend the recent aestheticization of the excluding design there through these contemporary philosophical frameworks. As an alternative philosophical procedure, I analyze the aestheticization of excluding design in Montevideo from Rahel Jaeggi’s immanent criticism. I hold that this process of aestheticization implies an ideological regressive “form of life”. And I also argue that the Uruguayan democracy is affected by this ideological regression. Nevertheless, because this aestheticization is not an exclusive Uruguayan phenomenon, this paper intends to open one direction in applied philosophy of urban design.

Track 2.b-An Immanent Criticism of Urban Design in Montevideo-399Morales Maciel_a.pdf

12:00pm - 12:25pm

A Framework for Civic Conversation

Michael Arnold Mages

Northeastern University, United States of America

Systemic changes in people’s relation to democratic government and governance have been widely noted over the last 40 years. Concurrently, participation in civic life has declined. Drawing from approaches in service design, this article proposes a design-led structure for democratic engagement that serves two goals: the provisioning of people’s expertise on policy decisions for governmental use, and scaffolding of civic life. The paper details a structure that has been tested and refined in over 30 community meetings, and suggestions for effectively evaluating meeting outcomes.

Track 2.b-A Framework for Civic Conversation-412Arnold Mages_a.pdf

12:25pm - 12:50pm

‘Democrazy’, designing for democracy in Eastern Europe

Noémi Zajzon, Sharon Prendeville, Burçe Celik

Loughborough University London, United Kingdom

For design to attend to democratic endeavours it is not enough to rest on the claim that design is implicitly political, but to understand how democratisation — often in the name of political modernisation — has designed different social realities. Focusing on the ‘how to’ of infrastructuring for democracy has advanced a designerly politics-in-practice, and exploring political concepts in design experiments have made design more aware of the democratic conflict. Theoretical work-in-progress, this paper asks whether the concepts internalised within design literature are valid enough to think about infrastructuring for democracy in the context of Eastern Europe. We depart from the theoretical and practical difference between design for politics and political design to 1) understand how each of these concepts enable a democracy to come in Eastern Europe’s Romania, and 2) what are the entry points for design research to understand the democratic experience. We explore this through a participatory intervention in Bucharest.

Track 2.b-‘Democrazy’, designing for democracy in Eastern Europe-391Zajzon_a.pdf
11:10am - 12:50pm2.c 1/1: Gender of/in design practice and profession
Session Chair: Eva Lutnæs
Session Chair: Alison Rieple
11:10am - 11:35am

Queer-Sensible Designing: Challenging Normative Gender through an Industrial Design Practice

Silas Denz, Wouter Eggink

University of Twente, Netherlands, The

Conventional design practices regard gender as a given precondition defined by femininity and masculinity. To shift these strategies to include non-heteronormative or queer users, queer theory served as a source of inspiration as well as user sensitive design techniques. As a result, a co-design workshop was developed and executed. Participants supported claims that gender scripts in designed artefacts uphold gender norms. The practice did not specify a definition of a queer design style. However, the co-design practice opened up the design process to non-normative gender scripts by unmasking binary gender dichotomies in industrial design.

Track 2.c-Queer-Sensible Designing-189Denz_a.pdf

11:35am - 12:00pm

Towards the exploration of Gender awareness in Human-centred design

Bahar Khayamian Esfahani, Richard Morris, Mark Erickson

University of Brighton, United Kingdom

The primary aim of the human-centred design (HCD) approach is to identify the user needs. However, we argue that there is a lack of understanding of, and even awareness of, gender in HCD. This approach sees gender as static and stable regarding male or female such that the implication of principles in products, systems or services appeals to one gender or another linking gender differences, and stereotypes. To illustrate this, the investigation was conducted in the context of fostering sun protection behaviour in young men. Participatory design sessions were deployed to investigate the role of gender in the HCD and how it can be used to foster sun protection behaviour. We have concluded the development of a novel gender aware HCD approach and it opens avenues for design research and practice for increasing emphasis on the influence of the designer’s own gender and their gendered perceptions in their designs.

Track 2.c-Towards the exploration of Gender awareness in Human-centred design-416Khayamian Esfahani_a.pdf
11:10am - 12:50pm2.d 1/2: Power and Politics in Design for Transition
Session Chair: joanna boehnert
Session Chair: Matthew Sinclair
11:10am - 11:35am

In Pursuit of Design-led Transitions

Rebecca Anne Price

Delft University of Technology, Netherlands, The

This paper seeks to contribute toward the maturity of transition design. Design-led innovation as transformative methodology is identified as parallel to social innovation in the rise of transition design. A Dutch transition design project with the Dutch Government and food sector is presented to reveal the challenges of working at a system level. Reflection on the project revealed two insights that were not factored within the design approach; (1) the timing of the transition relative to the surrounding environment and; (2) the velocity or speed at which the transition can be fully enacted. The paper shifts to investigating change theories in order to develop new knowledge about how to address these challenges. Practical implications are concluded from this investigation. This paper deals with politics, power, democracy, leadership, enablers and inhibitors of change and at times treads on uncomfortable truths.

Track 2.d-In Pursuit of Design-led Transitions-260Price_a.pdf

11:35am - 12:00pm

The Disconnect Between Design Practice and Political Interests: The Need for a Long-Term Political Engagement as Design Practice

Sofía Bosch Gomez, Hajira Qazi

Carnegie Mellon University, United States of America

Long-term, sustainable transitions cannot occur without working at the political level to address the serious, global political challenges we are facing today. However, the capacity of design as a rigorous component and complement of the political world is yet to be seen. In this paper we discuss surveys we conducted, showing that there is a clear discrepancy between how designers engage in the political process as citizens and as professionals. We also discuss a subsequent workshop which allowed survey participants to explore these questions of roles and agency in greater depth and offered insights into barriers and opportunities. We found the workshop to be an effective method of helping designers identify leverage points and courses to intervene within both the designer’s sphere of influence and sphere of concern. In so doing, we might begin to draw more designers into the critical work of designing for a transition towards more inclusive and equitable socio-political futures.

Track 2.d-The Disconnect Between Design Practice and Political Interests-185Bosch Gomez_a.pdf

12:00pm - 12:25pm

Personal, political, professional: a practice in transition

Niki Wallace

University of South Australia, Australia

It is widely agreed that in order to contribute to transitions towards sustainability, both practitioners and design itself must also transition. This paper presents findings from the first two years of transition in my Australian-based design practice. The paper explores what this transition has required of me personally, politically, and professionally, and draws on cases from my PhD. The PhD and paper are both part of an analytic auto-ethnography of my practice’s transition from ‘making greener things’ towards design for transitions. The projects discussed use ethnography, action research and reflective practices in their temporal approaches. This paper explores how slower methods such as transition design and autonomous design can extend the political reach of a design practice and discusses sacrifice and the financial stabilisation that comes from enveloping old practices within the new. The analysis presented here also reflects on my experiences practicing design for transitions and on data collected through participant engagement.

Track 2.d-Personal, political, professional-210Wallace_a.pdf

12:25pm - 12:50pm

On transforming transition design: from promise to practice

Maaike van Selm, Ingrid Mulder

Delft University of Technology, Netherlands, The

We are living in transitional times. Much has been under debate on the need to change and to cope with societal transitions, less emphasis, however, is devoted on how to do so. Therefore, one of the primary questions in Transition Design is how to design for sustainable transitions? The current work aims to evaluate ‘transition design studies’ by analysing and evaluating the current available practice of transition design in order to contribute to the field in two ways: first, by maturing through evaluation, and second, by identifying points of further research. Our findings show that three phases can be distinguished within transition design processes: Design research to understand past, present, and to envision the future; Designing interventions to create the right thing, at the right place, at the right time, and Design practice for transition that accumulate the design interventions in order to drive societal transitions.

Track 2.d-On transforming transition design-323van Selm_a.pdf
11:10am - 12:50pm5.a 1/2: Transforming Complexities through Design in Collaborative Community-based Processes
Session Chair: Satu Miettinen
Session Chair: Nicola Morelli

11:10am - 11:35am

Articulating a strategic approach to face complexity in design projects: The role of Theory of Change

Luca Simeone1, David Drabble2, Giorgia Iacopini2, Kirsten van Dam1, Nicola Morelli1, Amalia de Götzen1, Joe Cullen2

1Aalborg University, Denmark; 2Tavistock Institute, UK

In today’s world of global wicked problems, constraints and imperatives imposed by an external and uncertain environment render strategic action a quite complex endeavour. Since the 1990s, within community initiatives and philanthropic projects, the construct of Theory of Change has been used to address such complexity. Theory of Change can be defined as the systematic and cumulative study of the links between the activities, outcomes, and context of an intervention. The area of focus for this paper is to explore whether Theory of Change can support more strategic approaches in design. In particular, the paper examines how Theory of Change was applied to DESIGNSCAPES - a project oriented, among other things, toward offering a supporting service for all those city actors interested in using design to develop urban innovation initiatives that tackle complex issues of broad concern.

Track 5.a-Articulating a strategic approach to face complexity-188Simeone_a.pdf

11:35am - 12:00pm

Participatory design in low-resource settings: a case study of Simprints

Lucia Corsini1, Clara B Aranda-Jan2, Cassi Henderson1, James Moultrie1

1University of Cambridge, United Kingdom; 2University College London, United Kingdom

Participatory design is a widely recognised approach in Design for Development projects. It supports collaborative, community-based practices and it empowers users to take ownership. Despite the importance of participatory design in solving global challenges, the majority of research has focused its application in the Global North. Recently, some studies have explored participatory design methods in more low-resource settings. Still there is a gap between the existence of these methods, and designers being able to use them successfully because of the complex realities they face in low-resource settings. Existing knowledge is fragmented and there is a lack of best practice guidance for practitioners using participatory design in low-resource settings. We address this problem by reporting the experiences of Simprints, a technology company based in the UK, providing biometric identification solutions in the Global South. Our study reveals key recommendations for participatory design in low-resource settings, providing useful insights for practitioners and design researchers.

Track 5.a-Participatory design in low-resource settings-218Corsini_a.pdf

12:00pm - 12:25pm

The Journey of Local Knowledge Toward Designing Neighbourhood Regeneration

Eunji Woo, Chorong Kim, Ki-Young Nam

KAIST, Korea, Republic of (South Korea)

This research explored design opportunities and new challenges with a paradigm shift toward participatory processes in neighbourhood regeneration. Further, it emphasized the significance of local businesses and their local knowledge to overcome the challenges faced by designers. Three types of local knowledge Handler was established based on the Literature Review: Possessor, Processor, and Implementer. Through content analysis on 30 practical cases, 18 types of Actors in the process of participatory neighbourhood regeneration were identified. Based on these findings, two ways of local businesses’ contributing to neighbourhood regeneration projects were proposed: as a knowledge reservoir, and as a neighbourhood guide. As future studies, the authors suggest 1) understanding the types and forms of local knowledge possessed by local businesses and how to motivate them to share their knowledge; and 2) devising new methods of participation for local businesses that can enhance designers’ capabilities in neighbourhood contexts.

Track 5.a-The Journey of Local Knowledge Toward Designing Neighbourhood Regeneration-177Woo_a.pdf

12:25pm - 12:50pm

Making the difference through design. Possibilities for the re-production of Social Capital.

Carla Sedini

Politecnico di Milano, Italy

Contemporary societies have been strongly characterized by the emersion of hybrid economies, which in several cases through making pursue goals of urban regeneration and social engagement. Recently, the Municipality of Milan has started to be interested in several hybrid and collaborative experiences, focused on: 1) the creation of local markets; 2) the revitalization of peripheral areas; 3) the engagement and its inhabitants.

This paper presents the first step of a collaborative study developed by the omissis and the Institute of Design of the IIT of Chicago within the Sister Cities policy program. The results of preliminary research activities, which wanted to investigate the relationship between design, manufacturing and social inclusion will be presented. The main focus will be on the actual and potential role of design within these hybrid activities with particular attention to its capabilities to support the creation/acquisition of social capital both at individuals and territorial levels.

Track 5.a-Making the difference through design Possibilities-389Sedini_a.pdf
11:10am - 12:50pm5.b 1/2: Strengthening the design capabilities of professional organisations in a complex world
Session Chair: Mieke van der Bijl-Brouwer
Session Chair: Frido E Smulders
LDN.0.17 & 0.18 
11:10am - 11:35am

Understanding the current practice of embedding design in government: limitations and opportunities

Ahmee Kim, Mieke van der Bijl-Brouwer

Delft University of Technology, Netherlands, The

Design is today suggested as an alternative way of working in government contexts. Many developed nations are trying to embed design in their public organizations. Yet recent studies have shown that design is not easily permeating into everyday practice of public organizations. This research therefore aims to understand what the current practice of design-embedding in government is like and its limitations by interviewing six experts in the design for government field. The research findings reveal that the changes created by the current design-embedding practice in government are not being actively sustained or amplified. Based on an understanding of organisations as complex systems, we suggest a further practice of design-embedding in which designers steward and stimulate design-led change energy within public organizations. This study shows that embedding design capability in professional organizations is more about design-led organizational change than passing on a design skillset to the organizational members.

Track 5.b-Understanding the current practice of embedding design-301Kim_a.pdf

11:35am - 12:00pm

Design Capability for Science-based Innovation

Stefanie Rothkötter1,2, Craig C. Garner2,3, Sándor Vajna4

1Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany; 2German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE) Berlin, Germany; 3Charité Medical University Berlin, Germany; 4Professor emeritus of Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany

In light of a growing research interest in the innovation potential that lies at the intersection of design, technology, and science, this paper offers a literature review of design initiatives centered on scientific discovery and invention. The focus of this paper is on evidence of design capabilities in the academic research environment. The results are structured along the Four Orders of Design, with examples of design-in-science initiatives ranging from (1) the design of scientific figures and (2) laboratory devices using new technology to (3) interactions in design workshops for scientists and (4) interdisciplinary design labs. While design capabilities have appeared in all four orders of design, there are barriers and cultural constraints that have to be taken into account for working at or researching these creative intersections. Modes of design integration and potentially necessary adaptations of design practice are therefore also highlighted.

Track 5.b-Design Capability for Science-based Innovation-275Rothkötter_a.pdf

12:00pm - 12:25pm

The adaptation of design thinking in auditing

Linda Meijer-Wassenaar, Diny van Est

The Netherlands Court of Audit

How can a supreme audit institution (SAI) use design thinking in auditing? SAIs audit the way taxpayers’ money is collected and spent. Adding design thinking to their activities is not to be taken lightly. SAIs independently check whether public organizations have done the right things in the right way, but the organizations might not be willing to act upon a SAI’s recommendations. Can you imagine the role of design in audits? In this paper we share our experiences of some design approaches in the work of one SAI: the Netherlands Court of Audit (NCA). Design thinking needs to be adapted (Dorst, 2015a) before it can be used by SAIs such as the NCA in order to reflect their independent, autonomous status. To dive deeper into design thinking, Buchanan’s design framework (2015) and different ways of reasoning (Dorst, 2015b) are used to explore how design thinking can be adapted for audits.

Track 5.b-The adaptation of design thinking in auditing-362Meijer-Wassenaar_a.pdf

12:25pm - 12:50pm

Building Design Capabilities in Academic Libraries

Andrea Alessandro Gasparini

University of Oslo, Norway

While design-led innovation may have huge potential to change both tangible outcomes of design, such as products and services, and the intangible ones such as values, mindsets and organizational cultures, the approach has not been broadly investigated in the organizational settings, especially when it comes to building in-house design capabilities. The paper reflects on both practical and theoretical concerns around building of design capabilities in academic libraries. The making and sustaining design capabilities was supported by design interventions in the form of design workshops and other design activities, and repeated re-enforcements of constructivist and experiential organizational learning leading to integration of design proto practices with daily routines and established work practices. The findings are articulated as a set of guidelines toward building design capabilities in academic libraries through design thinking. At the conceptual level, the work highlights the importance of openness, dialogical spaces and temporal aspects of such processes.

Track 5.b-Building Design Capabilities in Academic Libraries-376Gasparini_a.pdf
1:00pm - 2:00pmDay 3: Lunch
Foyer: Loughborough University London 
2:00pm - 3:40pm2.d 2/2: Power and Politics in Design for Transition
Session Chair: joanna boehnert
Session Chair: Matthew Sinclair
2:00pm - 2:25pm

The influence of design thinking tools on NGO accountability

Ledia Andrawes1, Adela J McMurray2, Gerda Gemser2

1University College London; 2RMIT University

There is continued criticism regarding the over-reliance on donor-centred accountability mechanisms in aid projects. Conversely, there is increasing interest in Design Thinking as an approach to support greater beneficiary-centred accountability. Accountability can be conceptualised as ‘felt’ virtue which privileges internal motivations of decision-makers; and as ‘imposed’ mechanism which privileges externally enforced structures on decision-makers. However, there is limited understanding about whether Design Thinking tools can influence the accountability of decision-makers. This participatory action research study utilised semi-structured interviews and observations. The analysis revealed decision-makers perceived two tools, being Personas and Journey Maps, as having influenced their ‘felt’ accountability. Suggestions on how the tools may be contributing to the ‘felt’ accountability of decision-makers include: building a shared picture among diverse groups, humanising complex information, grounding discussions in realities, and deepening empathy. This study contributes to extant literature by showing that Design Thinking can enhance, decision-makers’ ‘felt’ accountability through new sense-making practices and tools.

Track 2.d-The influence of design thinking tools on NGO accountability-258Andrawes_a.pdf
2:00pm - 3:40pm5.a 2/2: Transforming Complexities through Design in Collaborative Community-based Processes
Session Chair: Satu Miettinen
Session Chair: Nicola Morelli

2:00pm - 2:25pm

Motivating Growth in Low-tech Manufacturing Industries: A Case Study of the Israeli Footwear Industry.

‪Naomi Hertz‬‏

Bezalel Academy of Art and Design, Israel

Intensive manual labor enterprises in the developed world face challenges competing with products imported from countries where manufacturing costs are low. This reduces the volume of domestic production and leads to rapid loss of knowledge and experience in production processes. This study focuses on the Israeli footwear industry as a case study. Qualitative methodologies were applied, including in-depth interviews and field observations. A literature review on previous research and contemporary trends was conducted. The field research examines challenges along the value chain in small factories. It finds that mass production paradigms impose a decentralized process between designers and manufacturers and therefore do not leverage local potential into a sustainable competitive advantage for small factories. The proposed solution is a digital and technological platform for small manufacturing plants. The platform mediates and designs the connections between production, technology, and design and enables the creation of a joint R&D system.

Track 5.a-Motivating Growth in Low-tech Manufacturing Industries-315Hertz‬‏_a.pdf

2:25pm - 2:50pm

A Story of Journeys: Contemporary Design Facilitation

Vinay Kumar Mysore, Isabella Gady

Parsons School of Design, United States of America

How is design itself transitioning and transforming as it moves into more complex domains of organizational and social change. In many of these contexts, designers now play roles as facilitators, working in complex systems and dynamic environments. Design facilitation itself is moving from being a vessel for participation and becoming a vehicle for organizational transformation and change. The authors use a case study of a multi-stakeholder international design facilitation project with UN Women’s Fund for Gender Equality to highlight some of the critical features of a design facilitation process, from mediation and navigation of systems of power and hierarchy within organizations to an expansion of designerly duties ‘before’ and ‘after’ a design intervention. Reflecting on this experience the authors propose possible models for design facilitation to further develop its approach, and offer future questions for the nascent field as it develops into a critical component of contemporary design practice.

Track 5.a-A Story of Journeys-394Mysore_a.pdf

2:50pm - 3:15pm

The Role of Design in Policy Making: A Wicked Problems Perspective

Sophie Elisa Holierhoek, Rebecca Anne Price

Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands

The design discipline is of increasing appeal to a public sector confronted with ill-defined problems consistent with the socially-embedded. This paper explores the role of design in policy making projects, by means of two case empirical case studies. We establish and apply a wicked problems perspective to analyse data from; (1) MindLab and (2) Helsinki Design Lab. Findings reveal that design is specifically useful in the mitigation of wicked policy problems when harnessed by a strategically composed multidisciplinary team including designers. The characteristics of design that are identified as essential are an interactive approach to problems, a holistic perspective, and a user-centred way of working. This paper contributes empirical evidence toward the role of design in policy making, drawing the two domains together via wicked problems theory.

Track 5.a-The Role of Design in Policy Making-313Holierhoek_a.pdf
2:00pm - 3:40pm5.b 2/2: Strengthening the design capabilities of professional organisations in a complex world
Session Chair: Mieke van der Bijl-Brouwer
Session Chair: Rebecca Price
LDN.0.17 & 0.18 
2:00pm - 2:25pm

Applying design thinking in a hierarchical organisation

Sonya J. Close-Debais, Judy H. Matthews

Queensland University of Technology, Australia

Many large financial services organisations are seeking to develop their employees’ design capability to develop innovative customer solutions. Yet, there appears limited understanding on how individual employees (without a background in design) view the relationship of design thinking to innovation. This study investigates how employees perceive design thinking and its potential link to drive innovative practices within a large Australian multinational financial services organisation. An exploratory qualitative approach used face-to face semi-structured interviews with diverse participants from across the organisation. A modified existing design capability framework was used to map each individual’s perspectives and illustrate the organisation’s current DT and innovation capacity. Findings from this study contribute new insights regarding employee perceptions and design capability requirements.

Track 5.b-Applying design thinking in a hierarchical organisation-299Close-Debais_a.pdf

2:25pm - 2:50pm

The Organization as a Prototype

Niya Stoimenova1, Sander Stomph2, Christine de Lille3

1TU Delft, Netherlands, The; 2KLM Royal Dutch Airlines; 3The Hague University of Applied Sciences

Some of the most valuable companies in the world accumulated their fortunes as a result of a business model innovation built upon matured technologies. Now the majority of them are investing and shifting their focus to the development of new technologies such as AI, blockchain and genetic editing. If an organization is to remain profitable, it needs to be able to quickly adjust its structure to the rapidly changing context. We contend that a way to do so is to build an organizational structure that is conductive to both generative and evaluative prototypes. We report on our action research with a leading European airline following the transformation of a team of four into a new department, through the lenses of continuous prototyping. We then propose an initial framework that conceptualises organizational prototypes and provides a rational and systematic way of approaching the devising of such. Finally, we outline several directions for further research.

Track 5.b-The Organization as a Prototype-327Stoimenova_a.pdf
2:00pm - 3:40pmw11.435: Workshop

This workshop is limited to 20 participants. To book your place to participate please email to Liv on The places will be allocated on a first-come, first-served basis.

2:00pm - 3:40pm

Design Literacy

Liv Merete Nielsen1, Erik Bohemia1, Karen Brænne2

1Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway; 2Volda University College, Norway

The aim of the workshop is to establish a Design Literacy International Network. For this purpose, we will bring together a group of international scholars who are interested in exploring an emerging area of the Design Literacy. As production and consumption are very much tight around human designed and made systems, we argue that it is increasingly imperative that citizens develop understanding of how these products and services are produced and consumed. We hope that this will then provide citizens with a wider degree of perspectives on how they can play a vital role in shaping the word.

For example, we propose to explore the uptake of Design Literacies within education (both universities and K12), or how they are used informing policy development or within commercial organisations. The overall aim is to support critical knowledge development related to Design Literacies.

The Design Literacy workshop will draw on ideas presented in the paper Track 6.b ‘Design Literacy enabling Critical Innovation Practices’. The authors of the papers will be invited to take part in the workshop with several of the places opened for other interested conference delegates to take part.

Prior to the workshop, each of the intended participants will be asked to submit a ‘poster’ which will be made accessible to all other workshop participants via online. The goal for the posters is to act as a ‘calling card’ in terms of:

(a) Who will be attending?

(b) What it is they would like to get from being a member of the Design Literacy International Network?

(c) How do they envisage this will fit with their plans?

Production of the poster will enable the Design Literacy Workshop participants to articulate how the Network membership might support their personal goals. This is an important aspect as we envisage to develop proactive network which will support its international colleagues with diverse career paths and visions. Thus, recognising that members’ context will play an important part of how the Design Literacies might be taken up. The posters will also be used to explore the key topics which will be discussed within allocated groups during the workshop.

The proposed format and schedule for the dedicated 90 minutes of running the workshop:

10” – The workshop will start with a short introduction about the aims of the workshops

05” – participants moving into allocated work groups

20” – round table seminar (1)

05” – participants moving into re-allocated work groups

20” – round table seminar (2)

20” – with short presentations from the participating researchers

10” – summing up of the key ideas

– The outcomes of the workshop

The outcome of the workshop will be a web-page and the planning of funding for the network.

– The minimum and maximum number of participants

Maximum participants will be 20 persons. We envisage that 10 places will be allocated to invited participants, and 10 places will be open to other delegates.

– How the workshop might benefit the participants

The specific workshop aim is to give researchers the opportunity to articulate their Research on Design Literacy and formulate how their interests can be incorporate to inform development of international network of scholars exploring filed of the Design Literacy. The long-term aim is to develop rich resources which can be adopted by the Design Literacy International Network members to develop specific research funding applications.

Workshops-Design Literacy-435Nielsen_a.pdf
2:00pm - 3:40pmw14.455: Workshop
2:00pm - 3:40pm

Co-creating a visual thesaurus for the role of design thinking in management decision making.

Angele Beausoleil1, Moura Quayle2

1University of Toronto, Canada; 2University of British Columbia

Aim of the workshop: To engage design researchers, scholars and practitioners in exposing the epistemological challenges and opportunities associated with ‘design thinking’ in management and leadership contexts. Both academic and practitioner participants will be guided through a series of visual thinking and design techniques to develop concept maps and a visual thesaurus for ‘design thinking’ and design-related terminologies within the management discourse. The outputs generated from the workshop will reflect a multidisciplinary understanding of the subject for knowledge translation and future research initiatives (along with a published visual artefact in the conference proceedings).

Proposed Outline and Format: 90-minute workshop (reflecting a design research session)

The workshop will first present a set of proposed theories and practices of the evolution of design thinking and its role within a mixed economy system (30 min). The facilitators will present design prompts and probes to critically explore and capture the participants’ diverse visual and semantic views on design thinking in relation to management (30 min). Participants will then be guided to co-create a visual thesaurus of ‘design thinking’ and also a concept map of its origins, with a focus on its future direction (30 min). 

Participants: 12 minimum; 40 maximum


Participant benefits: Participants will benefit from contributing their a priori knowledge of design-related terminology, to the workshop resulting in two co-designed artefacts – a visual thesaurus and a concept map. They will also be introduced to visual thinking techniques such as visual thesaurus and concept mapping. Participants will also receive a final graphical representation of the collective output generated from the workshop.

Workshop relevance: 

This workshop proposes both an active learning experience and action research framework, to gain a deeper understanding of design thinking’s perceived meaning and value in relation to managerial decision-making. Furthermore, the artefacts (i.e. visual models) generated from this workshop aim to inspire more research on the use and value of visual models in design-based decision studies.

Workshops-Co-creating a visual thesaurus for the role of design thinking-455Beausoleil_a.pdf
4:00pm - 4:30pmClosing

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