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3.d 1/1: How does design express value?
To design is to create value for somebody. However, the value depends on who judges it and their and their personal values.
According to John Heskett (2005):
“Design, stripped to its essence, can be defined as the human capacity to shape and make our environment in ways without precedent in nature that serves our needs and gives meaning to our lives”.
This suggests that artefacts, objects, systems and services, which are available to us, may influence and serve us in different ways depending on our position within a particular environment. Any artefact may affect our physical well-being. This reflects preferences and other values may essentially be emotions and feelings.
Articulations may be good reflections or just attempts to rationalize and intellectualize. So what can we do? One issue is that we as design theorists ask the user to act the ways that enable us to study their reactions to certain stimuli.
We use the term embodiment, which is a philosophical approach that reflects individuals are not just present with their mind, but their full body in physical and material space. To perceive is to enact an active operation in a particular environment. For instance, a view of nature depends on the weather forecasts, a shopping space depending on what the user may be looking for, a service like a travel whether just effective or pleasant. An experience in an airplane may be reflected as good or bad depending their personal expectations for a vacation or work.
An alternative to asking is to get insights by asking respondents to consider an object or experience while comparing items on a scale (VAS-Visual Analogue Scale) moving the hand on e.g. a cursor on an iPad to indicate which of a pair in a combination of experiences or items which were preferred. Doing so may enable analysts to determine how well each of the subsequent designs were preferable or exceeding their latent expectations. Such information enables the designers and producers to determine which values to pursue on behalf of the user.
These values may not be the only ones to take into consideration. Environmental values, commercial and in the mission of basic values of the organization may be clearly articulated. The session concerns issues related to the values of a design and how such inherent values can be made manifest when dealing with multiple stakeholders and competing values systems. Tensions between opposing and often contradictory values are also pertinent issues that demands greater intellectual interrogation, especially taking increased consumer power as well as environmental challenges into consideration.
10:45am - 11:10am
Identifying Product Design Trends at Dutch Design Week
1Independent, United States of America; 2Brigham Young University, United States of America
Trends in design manifest in many ways, from fads in form or production to themes or topics explored. These trends are often generated within the design community, but also reflect local and global culture. To identify meta-trends in contemporary design culture, we worked with nine student researchers to gather data seen during an academic trip to Dutch Design Week in 2017. The results indicated growing interest in four central themes: identity, globalization, technology, and production. From these themes, nine trends were outlined; social engagement, production consciousness, design for agency, material innovation, humanist design, humanity and technology, re-interrogating history, speculative design, and questioning the role of design practice itself. We noted a shift from narrative-driven to experiential designed objects and a change from individual expression toward communal experience. We also observed a discipline in flux as designers struggle with these large themes, objecthood, and the role of the designer.
11:10am - 11:35am
How to create value in public service delivery? Exploring the co-design approach
Erasmus University, Netherlands, The
In the public domain, co-design is considered to create value by including service users in the fundamental aspects of these services. However, in order to create value, the design approach needs to be ‘translated’ into an applicable framework, appropriate for the public domain. Therefore, we first explore what kind of value is supposed to be generated within the public domain. Subsequently, by focusing on well-known contributions to the design literature, we review what can be learned from design approaches in terms of value creation. Then, we examine what kind of specific characteristics of the public domain needs to be taken into consideration, when applying a design-oriented approach for public service design. Ultimately, based on a synthesizing exercise, we conclude how the design approach, can be made applicable within the public domain. In doing so, this paper aims to formulate a grab-hold for both academics and policy makers alike.
11:35am - 12:00pm
The value of design: How does design enhance commercial value in co-branding strategy development?
Lancaster University, United Kingdom
Emergent trends of co-branding strategies are increasingly being utilised in fashion marketing and retailing; as such, the role of design is becoming paramount in collaborative partnerships when devising co-branding strategies. In particular, designers are central to the process of collaborative partnerships when developing highly novel products more that are attractive to demanding consumers. This paper critically examines the role of co-branding strategies as a source of innovation in fashion marketing; and to understand how organisations draw upon co-branding to inform the development of new products, services and brands. Branding strategies, new product development, design, innovation, and fashion marketing are discussed and critically analysed.
12:00pm - 12:25pm
Design Capabilities for the Evolution of Value Creation
Aalborg University, Denmark
The process of value creation cannot be an exclusive preserve of designers, but it is rather the result of a diffuse problem solving capability. The creation of new value is also connected to the concept of innovation and can happen in different logical contexts, from limited and confined contexts (niches) to consolidated structures (regimes) and to wider sociotechnical contexts (landscapes). In all those contexts, design can have a different role and whoever designs should use different capabilities and tools. Furthermore, design capabilities can also be useful when aligning value creation and change in different levels, thus contributing to understand the relationships between small scale interactions and wider scale transformation of sociotechnical landscapes. This paper proposes a framework to understand the contribution of design to the value creation process at the three levels, focusing on design capabilities and tools to work across different logical contexts.
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