Conference Agenda

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Session Overview
Location: LDN.207
2nd floor Loughborough University London 40 capacity
Date: Wednesday, 19/Jun/2019
2:00pm - 3:40pm6.c 1/1: Entrepreneurship in Design Education
Session Chair: Bryan F. Howell
Session Chair: Curtis Anderson
2:00pm - 2:25pm

Design Thinking & Entrepreneurial Opportunities: Visual Case Studies of Chilean Designer/Non-Designer Founders

Camilo Sergio Potocnjak-Oxman

Australian National University, Australia

An interesting development in the entrepreneurial economy is the rise in both number and diversity of roles played by designers in the global entrepreneurship ecosystem. Be it as consultants, contractors, educators, founders or funding decision-makers, design skills seem to be increasingly attractive to entrepreneurial teams, accelerator programs and venture capital. This study asks whether the practices, cognitive processes and mindsets prevalent in a formal design education help in the formation of entrepreneurial opportunities. Using a visual case study approach, it compares the processes through which entrepreneurial opportunities were formed by 14 Chilean founders from design and non-design backgrounds, with the purpose of identifying how design thinking contributes to, or hinders, those processes. Preliminary findings suggest that successful entrepreneurs from design backgrounds extend the human-centred view to include organisations, industries and societies, use continuous observation and learning-by-doing to develop their ventures, rely on interdisciplinary collaboration and are tolerant of failure. Design thinking does not, however, seem to provide a clear understanding of the importance of value creation and resource leveraging in the formation of entrepreneurial opportunities.

Track 6.c-Design Thinking & Entrepreneurial Opportunities-404Potocnjak-Oxman_a.pdf

2:25pm - 2:50pm

Contamination Lab of Turin (CLabTo): how to teach entrepreneurship education to all kinds of university students

Eleonora Fiore, Giuliano Sansone, Chiara Lorenza Remondino, Paolo Marco Tamborrini

Politecnico di Torino, Italy

Interest in offering Entrepreneurship Education (EE) to all kinds of university students is increasing. Therefore, universities are increasing the number of entrepreneurship courses intended for students from different fields of study and with different education levels. Through a single case study of the Contamination Lab of Turin (CLabTo), we suggest how EE may be taught to all kinds of university students. We have combined design methods with EE to create a practical-oriented entrepreneurship course which allows students to work in transdisciplinary teams through a learning-by-doing approach on real-life projects. Professors from different departments have been included to create a multidisciplinary environment. We have drawn on programme assessment data, including pre- and post-surveys. Overall, we have found a positive effect of the programme on the students’ entrepreneurial skills. However, when the data was broken down according to the students’ fields of study and education levels, mixed results emerged.

Track 6.c-Contamination Lab of Turin-359Fiore_a.pdf

2:50pm - 3:15pm

Entrepreneurial Mindset: a longitudinal study of three different teaching approaches to developing it

Nusa Fain1, Michel Rod2, Erik Bohemia3

1Queen's University, Canada; 2Carleton University, Canada; 3Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway

This paper explores the influence of teaching approaches on entrepreneurial mindset of commerce, design and engineering students across 3 universities. The research presented in this paper is an initial study within a larger project looking into building ‘entrepreneurial mindsets’ of students, and how this might be influenced by their disciplinary studies. The longitudinal survey will measure the entrepreneurial mindset of students at the start of a course and at the end. Three different approaches to teaching the courses were employed – lecture and case based, blended online and class based and fully project-based course. The entrepreneurial mindset growth was surprisingly strongest within the engineering cohort, but was closely followed by the commerce students, whereas the design students were slightly more conservative in their assessments. Future study will focus on establishing what other influencing factors beyond the teaching approaches may relate to the observed change.

Track 6.c-Entrepreneurial Mindset-312Fain_a.pdf
4:00pm - 5:40pmw5.471: Workshop
4:00pm - 5:40pm

Discourse Mapping: Navigating the Politics of Sustainable Design

joanna boehnert

Loughborough University, United Kingdom

Despite accumulative social and technological innovation, the design industry continues to face significant obstacles when addressing issues of sustainability. This workshop investigates some of these difficulties by focusing attention on the politics of design. It responds to an increasing awareness within the design research community of the many ways political and economic dynamics influence the potential for the design of sustainable transitions. The political context in which designers operate is complex and difficult to navigate - especially when policy proclamations cannot be taken at face value. One of the ways that political scientists make sense of this confusing terrain is with the use of discourse analysis. Discourses constitute different ideological perspectives and theories of change that shape how individual and institutional actors respond to global environmental challenges. Discourse mapping is a knowledge mapping method that reveals relationship between the different discursive positions. Diverse discourses create the socio-political landscape which determines whether and how designers are able to create sustainable alternatives. This workshop will build capacity to respond more effectively to global environmental challenges by exploring the politics of design with discourse mapping.

Workshops-Discourse Mapping-471boehnert_a.pdf
Date: Thursday, 20/Jun/2019
9:00am - 10:40am5.g 1/1: Design with Foresight: Strategic Anticipation in Design Research
Session Chair: Jörn Bühring
Session Chair: Nermin Azabagic

9:00am - 9:25am

The Role of Horizon Scanning in Innovation and Design Practice

Isabel Meythaler, Elies Ann Dekoninck

University of Bath, United Kingdom

This paper aims to investigate how horizon scanning (HS) is used by practitioners to create foresight for design and innovation and which methods, tools and approaches innovation practitioners use for spotting and acting upon changes in the business environment as well as in the consumer and technological landscape. Thus, this study contributes to the field of horizon scanning and innovation management by presenting the results from 16 in-depths expert interviews with innovation practitioners. Specifically, the aim of this research was to: discuss the role and importance of horizon scanning for innovation and design; identify dominant methods and approaches used within horizon scanning; and compare the methods typically used by different types of innovation practitioners. This study discovered that HS in conjunction with creative and lateral thinking, technology scouting as well as human-centred thinking not only facilitates the early detection of emerging trends and technologies but also facilitates turning insights into actionable ideas, increasing the likelihood of more successful product development, meaningful innovations and sustainable competitiveness.

Track 5.g-The Role of Horizon Scanning in Innovation and Design Practice-344Meythaler_a.pdf

9:25am - 9:50am

Mapping Abstract Futures

Timothy Stock1,2, Marie Lena Tupot2

1Parsons the New School for Design; 2scenarioDNA

The future we need to explore is more abstract than it is concrete. As designers, we are constantly conjuring ideas based on a concrete world to improve what we have already seen. Within these predetermined frameworks, we unintentionally bring our own biases to planning the future based on what we know and what we consider safe. However, methods of gathering evidence must reveal the essential dynamics and tensions of the individual in the context of society. The cultural system that represents this process of adaptation can be plotted as a system of language that reflects the dynamics between the concrete and abstract worlds. A craving for such emotional intelligence requires that we expand our binary world into an abstract space for which only the human brain has the capacity. We need such a systematic view in order to think intuitively on multiple levels at the same time.

Track 5.g-Mapping Abstract Futures-186Stock_a.pdf

9:50am - 10:15am

Bringing futures scenarios to life with video animation: A case of disseminating research to nonexpert audiences

Jörn Bühring, Nurry Vittachi

Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong S.A.R. (China)

In social science, researchers are often confronted with large amounts of data generated through qualitative methods such as interviews, interpretive narration, and oral history. While selecting an appropriate form of communicating the findings at the end of a research project is every research’s obligation, the dissemination of key insights gained from academic research, and presenting these in other formats that effectively extend the research results and new knowledge gained to nonexpert audiences, is many times forgotten. The purpose of this research is to address this gap in the literature by answering the question of how to communicate futures scenarios to nonexpert audiences, corporate decision-makers, and their staff using video animation as a medium. The process presented in this paper is based on a use case in which academics and designers, at a design school, took the findings of a financial services futures study and applied storytelling and visualisation techniques to bring futures scenarios to life with video animation.

Track 5.g-Bringing futures scenarios to life with video animation-213Bühring_a.pdf

10:15am - 10:40am

Systemic Design for Policy Foresight: towards sustainable future

Eliana Ferrulli, Carolina Giraldo Nohra, Silvia Barbero

Politecnico di Torino, Italy

In the last 15 years, tackling wicked problems have evolved into a process that requires multiple change-makers able to face complexity. At the same time, it has generated an increasing interest and proficient relation among foresight and design, due to their shared interest in anticipation and future orientation. Such relationships are visible on similarities they both have on the mindset and methodology used when approaching future scenarios. This paper aims to delve into a better comprehension of how the combination of Systemic Design and foresight can think both creatively and systematically about the future and have a strategic role in a policy-making process. This example of collaborative foresight is illustrated by RETRACE Interreg Europe project (A Systemic Approach for Transition towards a Circular Economy funded by the Interreg Europe), demonstrating how Systemic Design with a foresight vision can play a leverage effect in the transition of the European regions towards Circular Economy in a long-term horizon.

Track 5.g-Systemic Design for Policy Foresight-366Ferrulli_a.pdf
11:00am - 12:40pm2.e 1: Design Innovation and Philosophy of Technology: the Practical Turn
Session Chair: Wouter Eggink
Session Chair: Heather Wiltse
11:00am - 11:25am

Changing Things: Innovation through Design Philosophy

Johan Redström, Heather Wiltse

Umeå University, Sweden

Digital networked technologies are currently at the forefront of contemporary innovation, driving changes in sociotechnical practices across industrial sectors and in everyday life. Yet technical innovation has been outpacing our capacity to make sense of these technologies and the fundamental changes associated with them. This sense-making enterprise is the focus of our current research in developing a design philosophy for changing things. We describe a conceptual framework developed around the concept of things as fluid assemblages to investigate and articulate what is going on with things, and how their development might be (re)directed toward preferable futures. Specifically, we here examine the important role of design philosophy in innovation, using the conceptual framework developed as a way to point toward potential sites for innovation in the current sociotechnical landscape. The line of investigation we pursue suggests that doing philosophy should become a central part of innovative design practices.

Track 2.e-Changing Things-252Redström_a.pdf

11:25am - 11:50am

Values that Matter: Mediation Theory and Design for Values

Merlijn Smits1, Bas Bredie1, Harry van Goor1, Peter-Paul Verbeek2

1Radboud University Medical Center; 2University of Twente

Philosophy of technology could bring new insights when applied to design practice. This paper brings together mediation theory and design for values. We present a new design for values methodology: Values that Matter. Via the four phases; explore, conceptualise, anticipate and test, VtM allows for anticipating value dynamics. It starts with the assumption that value expression and definition arise in the interplay between users and technology. An extensive mediation analysis then helps to provide insight in and allows for anticipation on potential effects of technology on users and value dynamics, something that current value sensitive design approaches cannot deliver. Those insights are tested with involved actors to bring about best values by design. VtM has been applied to the case study of ViSi Mobile, a medical device developed for continuous monitoring of vital signs in hospitalised patients. A redesign was proposed that better empowers these patients.

Track 2.e-Values that Matter-203Smits_a.pdf

11:50am - 12:15pm

Towards a Tangible Philosophy through Design: Exploring the question of being-in-the-world in the digital age

Jonne van Belle, Jelle van Dijk, Wouter Eggink

University of Twente, Netherlands, The

The combined philosophy and design approach called Philosophy-through-Design (PtD) is proposed using an exemplary project about being-in-the-world in the digital age. PtD is a practical way to do philosophy through designing interventions and involves various people in the exploration of philosophical concepts. It stems from the overlapping questions found in philosophy and design regarding human-technology interaction. By intertwining both, they benefit from describing, understanding and proposing human-technology interactions to unfold new questions and perspectives. In the exemplary project, being-in-the-world refers to a way of being that is embodied, active, open-ended and situational, based on the phenomenological and embodied theories of Tim Ingold. This concept questions what it means to be human in the digital age and how our lives with technology are built. The first results show the process of weaving together observation, creation, and reflection, which presents Philosophy-through-Design as a promising method for designers to practice a tangible philosophy.

Track 2.e-Towards a Tangible Philosophy through Design-195van Belle_a.pdf

12:15pm - 12:40pm

From Hype to Practice: Revealing the Effects of AI in Service Design

Titta Jylkäs1,2, Andrea Augsten3, Satu Miettinen1

1University of Lapland, Finland; 2Volkswagen Financial Services AG, Germany; 3University of Wuppertal, Germany

With the new rise of artificial intelligence (AI) during in the past decade, AI has become known in the everyday products and services. One of the its application forms are is that of AI assistants, such as voice assistants and chatbots. While new types of customer service channels are have been introduced through these assistants, until now, the intelligence of AI has mostly resides resided in the backend systems of services until now. Studying a service design process and practices focussing on AI-enabled services, the present research draws on a multi-method approach out of involving seven expert interviews and five use cases on AI assistant projects in industry. The Authors authors evaluated the data sets through coding cycles aiming at identifying the shifts AI brings to service design. The results present and discuss the emerging fields of change in service design: , namely, the application of AI, the service design process with AI and the role of the service designer in the creation of AI-enabled services.

Track 5.j-From Hype to Practice-349Jylkäs_a.pdf
2:00pm - 3:40pm2.a 1/1: Decolonising Knowledge to Transform Societies
Session Chair: Vanissa Wanick
Session Chair: Nusa Fain
2:00pm - 2:25pm

Colonizing Innovation: The Case of Jugaad

Abhinav Chaturvedi1, Alf Rehn2

1Bennett University, India; 2University of South Denmark

Innovation is one of the most popular concepts and desired phenomena of contemporary Western capitalism. As such, there is a perennial drive to capture said phenomena, and particularly to find new ways to incite and drive the same. In this text, we analyze one specific tactic through which this is done, namely by the culturally colonial appropriation of indigenous knowledge systems. By looking to how jugaad, a system of frugal innovation in India, has been made into fodder for Western management literature, we argue for the need of a more developed innovation critique, e.g., by looking to postcolonial theory.

Track 2.a-Colonizing Innovation-261Chaturvedi_a.pdf

2:25pm - 2:50pm

Understanding Development Discourse through Ontological Design: The case of South Korea

Boeun Bethany Hong, Sharon Prendeville

Loughborough University London, United Kingdom

Discourse is a powerful way of understanding/forming the world. It consolidates/disassembles society by conforming/disarticulating. However, the work of discourses has not been explained sufficiently in terms of design theory. In this respect, this paper aims to explore how the work of discourses can be understood in relation to the concept of ontological design, especially from the perspective of coloniality. The case of South Korea’s development experience around different types of development assistance strategies was used to interrogate this question. A hermeneutic approach and discourse analysis were adopted for the empirical analysis. The research found the designed development assistance strategies of the “West” design back the development thinking and new development assistance strategies in South Korea. In doing so, the country replicates the “West-centred” discourse of developmentalism. From this, we conclude that discourses are shared through the ontological practices of designing. This informs design studies of how discourse relates to design.

Track 2.a-Understanding Development Discourse through Ontological Design-241Hong_a.pdf

2:50pm - 3:15pm

Decolonising Namibian Arts and Design through Improvisation

Melanie Augusta Sarantou, Caoimhe Isha Beaule, Satu Anneli Miettinen

University of Lapland, Australia

The research investigates the role of service design and improvisation as decolonising practice. It is based on case study research with a focus group consisting of Namibian artists, designers, artisans and arts organisations who participated in artistic and cultural exchange activities of the Art South-South Trust (ASST), a start-up Namibian not for profit (NFP) organisation. The goal of ASST was to increase visibility of the focus group members, enable global exposure and create an arena for multi-vocality. The paper creates a practical framework for decolonising practices in Namibian arts and design by drawing on reflective practice to analyse the activities of ASST alongside interview data collected from Namibian and Australian partner organisations and participants in the program. Critical thinking is used to evaluate the impact of realised activities and processes both in situ in Namibia and in exchange in Australia. This paper explores practices that can enable decolonising processes in Namibian arts and design spheres.

Track 2.a-Decolonising Namibian Arts and Design through Improvisation-364Sarantou_a.pdf

3:15pm - 3:40pm

Design, power and colonization: decolonial and anti-oppressive explorations on three approaches for Design for Sustainability

Nicholas Baroncelli Torretta1, Lizette Reitsma2

1Umeå University, Sweden; 2Rise Interactive, Sweden

Our contemporary world is organized in a modern/colonial structure. As people, professions and practices engage in cross-country Design for Sustainability (DfS), projects have the potential of sustaining or changing modern/colonial power structures. In such project relations, good intentions in working for sustainability do not directly result in liberation from modern/colonial power structures. In this paper we introduce three approaches in DfS that deal with power relations. Using a Freirean (1970) decolonial perspective, we analyse these approaches to see how they can inform DfS towards being decolonial and anti-oppressive. We conclude that steering DfS to become decolonial or colonizing is a relational issue based on the interplay between the designers’ position in the modern/colonial structure, the design approach chosen, the place and the people involved in DfS. Hence, a continuous critical reflexive practice is needed in order to prevent DfS from becoming yet another colonial tool.

Track 2.a-Design, power and colonization-314Baroncelli Torretta_a.pdf
4:00pm - 5:40pmw7.468: Workshop
4:00pm - 5:40pm

Discovering design narratives to humanize organizations

Andrea Augsten1, Titta Jylkäs2, Bernadette Geuy3, Rachel Hollowgrass4, Marjukka Mäkelä Klippi5

1University of Wuppertal, Germany; 2University of Lapland, Finland; 3Independent Service Design Consultant, San Francisco; 4University of California, Berkeley; 5AaltoUniversity, Finland

Workshop Purpose and Aims

Human-centered design approaches have emerged in business organizations since the rise of service design and design thinking. As a consequence, designers have been shifting their role from pure aesthetics towards innovating. Thus, in this workshop, we look at the role of design and designer in the frame of designing organizations. Lots of designers are becoming involved in strategic projects in the context of organizational change, such as creating a more creative, design-driven work attitude, bringing a human perspective into existing processes and acknowledging employee’s individual diversity. But, do designers feel prepared for that? Are they aware of the organizational design narratives of companies?

Mostly, the introduction of new practices labeled as design thinking or service design is not adapted to the organizational circumstances, company values, habits, beliefs and experiences. However, we believe that each company would benefit from emphasizing its design narrative while introducing employees to new design practices in order to exploit its full potential and stay healthy as an organization.

Especially identifying solutions that fit both to the needs of users and to the organizational environment is challenging. Here, the lack of communication about an organizational design narrative challenges the work of a designer. Rather, the use of design activities is seen through new initiatives, such as labs, workspaces and innovation projects that aim to disrupt the organization towards more human-centric culture.

We, the workshop convenors, did a conceptual literature review to explore the topic of humanizing an organization by building upon co-created dimensions that have been developed with design scholars and practitioners in 2018. We identified four aggregated themes around management, design and organizational change. Each theme describes one aspect relevant to humanizing an organization.

During the workshop, participants use the two dimensions of pre-text and context of organizational design narratives as a basis for creating future scenarios for strategies to humanize an organization. The workshop aims to raise awareness for an organizational design narrative, to strengthen participants sensibility for organizational design practices and to deliver hands-on methods for experiencing and exploiting the approach.

Through a practical workshop approach, we are positioning and exploring the phenomena of humanizing organizations in design research by linking historical roots with complex issues currently arising in the context of design management and organizational change.

Theoretical Relation

The idea of reflecting and being aware of the organizational design narrative is firstly claimed by Junginger and Bailey in 2017. According to them (2017, p.39), a design narrative aligns the design pre-text and the design context of an organization with other narratives and reconstructs the organizational journey, the design practices, design principles and design methods, as well as fosters its resilience.

Workshop Approach

Through the interactive workshop concept, we introduce a design framework built through a selection of tools and methods to help participants first to identify an organizational design narrative, and second, to create future scenarios with strategies for fitting the organizational design narrative to design activities for a more humanized organization.

The workshop structure is built through three main parts:

1. Introduction: The workshop topic is introduced by the convenors through synthesized results of the literature review in a presentation of maximum 20 minutes at the beginning of the workshop. The presentation also includes the introduction of the workshop agenda.

2. Interactive team work: After the introduction, the participants are divided into groups working on the given main themes identified in the literature review.

a. The teams are given a description of their theme, as well as a predefined organizational context as a basis for the exercise.

b. After getting familiar with the material, teams are guided through an exercise to (1) recognize and complete the dimensions of pre-text and context of the design narrative, and to (2) create a future scenario for humanizing the organization.

c. All materials are provided as paper-based templates.

d. Convenors are guiding the teams through the exercises step by step ending up in a block of 45 minutes in total.

3. Wrap up: At the end of the workshop, each team will present their results, sharing learnings and reflections utilizing the working templates as their structure. The presentations are filmed as short video clips for documentation purposes. (20 min)

The maximum number of participants for the workshop is 30 people. The participants will be divided into groups of maximum five people in each.

Takeaways for the Participants

The workshop exercises will result in narrated future scenarios of humanized organizations. The outcomes serve as a framework for the participants to take design actions in their own or their client's organizations for more humanized practice.

Results and Final Reflections for Consideration

The workshop facilitators are building the workshop upon a literature review in the context of humanizing organizations through design. By transferring the theoretical results in practical exercises and presentable design narratives, the fields of research and practice are linked in a collaborative format. The workshop results will be documented as a workshop report building on the literature review through the notes of the teams on paper templates accompanied by photos and short videos of the presentations.

Workshops-Discovering design narratives to humanize organizations-468Augsten_a.pdf
Date: Friday, 21/Jun/2019
11:10am - 12:50pm2.c 1/1: Gender of/in design practice and profession
Session Chair: Eva Lutnæs
Session Chair: Alison Rieple
11:10am - 11:35am

Queer-Sensible Designing: Challenging Normative Gender through an Industrial Design Practice

Silas Denz, Wouter Eggink

University of Twente, Netherlands, The

Conventional design practices regard gender as a given precondition defined by femininity and masculinity. To shift these strategies to include non-heteronormative or queer users, queer theory served as a source of inspiration as well as user sensitive design techniques. As a result, a co-design workshop was developed and executed. Participants supported claims that gender scripts in designed artefacts uphold gender norms. The practice did not specify a definition of a queer design style. However, the co-design practice opened up the design process to non-normative gender scripts by unmasking binary gender dichotomies in industrial design.

Track 2.c-Queer-Sensible Designing-189Denz_a.pdf

11:35am - 12:00pm

Towards the exploration of Gender awareness in Human-centred design

Bahar Khayamian Esfahani, Richard Morris, Mark Erickson

University of Brighton, United Kingdom

The primary aim of the human-centred design (HCD) approach is to identify the user needs. However, we argue that there is a lack of understanding of, and even awareness of, gender in HCD. This approach sees gender as static and stable regarding male or female such that the implication of principles in products, systems or services appeals to one gender or another linking gender differences, and stereotypes. To illustrate this, the investigation was conducted in the context of fostering sun protection behaviour in young men. Participatory design sessions were deployed to investigate the role of gender in the HCD and how it can be used to foster sun protection behaviour. We have concluded the development of a novel gender aware HCD approach and it opens avenues for design research and practice for increasing emphasis on the influence of the designer’s own gender and their gendered perceptions in their designs.

Track 2.c-Towards the exploration of Gender awareness in Human-centred design-416Khayamian Esfahani_a.pdf

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